The Plant Journal

Cover image for Vol. 90 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Christoph Benning

Impact Factor: 5.468

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 13/209 (Plant Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1365-313X

VIEW

  1. 1 - 37
  1. Original Articles

    1. Activation of the Arabidopsis membrane-bound transcription factor bZIP28 is mediated by site-2 protease, but not site-1 protease

      Yuji Iwata, Makoto Ashida, Chisa Hasegawa, Kazuki Tabara, Kei-ichiro Mishiba and Nozomu Koizumi

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13572

      Significance statement

      It has been widely assumed that ER stress-mediated activation of bZIP28 is mediated by the sequential action of two proteases, site-1 protease and site-2 protease, like the animal membrane-bound transcription factor ATF6. However, the present study provides evidence that the first cleavage is mediated by as-yet-unidentified protease(s) rather than site-1 protease, indicating a different molecular mechanism of bZIP28 activation from that of ATF6.

    2. ASN1-encoded asparagine synthetase in floral organs contributes to nitrogen filling in Arabidopsis seeds

      Laure Gaufichon, Anne Marmagne, Katia Belcram, Tadakatsu Yoneyama, Yukiko Sakakibara, Toshiharu Hase, Olivier Grandjean, Gilles Clément, Sylvie Citerne, Stéphanie Boutet-Mercey, Céline Masclaux-Daubresse, Fabien Chardon, Fabienne Soulay, Xiaole Xu, Marion Trassaert, Maryam Shakiebaei, Amina Najihi and Akira Suzuki

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13567

      Significance Statement

      Physiological role of asparagine during the period of embryogenesis in floral organs is investigated by modifying timing of asparagine synthesis. Onset of pollination promotes amino acid metabolism in photo-heterotrophic floral organs at the expense of the amide- and amino-groups of asparagine for nitrogen filling into seeds.

  2. Technical Advances

    1. Laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with ion mobility separation reveals metabolites in the symbiotic interactions of soybean roots and rhizobia

      Sylwia A. Stopka, Beverly J. Agtuca, David W. Koppenaal, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Gary Stacey, Akos Vertes and Christopher R. Anderton

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13569

      The development of a high-throughput mass spectrometry method for probing whole root nodules, where metabolic composition of anatomical compartments was elucidated without arduous sample preparation is described here. This method incorporates ion mobility separation prior to mass analysis, which provides increased spectral separation of detected metabolites.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Chloroplastic ATP synthase builds up a proton motive force preventing production of reactive oxygen species in photosystem I

      Daisuke Takagi, Katsumi Amako, Masaki Hashiguchi, Hidehiro Fukaki, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Tatsuaki Goh, Yoichiro Fukao, Ryosuke Sano, Tetsuya Kurata, Taku Demura, Shinichiro Sawa and Chikahiro Miyake

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13566

      Significance Statement

      ΔpH, as well as ATP supply, is important for the adjustment of the redox state in the photosynthetic electron transport chain in higher plants; however, how ΔpH formation is stimulated during photosynthesis is not yet known. This study aimed to identify the critical component to stimulate ΔpH formation during photosynthesis by using Arabidopsis thaliana mutagenized with ethyl methane sulfonate; chloroplastic CF0CF1-ATP synthase was found to build up ΔpH to protect photosynthetic machineries during photosynthesis.

    2. N-glycan maturation mutants in Lotus japonicus for basic and applied glycoprotein research

      Carina T. Pedersen, Ian Loke, Andrea Lorentzen, Sara Wolf, Manoj Kamble, Sebastian K. Kristensen, David Munch, Simona Radutoiu, Edzard Spillner, Peter Roepstorff, Morten Thaysen-Andersen, Jens Stougaard and Svend Dam

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13570

      Significance Statement

      Protein N-glycosylation is an important post-translational modification. To study the structure and function of this heterogeneous modification in vivo, tools to elucidate the importance of this modification in complex biological systems are needed. Here we present a platform containing null mutants for each of the 12 catalysing enzymes in the N-glycosylation maturation pathway. This tool also provides a potential expression system for glycoprotein therapeutics displaying customised or mammalian-like N-glycosylation patterns.

