Transplant International

Cover image for Vol. 29 Issue 5

Edited By: Thomas Wekerle and Rainer Oberbauer

Impact Factor: 2.599

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 13/25 (Transplantation); 50/198 (Surgery)

Online ISSN: 1432-2277

Author Guidelines

Latest update: April 2015

From 2015 on Transplant International is being published in an online-only format: We strongly encourage authors to take advantage of the electronic publishing format by enhancing clarity and readability of their manuscripts through the use of colour in figures and tables, and through the inclusion of videos or other electronic material. See also under 'Supporting Information' below.

Editorial policies and procedures
Clinical Trials     
Copyright Transfer Agreement     

Submission of papers     
Electronic File Formats 
Manuscript preparation 
Manuscript types     

Manuscript Format and Layout      
Title Page     
Statistical Guidelines     
Page charges 

Accepted Papers     
Early View           
Authors Services     

Editorial policies and procedures

Transplant International
is the official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation (ESOT), the European Liver and Intestine Transplant Association (ELITA) and the German Transplantation Society (Deutsche Transplantationsgesellschaft, DTG). It provides a forum for the publication of clinical and experimental research on the biology, physiology, and immunology of tissue and organ transplantation. The journal is published online in yearly volumes, twelve times a year.

Transplant International
will not consider manuscripts that have been published previously or that are under consideration for publication eleswhere.

Manuscripts will be peer-reviewed. At the discretion of the Editors, the submitted manuscript may be rejected immediately after review through the Editors, without external review. Manuscripts not complying with international ethical standards (see below) will not be considered for publication and will be returned to the authors without scientific peer review. Manuscripts will be assigned to the Editors and Associate Editors such that potential conflicts of interest are avoided. The review process for manuscripts authored by the Editors or Associate Editors is made automatically inaccessible to these authors in order to safeguard the anonymity and independence of the review process.

Authors wishing to appeal an Editorial decision may do so by listing specific and objective reasons in an email to the Editorial Office ( All appeals will be discussed at the next possible Editorial meeting, though it must be pointed out that, due to the careful and conscientious peer-review process, Editorial decisions are well supported and rarely amended.

All queries and concerns regarding publication ethics issues will be dealt with personally at the Editorial level; appropriate measures will be taken in cases of publication misconduct.

All persons listed as authors must have contributed substantially to the design, performance, analysis, or reporting of the work and are required to indicate their specific contribution. The specific requirements for authorship have been defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE; Examples of authors contributions are: 'designed research/study'', 'performed research/study', 'contributed important reagents', 'collected data', 'analyzed data', 'wrote paper' etc. This information must be included in the title page of the manuscript and will be printed if the paper is accepted for publication. The corresponding author is responsible for obtaining permission from all co-authors for the submission of any version of the manuscript and for any changes in authorship.

Manuscripts must contain a statement to the effect that all human studies have been reviewed by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in an appropriate version of the 2000 Declaration of Helsinki as well as the Declaration of Istanbul 2008.  It should also be stated clearly in the text that all persons gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.  Details that might disclose the identity of the subjects under the study should be omitted.

Reports of animal experiments must state that the 'Principles of Laboratory animal care' NIH publication Vol 25, No. 28 revised 1996; were followed, as well as specific national laws (e.g. the current version of the German Law on the Protection of Animals) where applicable.

Clinical Trials
Transplant International will only consider publishing trials that have been registered in a public trials registry. The name of the registry and the registration number should be stated at the end of the abstract of the manuscript. Trials must register at or before patients are enrolled.  This policy applies to any clinical trial starting enrolment of subjects after January 1, 2006. Trials that began enrolment before January 1, 2006 are required to register by April 1, 2006. We define clinical trials according to ICMJE, as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause and effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g., phase I trials), would be exempt.

Registration must be done at a registry that meets the following minimum criteria:

  • Accessible to the public at no charge.

  • Searchable by standard electronic (internet-based) methods.

