Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Cover image for Vol. 29 Issue 9

Edited By: Mamoru Watanabe

Impact Factor: 3.627

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 19/74 (Gastroenterology & Hepatology)

Online ISSN: 1440-1746

Author Guidelines

Manuscripts should be submitted online at:

The Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (JGH) is the official journal of the Asia Pacific Association for Gastroenterology. The Journal publishes peer-reviewed original papers, reviews, metaanalyses and systematic reviews, and editorials concerned with clinical practice and research in the fields of hepatology, gastroenterology and endoscopy. Papers cover the medical, surgical, radiological, pathological, biochemical, physiological, ethical and historical aspects of the subject areas. Clinical trials are afforded expedited publication if deemed suitable. JGH also deals with the basic sciences and experimental work, particularly that with a clear relevance to disease mechanisms and new therapies. Case reports and letters to the Editor will not be considered for publication.

The acceptance criteria for all papers and reviews are based on the quality and originality of the research and its clinical and scientific significance to our readership. All manuscripts are peer reviewed under the direction of an Editor. The Editor reserves the right to refuse any material for review that does not conform to the submission guidelines detailed throughout this document, including ethical issues, completion of an Exclusive License Form and stipulations as to length.

The Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology is available online, along with journal particulars and these author guidelines at

Manuscripts should be submitted online at:
Authors need to supply an email address as all correspondence will be by email. For assistance please contact:

JGH Editorial Office, Mr Dresden Orila
Email: or
Fax: +63 2 3250768

Submission is via a step-by-step process on the website, once an author has created an account, accessed their 'author dashboard' and clicked on 'click here to submit a new manuscript.'


Cover Letter
All authors are required to submit a Cover Letter as part if the submission process on ScholarOne (at Step 5: Details & Comments).

This should include a statement covering each of the following areas:
1. Confirmation that all authors have contributed to and agreed on the content of the manuscript, and the respective roles of each author.
2. Confirmation that the manuscript has not been published previously, in any language, in whole or in part, and is not currently under consideration elsewhere.
(The Journal's position on possible dual publication in more than one language has been outlined in the following editorial: Farrell GC. Déjà vu, mais pas en anglais! Precautionary notes on publishing the same article in two languages. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2007; 22: 1699-1700).
3. A statement outlining how ethical clearance has been obtained for the research, particularly in relation to studies involving human subjects, and animal experimentation. The institutional ethics committees approving this research must comply with acceptable international standards (such as the Treaty of Helsinki) and this must be stated.
4. For research involving pharmacological agents, devices or medical technology, a clear Conflict of Interest statement in relation to any funding from or pecuniary interests in companies that could be perceived as a potential conflict of interest in the outcome of the research.
5. For clinical trials, that these have been registered in a publically accessible database (see more under 'ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS (Further Information)' later in these guidelines).

If the above items are not included in the cover letter, manuscripts cannot be sent for review.

Please also note that the cover letter does not require a detailed or lengthy description of the content or structure of the manuscript itself.

Copyright, Licensing and Online Open
Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley's production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

FAQs about the terms and conditions of the standard copyright transfer agreements (CTA) in place for the journal, including terms regarding archiving of the accepted version of the paper are available at: CTA Terms and Conditions FAQs.

OnlineOpen - 'Gold road' Open Access
OnlineOpen is available to authors of articles who wish to make their article freely available to all on Wiley Online Library under a Creative Commons license. In addition, authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on a website, institutional repository or other free public server, immediately on publication. With OnlineOpen the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made open access, known as 'gold road' open access.

OnlineOpen licenses
Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright in their article and have a choice of publishing under the following Creative Commons License terms: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY NC); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License (CC BY NC ND).

For more information about the OnlineOpen license terms and conditions click here.

All articles, with the exception of Editorials, must contain an abstract of no more than 250 words. Abstracts for original articles should be formatted into subheadings, as detailed below. Titles must not be longer than 120 characters (including spaces).