    3. A group of grapevine MYBA transcription factors located in chromosome 14 control anthocyanin synthesis in vegetative organs with different specificities compared with the berry color locus

      José Tomás Matus, Erika Cavallini, Rodrigo Loyola, Janine Höll, Laura Finezzo, Silvia Dal Santo, Sandrine Vialet, Mauro Commisso, Federica Roman, Andrea Schubert, José Antonio Alcalde, Jochen Bogs, Agnès Ageorges, Giovanni Battista Tornielli and Patricio Arce-Johnson

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13558

      Significance statement

      While the R2R3-MYBA genes within the grapevine berry color locus represent the major genetic determinants of fruit color variation, a novel locus located on a different chromosome is responsible for the coloring of vegetative organs. The MYBA genes from this new region have diverged in expression, function and regulation (reflecting both subspecialization and subfunctionalization processes) and differ from the previously characterized berry MYBAs in their capacity to regulate the tri-hydroxylated sub-branch of the anthocyanin pathway.

    4. Sugar and hexokinase suppress expression of PIP aquaporins and reduce leaf hydraulics that preserves leaf water potential

      Gilor Kelly, Nir Sade, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Stephen Lerner, Arava Shatil-Cohen, Yelena Yeselson, Aiman Egbaria, Jayaram Kottapalli, Arthur A. Schaffer, Menachem Moshelion and David Granot

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13568

      Significance Statement

      A central theme in plant physiology is how plants coordinate sugar production with transpirational water loss. It has been shown that sugars stimulate stomatal closure through hexokinase (HXK) and reduce transpiration. Here we show that sugars and HXK reduce expression of aquaporins (AQPs) and decrease leaf hydraulic conductance, thus reducing water loss and preserve leaf water potential. These findings uncover a concerted physiological mechanism that coordinates sugar production with the need to preserve water.

    5. microRNAs contribute to enhanced salt adaptation of the autopolyploid Hordeum bulbosum compared with its diploid ancestor

      Beibei Liu and Genlou Sun

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13546

      Our results shed light on the mechanism underlying how autopolyploid can better adapt to adverse environments compared with its diploid ancestor from the microRNAs perspective. Moreover, the distinctive microRNA—targets regulatory networks in tetraploid and diploid can help us better understand the evolutionary significance of the autopolyploid.

    6. Diverse genome organization following 13 independent mesopolyploid events in Brassicaceae contrasts with convergent patterns of gene retention

      Terezie Mandáková, Zheng Li, Michael S. Barker and Martin A. Lysak

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13553

      Significance Statement

      Our data show that multiple base chromosome numbers in some Brassicaceae clades originated due to genome diploidization following multiple independent whole-genome duplications (WGD). The parallel gene retention/loss across independent WGDs and diploidization provides one of the first tests that post-polyploid genome evolution is predictable.

    7. Short and Solid Culm/RFL/APO2 for culm development in rice

      Juan Wang, Ruci Wang, Yueming Wang, Li Zhang, Li Zhang, Yufang Xu and Shanguo Yao

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13548

      Although many genes have been reported to affect culm elongation, limited information is available on the molecular features responsible for MC formation in rice. Here, we show that SHORT and SOLID CULM (SSC), the rice homologue of Arabidopsis LFY, plays a critical role in both processes of culm elongation and MC formation, thus providing a promising strategy for modifying rice culm structure, i.e. manipulating SSC to generate plants with suitable height and modest MC size to culm diameter ratios.

    8. Centromere structure and function analysis in wheat–rye translocation lines

      Jing Wang, Yalin Liu, Handong Su, Xianrui Guo and Fangpu Han

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13554

      Significance Statement

      Wheat–rye 1RS.1BL translocations are centric translocations formed by centromere misdivision and are very popular in wheat breeding. Here, we studied the structures and functions of the centromeres in 1RS.1BL translocations, and created new 1R translocations with different centromere structures to understand the fusion centromere used for wheat breeding.