  • Open to all prospective registants free of charge or at minimal cost.

  • Validates registered information.

  • Identifies trials with a unique number. Included information on: the investigator(s), research question or hypothesis, methodology, intervention and comparisons, eligibility criteria, primary and secondary outcomes measured, date of registration, anticipated or actual start date, anticipated or actual date of last follow-up, target number of subjects, status (anticipated, ongoing or closed), and funding source(s).

Registries that currently meet these criteria include:

The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned requirements.  The author will be held responsible for false statements or for failure to fulfil the above mentioned requirements.

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below: CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA): Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit: For RCUK and Wellcome Trust authors click on the link below to preview the terms and conditions of this license: Creative Commons Attribution License OAA To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

Submission of papers 

Only electronic submissions will be considered.  Please submit your paper online ScholarOne Manuscripts Http://

The Editorial Office will acknowledge receipt of all manuscripts.  If the manuscript submission is incomplete or does not conform to the Author Guidelines, it will be un-submitted.  The corresponding author will then be asked to complete and re-submit the manuscript.

Electronic File Formats

Manuscript text must be saved in Word (.doc) Wordperfect (.wpd) or Rich text Format (.rtf) as our publisher requires this formatting in the event of acceptance.

Figures may be submitted in any of the following formats: Word (.doc) Wordperfect (.wpd) or Rich text Format (.rtf) Jpeg (.jpg) GIF (.gif) TIFF (.tiff) Powerpoint (.ppt) and Bitmap (.bmp). NOTE: Figures submitted in Portable Document Format (.pdf) must be distilled using the 'Print Optimised' option.

Manuscript preparation
Authors should prepare manuscripts in accordance with: 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals' ( Authors are responsible for linguistic and grammatical editing of manuscripts before submission to the Journal.  Manuscripts improperly prepared or edited may be returned to the authors without review by the Editors.

If you feel that your paper could benefit from English language polishing, we recommend that you have it professionally edited by a service such as Wiley English Language Editing Services. Please note that while this service will greatly improve the readability of your paper, it does not guarantee acceptance of your paper by the journal.

Terminology: Use of words such as 'cadaveric', 'retrieval' and 'harvesting' when describing deceased donors is not accepted. Please refer to the following list when referring to such donors:

 recover or recovery of organs harvest or retrieval
 deceased donor cadaver, cadaveric
 mechanical, ventilated or organ-perfusion support  life support
 donation after cardiac death non-heart-beating donation

Manuscript types

Review Articles
Word Limit: 4000 words including abstract but excluding references, tables and figures.
Abstract: 200 words maximum
References: No limit

Review articles are solicited by the Editors-in-Chief from experts with an internationally recognized track record on the topic of the review. Proposals for unsolicited reviews may be submitted; however, in this case authors should only send an outline of the proposed paper for initial consideration. Editors will consider the proposal and decide whether submission of the full article is encouraged. Both solicited and unsolicited Review Articles will undergo peer review prior to acceptance. The approach of review articles should be critical but balanced. It is the responsibility of authors to obtain permission from the copyright holder of any figure they wish to have republished and they are required to provide a confirmation thereof.

Word Limit: 4000 words including abstract but excluding references, tables and figures
Abstract: 200 words maximum
References: No limit

Authors of reports of meta-analyses of randomized trials should submit the PRISMA flow diagram and checklist. Authors of meta-analyses of observational studies should submit the proposed MOOSE checklist.

Original Articles 
Word Limit: 4000 words including abstract but excluding references, tables and figures.
Abstract: 200 words maximum
References: No limit for full length reports of current research in either experimental or clinical transplantation.

Authors of randomized controlled trials follow the CONSORT statement, while authors of observational studies should follow the STROBE statement.

Case Reports
Transplant International does no longer publish case reports.