These are invited by the Editor-in-Chief or their delegated editor, and should be a brief review of the subject concerned, with reference to and commentary about one or more articles published in the same issue of JGH. Editorials are generally 1200–1500 words, may contain one table or figure and cite up to 15 references, including the source article [this should be cited as J Gastroenterol Hepatol (year);(vol): [this issue].

Review Articles
JGH welcomes reviews of important topics across the scientific basis of gastroenterology and hepatology, and advances in clinical practice. Most published reviews are in response to editorial invitation, including thematically related “mini-series” of reviews. Authors considering submitting a review for JGH are advised to canvas their possible review with the Editor-in-Chief or a colleague editor; this avoids early rejection if the subject matter is not deemed a high priority for the Journal at the time of submission. Reviews are limited to 3500–5000 words, with an abstract of up to 250 words and up to 75 references and 3–7 figures or tables.

Meta-Analyses or Systematic Reviews
JGH particularly welcomes submission of Meta-Analyses and Systematic Reviews, which underpin evidence-based medicine. From timeto- time, an honorarium for preparation of these articles may be made available by the JGH Foundation; for up-to-date information, check the JGH website [] and recent advertisements in the Journal, or email the Editor-in-Chief. Guidelines for preparation of Meta-Analysis and Systematic Reviews are similar to other reviews, and articles are subject to the usual peer review process. Meta-Analyses and Systematic Reviews have a word limit of 3500–5000 words, with an abstract of up to 250 words and up to 75 references and 3–7 figures or tables.

Original Articles (including clinical trials)
JGH welcomes original articles concerned with clinical practice and research in the fields of hepatology, gastroenterology and endoscopy. Papers can cover the medical, surgical, radiological, pathological, biochemical, physiological, ethical and/or historical aspects of the subject areas. Clinical trials are afforded expedited publication if deemed suitable. JGH also deals with the basic sciences and experimental work, particularly that with a clear relevance to disease mechanisms and new therapies. Original articles are limited to 3000 words, with an abstract of up to 250 words and up to 50 references and 3–7 figures and tables.

Education and Imaging
The Editors welcome contributions to the Education and Imaging section (Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic or Gastrointestinal). The purpose is to present imaging for the evaluation of unusual features of common conditions or diagnosis of unusual cases. Contributions will be reviewed by the Education and Imaging Coordinating Editors. The format of the Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Images pages involves two parts, each of which will occupy up to one journal page. In part 1, a case will be described briefly, including a summary of the presentation, clinical features and key laboratory results. One to two key images will then be presented. It is helpful to the reader if the author responds to questions that follow from the images of the case, such as ‘What is your diagnosis? What are the features indicated on the CT scan? What is the differential diagnosis?’ Part 2 will briefly describe the imaging features, particularly those that lead to diagnosis or which are critical for management. Differential diagnosis should be mentioned. It will be useful to include either further images or pathological details that validate the imaging diagnosis. Occasionally, presentation of analogous cases or related images from a similar case might be appropriate. Please include between one and three references to definitive studies and appropriate reviews of the subject. The format of the Gastrointestinal Images page involves a brief background to and description of the disorder of interest together with two figures of high quality. Colored endoscopic photographs are encouraged. The submission may take the form of a case report or may illustrate particular features from more than one patient.

Manuscripts should follow the style of the Vancouver agreement detailed in the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ revised ‘Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication’, as presented at

The journal uses US spelling and authors should therefore follow the latest edition of the Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. All measurements must be given in SI units as outlined in the latest edition of Units, Symbols and Abbreviations: A Guide for Biological and Medical Editors and Authors (Royal Society of Medicine Press, London).

Abbreviations should be used sparingly and only where they ease the reader’s task by reducing repetition of long technical terms. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation. Upon its first use in the title, abstract and text, the common name of the species should be followed by the scientific name (genus, species and authority) in parentheses. However, for well-known species, the scientific name may be omitted from the article. If no common name exists in English, the scientific name should be used only. At the mention of a chemical substance, give the generic name only. Trade names should not be used. Drugs should be referred to by their generic names, rather than brand names.