    9. WRI1-1, ABI5, NF-YA3 and NF-YC2 increase oil biosynthesis in coordination with hormonal signaling during fruit development in oil palm

      Wan-Chin Yeap, Fong-Chin Lee, Dilip Kumar Shabari Shan, Hamidah Musa, David Ross Appleton and Harikrishna Kulaveerasingam

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13549

      Significance Statement

      Oil biosynthesis must be tightly controlled to maximize oil yield. Oil palm accumulates exceptionally high oil content in its mesocarp, suggesting the existence of a unique fruit-specific fatty acid metabolism transcriptional network. We identified this transcriptional network and showed that expression of these activators and repressors can be induced by phytohormones. Our findings provide an effective strategy for increasing oil productivity in oil palm and other oil-bearing crops.

    10. Silencing a phloretin-specific glycosyltransferase perturbs both general phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and plant development

      Andrew P. Dare, Yar-Khing Yauk, Sumathi Tomes, Tony K. McGhie, Ria S. Rebstock, Janine M. Cooney and Ross G. Atkinson

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13559

      Significance Statement

      The polyphenol profile of apple (Malus × domestica) is dominated by the dihydrochalcone glycoside phloridzin, however, its physiological role is yet to be elucidated. Our results indicate that perturbing phloridzin accumulation affects normal growth and development in apple via repression of the phenylpropanoid pathway and modulation of auxin transport.

    11. The Arabidopsis thiamin-deficient mutant pale green1 lacks thiamin monophosphate phosphatase of the vitamin B1 biosynthesis pathway

      Wei-Yu Hsieh, Jo-Chien Liao, Hsin-Tzu Wang, Tzu-Huan Hung, Ching-Chih Tseng, Tsui-Yun Chung and Ming-Hsiun Hsieh

      Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13552

      Significance Statement

      Arabidopsis PALE1 encodes a thiamin monophosphate phosphatase that localizes in the mitochondria. The complete vitamin B1 biosynthesis pathway may involve the chloroplasts, mitochondria and cytosol.

  4. Technical Advance

    1. Non-invasive quantification of ethylene in attached fruit headspace at 1 p.p.b. by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

      Lara Pereira, Marta Pujol, Jordi Garcia-Mas and Michael A. Phillips

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13545

      Significance statement

      We present a rapid, non-invasive headspace assay that detects trace emissions of ethylene in attached, developing fruit without concentration and show its utility in dissecting climacteric fruit ripening in melon using a recombinant inbred line population. The short sampling and analysis times support high throughput workflows with a sensitivity of 1 part per billion using a conventional capillary gas chromatography – mass spectrometry system, a vital technique for plant biologists studying climacteric ripening mechanisms.

  5. Original Articles

    1. Selective modes determine evolutionary rates, gene compactness and expression patterns in Brassica

      Yue Guo, Jing Liu, Jiefu Zhang, Shengyi Liu and Jianchang Du

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13541

      Significance statement

      While positive selection and negative selection are believed to be two major evolutionary forces in plant genomes, their relative evolutionary influences on nuclear genes remain unclear. Here we show that the genes under different selective types differ not only under selective pressure, but also in evolutionary rates, gene organization, functional specificity, expression patterns, and codon usage, thus supporting that selective modes are responsible for gene evolutionary, structural and functional properties.

    2. Emp10 encodes a mitochondrial PPR protein that affects the cis-splicing of nad2 intron 1 and seed development in maize

      Manjun Cai, Shuzhen Li, Feng Sun, Qin Sun, Hailiang Zhao, Xuemei Ren, Yanxin Zhao, Bao-Cai Tan, Zuxin Zhang and Fazhan Qiu

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13551

      Significance Statement

      The analysis of maize mutants provides important physiological, genetic and mechanistic insights to what has been described in dicot plant species (predominantly in Arabidopsis thaliana), with regard to group II intron splicing in ‘high-plant’ organelles.

    3. The biosynthesis of nitrous oxide in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

      Maxence Plouviez, David Wheeler, Andy Shilton, Michael A. Packer, Patricia A. McLenachan, Emanuel Sanz-Luque, Francisco Ocaña-Calahorro, Emilio Fernández and Benoit Guieysse

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13544

      Using biochemical and transcriptomic data, we provide evidence of two N2O synthesis pathways involving nitrite (NO2) reduction into nitric oxide (NO) in the model green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the ability to synthesize N2O, a potent greenhouse gas and ozone depleting pollutant, could be found among numerous microalgae species.