Letters to the Editor/Correspondence 
Word Limit: 500 words excluding references, tables and figures
No abstract, no headings or subheadings
References: Up to 10
Limit of one table or one figure
All Letters to the Editors must be formatted as letters addressing the editors ("Dear Editors,") and thus cannot include abstract, headings or subheadings.
Observations on critical topics in transplantation or comments on articles published in Transplant International.

Invited Commentary
Editors may invite commentaries on original articles published in the same issue
Word Limit: 1000 words excluding references, tables and figures
No abstract required for this manuscript type
References: Up to 15 Comments with critical assessment of papers recently accepted or published in Transplant International

Manuscript Format and Layout

Title Page
Must contain the following:

Title. Must not exceed 30 words
Full names of all authors: Authors need to fulfill the specific requirements for authorship as defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Department and Institution where work was performed clearly noting the affiliations of the individual authors.
Authorship: Please list a description of each author's contribution or role, e.g. 'designed research/study', 'performed research/study', 'contributed important reagents', 'collected data', 'analyzed data', 'wrote the paper ' etc.
Funding sources: All funding sources supporting the work sumbitted should be properly acknowledged and stated in the title page.
Corresponding author contact information: Name, address, telephone, FAX, and E-mail address of the author to whom correspondence regarding the manuscript should be directed.
Running Title: A shortened version of the title that is 70 characters or less to be used in the page header upon publication.
Keywords: A maximum of 6 keywords.
Abbreviations: When using abbreviations, write the full name of the abbreviated item folled by the abbreviation in parenthesis at the point of first mention of the abbreviation in within the body of the manuscript: e.g. 'according to the policies of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS).'

Conflict of interest statement: All authors must disclose any conflicts of interest that might bias their work. If none exists, this must also be stated explicitly.

Not more than 200 words without the subheading, stating the main problem, methods, results, and conclusions.  For clinical trials, the name of the registry and the registration number should be stated at the end of the abstract in parentheses, for example: ( number: NCT00365846).

When using abbreviations, write the full name of the abbreviated item folled by the abbreviation in parenthesis at the point of first mention of the abbreviation in within the body of the manuscript: e.g. 'according to the policies of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS).'

Arranged in the following order: Introduction, Patients and Methods (or Materials and Methods), Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements. It is essential that the positions of figures and tables are identical in the margins of the text.   

Statistical Guidelines
1. Make a concise but complete description of all statistical methods that were actually used - with your description of statistical analysis and your data, a colleague should arrive at the same results as you do.
2. Generally, two-sided testing should be used and two-sided p-values should be reported.
3. Time-to-event variables such as death or graft loss should be analysed with appropriate methods (e.g., Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression, competing risk methods).
4. Make a clear distinction between causes (e.g., baseline characteristics) and effects (e.g., outcome variables). Do not compare baseline characteristics between groups based on later events (e.g., dead or alive, graft loss or functioning graft). Instead, group by your most important baseline variable, or do not group your data at all when describing baseline characteristics.
5. Use interpretable statistics and interpret them correctly. For example, use relevant differences for odds ratios and hazard ratios, and report them properly (e.g., HR=1.23 per 10 years rather than HR=1.02 for age; HR=1.30 for males vs. females rather than HR=1.30 for gender).
6. Confidence intervals should be reported for all statistics such as hazard ratios, proportions, group differences, etc., in particular if they are not statistically significant.
7. Report precise p-values, e.g., p=0.45, p=0.045, p=0.0045, p<0.0001, not just p=NS or p>0.05.
8. Do not overload your tables with irrelevant decimal places. Use only 2-3 significant decimal places (e.g., 12.3, 1.23, 0.123, 0.0123, 0.0012) throughout.
9. Observational studies usually have more pitfalls than randomized trials and often require multivariable modeling to control confounding. Consult an experienced biostatistician for analysis of observational data.
10. Cleary state the limitations of your study and analysis (e.g., insufficient confounder control, selection bias, information bias, insufficient power, ....).

Referencing should be listed in order of appearance (straight Vancouver style).  Feasible reference managers are offered by many leading scientific publications  such, as J Intern Med.