    4. The chloroplast RNA helicase ISE2 is required for multiple chloroplast RNA processing steps in Arabidopsis thaliana

      Krzysztof Bobik, Tyra N. McCray, Ben Ernest, Jessica C. Fernandez, Katharine A. Howell, Thomas Lane, Margaret Staton and Tessa M. Burch-Smith

      Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13550

      RNA processing is a critical part of modulating gene expression in chloroplasts and many of the nucleus-encoded protein factors involved are unknown. In this study, we show that the evolutionarily conserved RNA helicase ISE2 functions in multiple aspects of chloroplast RNA processing including C-to-U RNA editing and ribosome biogenesis, and may also associate with a wide assortment of chloroplast RNA species to mediate RNA processing.

    5. Integrated omics analyses of retrograde signaling mutant delineate interrelated stress-response strata

      Marta Bjornson, Gerd Ulrich Balcke, Yanmei Xiao, Amancio de Souza, Jin-Zheng Wang, Dina Zhabinskaya, Ilias Tagkopoulos, Alain Tissier and Katayoon Dehesh

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13547

      Significance Statement

      The integrity of intra-cellular communication networks regulated by retrograde signaling pathways is key in sustaining cellular homoeostasis in the dynamically changing environment. Utilization of integrated multi-omic analyses allowed functional differentiation of SA from the plastidial retrograde signal, MEcPP, provided insight into genome-metabolism interactions under stress and the resulting transcriptional and metabolic signatures, and finally identified causative downstream processes, revealing compartmentalized contribution of MEcPP to interorganellar stress network.

    6. Disruptions in valine degradation affect seed development and germination in Arabidopsis

      Andrew B. Gipson, Kyla J. Morton, Rachel J. Rhee, Szabolcs Simo, Jack A. Clayton, Morgan E. Perrett, Christiana G. Binkley, Erika L. Jensen, Dana L. Oakes, Matthew F. Rouhier and Kerry A. Rouhier

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13538

      Significance Statement

      In plants, there is little research on the enzymes that catalyze the mitochondrial pathway of valine degradation. Here, we show the functional characterization of two putative proteins and find them to play a significant role in seed development and germination.

    7. Jasmonate inhibits COP1 activity to suppress hypocotyl elongation and promote cotyledon opening in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings

      Yuyu Zheng, Xuefei Cui, Liang Su, Shuang Fang, Jinfang Chu, Qingqiu Gong, Jianping Yang and Ziqiang Zhu

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13539

      Significance Statement

      Jasmonate stabilizes COP1-targeted transcription factors and elicits a proportion of the light-responsive transcriptome in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings to suppress hypocotyl elongation and promote cotyledon unfolding.

  6. Technical Advance

    1. Identification of the phosphorylation targets of symbiotic receptor-like kinases using a high-throughput multiplexed assay for kinase specificity

      Dhileepkumar Jayaraman, Alicia L. Richards, Michael S. Westphall, Joshua J. Coon and Jean-Michel Ané

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13529

      Significance Statement

      Multiplexed assay for kinase specificity, a recently developed radioisotope-independent high-throughput technique, was used to identify and map the phosphorylation substrates of up to 10 kinases in a single experiment. Using this technique for plants, we identified potential phosphorylation substrates of symbiotic receptor–like kinases, and these substrates might be the missing link connecting plasma membrane events to nuclear events during symbiotic signal transduction.

  7. Resources

    1. Global analysis of canola genes targeted by SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE 1 during endosperm and embryo development

      Huanan Zhang, Feng Cheng, Yuguo Xiao, Xiaojun Kang, Xiaowu Wang, Rui Kuang and Min Ni

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13542

      Significance Statement

      To explore how Arabidopsis SHB1 increases seed size in canola, we used a combined approach of RNA sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to identify canola genes targeted by SHB1 during early endosperm proliferation and late embryo development. We revealed a major function of SHB1 in canola endosperm development, its genomic association sites and its direct target genes.

  8. Original Articles

    1. OsNLA1, a RING-type ubiquitin ligase, maintains phosphate homeostasis in Oryza sativa via degradation of phosphate transporters

      Wenhao Yue, Yinghui Ying, Chuang Wang, Yang Zhao, Changhe Dong, James Whelan and Huixia Shou

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13516

      Significance Statement

      This study demonstrates that the ubiquitin ligase OsNLA1 mediates the degradation of the phosphate transporters, OsPT2 and OsPT8 in Oryza sativa and that OsNLA1 differs from the ortholog in Arabidopsis in several aspects.

    2. microRNA/microRNA* complementarity is important for the regulation pattern of NFYA5 by miR169 under dehydration shock in Arabidopsis

      Qingguo Du, Meng Zhao, Wei Gao, Suzhen Sun and Wen-Xue Li

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13540

      Significance Statement

      We report that unlike miR169a, which mainly regulates NFYA5 expression at the mRNA level, miR169l mainly affects NFYA5 expression at the translational level. Most importantly, we identify microRNA/microRNA* complementarity as the determinant causing differences in the regulation pattern of NFYA5 by miR169a and miR169l. Our results increase the understanding of regulatory specialization in one MIR family and also increase our understanding of the importance of microRNA/microRNA* secondary structure.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Identification of a drimenol synthase and drimenol oxidase from Persicaria hydropiper, involved in the biosynthesis of insect deterrent drimanes

      Maurice G. L. Henquet, Neli Prota, Justin J. J. van der Hooft, Marina Varbanova-Herde, Raymond J. M. Hulzink, Martin de Vos, Marcel Prins, Michiel T. J. de Both, Maurice C. R. Franssen, Harro Bouwmeester and Maarten Jongsma

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13527

      Significance Statement

      This work describes the isolation from Persicaria hydropiper and characterization of a drimenol synthase and drimenol oxidase involved in the biosynthesis of drimenol and conversion to drimendiol and the sesquiterpene lactone cinnamolide in yeast and heterologous plants hosts. The identified drimenol oxidase performs the first hydroxylation step in the biosynthesis pathway of cinnamolide and polygodial.

  9. Technical Advance

    1. Multiplex single-cell quantification of rare RNA transcripts from protoplasts in a model plant system

      Ulhas S. Kadam, Burkhard Schulz and Joseph M.K. Irudayaraj

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13537

      Significance Statement

      Multiplex analysis of rare RNA transcripts from plant single cells using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and gold nanoprobes.

  10. Original Articles

    1. Compartmentalisation of [FeFe]-hydrogenase maturation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

      Anne Sawyer, Yu Bai, Yinghua Lu, Anja Hemschemeier and Thomas Happe

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13535

      Significance Statement

      The assembly of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [FeFe]-hydrogenase HYDA1 iron sulfur cluster, despite being intensively studied in vitro, is still not understood in the natural host. We found that the HYDA1 iron sulfur cluster can only be assembled in the chloroplast, showing that the C. reinhardtii HYDA1 FeS cluster maturation machinery is not interchangeable.

  11. Retraction

    1. You have free access to this content
  12. Resources

    1. Identification of STN7/STN8 kinase targets reveals connections between electron transport, metabolism and gene expression

      Anna Schönberg, Anja Rödiger, Wiebke Mehwald, Johann Galonska, Gideon Christ, Stefan Helm, Domenika Thieme, Petra Majovsky, Wolfgang Hoehenwarter and Sacha Baginsky

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13536

      Significance Statement

      The thylakoid-associated kinases STN7 and STN8 are involved in long-term acclimation processes that entail changes in gene expression; however, information on the mediators and the signal processing is currently missing. We identified previously unknown STN7/STN8 phosphorylation targets that show a connection between photosynthetic electron transport and the phosphorylation of proteins involved in metabolism and gene expression, thus unraveling previously unknown links that can now be studied in detail.

  13. Original Articles

    1. Identification and characterization of inhibitors of UDP-glucose and UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylases for in vivo studies

      Daniel Decker, Christopher Öberg and Leszek A. Kleczkowski

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13531

      Significance Statement

      UDP-sugar producing pyrophosphorylases represent the primary mechanism of sugar activation for myriads of glycosylation reactions. A chemical library screening against UGPase and USPase, followed by hit-optimization, revealed inhibitors that affected activities of both enzymes and strongly inhibited Arabidopsis cell growth and pollen germination, with their effects relieved by specific UDP-sugars. The inhibitors may represent useful tools to study in vivo roles of the pyrophosphorylases.