1. All references must be designed within the text by full-sized numbers in ascending order within square brackets.
2. The reference list should contain the references in the order in which they are cited in the text. 
3. Only published works (as well as manuscripts already accepted for publication) which are referred to in the text should be listed in the reference list. The reference list must not contain any unpublished observations, personal communications, etc. Kindly cite such sources solely within the text (in parentheses), not in the reference list.
4. Do not list more than six authors per reference. Should there be seven or more, please include only the first three followed by ‘‘et al.’’.
5. Please style your references according to the following examples (please note sequence, punctuation, and spacing):
Journal articles: name(s) and initials of author(s), full title, journal name as abbreviated in Index Medicus, year of publication; volume, page number. e.g.: Bock HP, Sombolos V, Lucas PA, et al. Complications of gastric surgery in transplanted Patients. J Transplant Surg 1987; 38: 213.

  • Monographs: name(s) and initials if author(s), title, edition, publisher, place of publication, year of publication, page number. e.g.: Kay PJ. Graft versus host disease, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, 1978; 11.

  • Contribution within edited works: name(s) and initials of author(s), title of the contribution, ‘‘In:’’, name(s) and initials of editor(s), title of the book, publisher, place of publication, year of publication, page number. e.g.: Feldman SP. The role of leucocytes in rejection. In: Dragon S, Curius P, Velasques RC, eds. The process of rejection. The Hague, Nijhof, 1996: 38.

Each table should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and should be cited in the text.  A descriptive heading which is self-explanatory should be included. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by lower-case superscript letters and should be kept to a minimum. 

The use of color is strongly encouraged to enhance clarity and readability of the displayed data. All figures should be cited in the text in numerical order. If photographs of patients are used, either the subject should not be identifiable or the picture must be accompanied by wirtten permission to use the figure. Figure legends must be typed on a separate page at the end of the manuscript. Details must be large enough to retain their clarity after reduction in size. After reduction, illustrations should preferably fill single-column width (81 mm) although in exceptional cases 2/3 page width (120 mm) or full-page width (168 mm) will be accepted.

Transplant International encourage supporting information if the information contained is essential but does not fit into the format/length of the manuscript. See format guidelines at Wiley Author Services.

Professional Figure Redesign
Transplant International offers Professional Figure Redesign to authors of review articles at no charge. This option is also offered to to other Transplant International authors for a fee. For further details, please contact Claudia Bentley (

Electronic Artwork
When submitting artwork electronically, please read the information on the Wiley-Blackwell website at Vector graphics (e.g. line artwork) should be saved in Encapsulated Postscript Format (EPS), and bitmap files (e.g. photographs) in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). Line art must be scanned at a minimum of 800 dpi, photographs at a minimum of 300 dpi.

Page Charges
Any article exceeding 7 pages (in the final published version) will be charged. Excess pages, over and above 7 printed pages, must be paid for at a rate of EUR 100 per page. The page charges quoted in Sterling will be converted into the equivalent US Dollar or Euro rate depending on the billing area of the author if outside the UK. A printed page contains about 5,200 letters on average, space between words included (but not tables and figures). The page charges apply to Original Articles only. Review articles are not charged.

Accepted Articles

The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a website. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (Portable document format) file from this site. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following web site: This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Excessive changes made by the author in the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately.

Authors can download an electronic PDF offprint of their article upon publication through Wiley-Blackwell’s Author Services. Additional paper offprints may be ordered online at

Early View
Transplant International is covered by Wiley-Blackwell's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

Author Services
Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive and e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Retracted articles will be clearly identified as "retracted" in all electronic sources. Such articles may not be resubmitted even in a revised form.

Note to NIH grantees
Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see Author Material Archive Policy Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley-Wiley-Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible if you have not already done so.

The Publisher and Editors cannot be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in this journal; the views and opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the Publisher and Editors, neither does the publication of advertisements constitute any endorsement by the Publisher and Editors of the products advertised