    2. Plasticity and innovation of regulatory mechanisms underlying seed oil content mediated by duplicated genes in the palaeopolyploid soybean

      Dajian Zhang, Meixia Zhao, Shuai Li, Lianjun Sun, Weidong Wang, Chunmei Cai, Emily C. Dierking and Jianxin Ma

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13533

      Significance Statement

      This work describes genetic dissection of two regulatory pathways modulating seed oil content in soybean – the world's most important oilseed crop. The findings not only lay a foundation for further investigation of genetic networks underlying seed oil content for soybean improvement, but also highlight the importance of genome duplication for innovating molecular mechanisms through re-wiring of spatiotemporal expression of duplicated genes triggered by changes of regulatory sequences.

    3. LjMOT1, a high-affinity molybdate transporter from Lotus japonicus, is essential for molybdate uptake, but not for the delivery to nodules

      Guilan Duan, Tsuneo Hakoyama, Takehiro Kamiya, Hiroki Miwa, Fabien Lombardo, Shusei Sato, Satoshi Tabata, Zheng Chen, Toshihiro Watanabe, Takuro Shinano and Toru Fujiwara

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13532

      Significance Statement

      Molybdenum is required for nitrogenase, but the pathway of molybdate distribution has not been characterized in legumes. We found LjMOT1 is a high affinity molybdate transporter. LjMOT1 Mutation reduced molybdate concentration in L. japonicus by 70–95%, but molybdate accumulation in the nodules was still high enough for normal nodulation and nitrogenase activity, suggesting that LjMOT1 is an essential molybdate transporter for molybdate uptake from the soil, but not for molybdate delivery to the nodules.

    4. A multidomain enzyme, with glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities, is involved in a chloroplastic pathway for glycerol synthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

      Daniela Morales-Sánchez, Yeongho Kim, Ee Leng Terng, Laura Peterson and Heriberto Cerutti

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13530

      Significance Statement

      Core Chlorophyte algae encode unique multidomain enzymes, with glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase domains fused to a putative phosphoserine phosphatase motif, whose function(s) remains poorly understood. We found that these chimeric enzymes can catalyze directly the two-step conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol, playing an important role in glycerol synthesis under hyperosmotic stress but also in triacylglycerol accumulation under nitrogen deprivation.

    5. DCL2- and RDR6-dependent transitive silencing of SMXL4 and SMXL5 in Arabidopsis dcl4 mutants causes defective phloem transport and carbohydrate over-accumulation

      Yu-Yi Wu, Bo-Han Hou, Wen-Chi Lee, Shin-Hua Lu, Chen-Jui Yang, Hervé Vaucheret and Ho-Ming Chen

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13528

      Significance Statement

      The Arabidopsis Dicer-Like enzymes DCL2 and DCL4 have overlapping functions in post-transcriptional silencing of viruses and transgenes, but it was not clear why they have antagonistic functions in development. Here by dissecting the impact of DCL2 activity on the small RNA profile of dcl4 plants, we uncovered the unusual accumulation of 22-nt siRNAs from two protein-coding genes that are specifically expressed in the apex and the vasculature, and found that the concurrent disruption of these two genes causes leaf pigmentation, starch over-accumulation and phloem transport defects similar to those observed in some of dcl4 plants.

  14. Resource

    1. DNA methylation of retrotransposons, DNA transposons and genes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

      Falk Zakrzewski, Martin Schmidt, Mieke Van Lijsebettens and Thomas Schmidt

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13526

      Significance Statement

      The cytosine methylation at CG, CHG, and CHH sites was investigated in sugar beet leaves and leaf-derived callus by genome-wide bisulfite sequencing. Methylation profiles of transposable element (TE) superfamilies and genes differed and methylation changes occurred at abundant TEs and genes between leaves and callus, most probably representing epialleles established upon callus induction and growth.

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