Manuscripts should be presented in the following order:

(i) title page,
(ii) abstract and keywords,
(iii) text,
(iv) acknowledgments and potential conflicts of interest,
(v) references,
(vi) figure legends,
(vii) tables (each table complete with title and footnotes) and
(viii) figures.

Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.

Title page
The title page should contain:
(i) the title of the paper;
(ii) the full names of the authors; and
(iii) the addresses of the institutions at which the work was carried out together with
(iv) the full postal address and email address, plus facsimile and telephone number of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript, proofs and requests for offprints should be sent.

The title should be short, informative and contain the major key words. Articles with a title longer than the 120 character limitation may not be sent out for review. A short running title (less than 40 characters, including spaces) should also be provided.

Abstract and keywords
Original articles must have a structured abstract that states in 250 words or less the purpose, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions of the study. Divide the abstract with the headings: Background and Aim, Methods, Results, Conclusions. The abstracts of reviews need not be structured. The abstract should not contain abbreviations or references. Three to five keywords should be supplied below the abstract and should be taken from those recommended by the US National Library of Medicine’s Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) browser—(

Authors should use subheadings to divide the sections of their manuscript: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments and References.

Acknowledgments and potential conflicts of interest
The source of financial grants and other funding should be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the authors’ industrial links and affiliations. In the case of clinical trials or any article describing use of a commercial device, therapeutic substance or food must state whether there are any potential conflicts of interest for each of the authors: failure to make such a statement may jeopardise the article being sent out for peer-review. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged. Thanks to anonymous reviewers are not allowed.

We recommend the use of a tool such as Reference Manager for reference management and formatting. Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here: The Vancouver system of referencing should be used. In the text, references should be cited using superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear. If cited only in tables or figure legends, number them according to the first identification of the table or figure in the text. In the reference list, the references should be numbered and listed in order of appearance in the text. Cite the names of all authors when there are six or less; when seven or more list the first three followed by et al. Names of journals should be abbreviated in the style used in MEDLINE. Reference to unpublished data and personal communications should appear in the text only.

References should be listed in the following form:

Number references in the order cited as Arabic numerals in parentheses on the line. Only literature that is published or in press (with the name of the publication known) may be numbered and listed; abstracts and letters to the editor may be cited, but they must be less than 3 years old and identified as such. Refer to only in the text, in parentheses, other material (manuscripts submitted, unpublished data, personal communications, and the like) as in the following example: (Chercheur X, unpublished data). If the owner of the unpublished data or personal communication is not an author of the manuscript under review, a signed statement is required verifying the accuracy of the attributed information and agreement to its publication. Use Index Medicus as the style guide for references and other journal abbreviations. List all authors up to six, using six and "et al." when the number is greater than six.

Journal articles
1 Crawley AC, Brook DA, Muller VJ, Petersen BA, Isaas EL, Biekicki J, et al. Enzyme replacement therapy in feline model of the Matroteaux-Lamysyndrome. J Clin Invest 1996; 97: 1864-1873.

2 Watson JD. The Double Helix. New York: Atheneum, 1968: 1-6.

Book Chapters
3 Hofmann AF. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in health and disease. In: Sleisinger MH, Fordtran JS, eds. Gastrointestinal Disease. Volume 1. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1993: 127-150.

Abstract or Article in a Supplement
4 Klin M, Kaplowitz N. Differential susceptibility of hepatocystesto TNF-induced apoptosis vs necrosis [Abstract]. HEPATOLOGY 1998; 28(Suppl): 310A.

Journal article in electronic format
4 Spycher C, Zimmerman A, Reichen J. The diagnostic value of liver biopsy. BMC Gastroenterol. 2001; 1: 12. Cited 22 Nov 2007. Available from URL: 1/12.

Online article not yet published in an issue
5. An online article that has not yet been published in an issue (therefore has no volume, issue or page numbers) can be cited by its Digital Object Identifier (DOI). The DOI will remain valid and allow an article to be tracked even after its allocation to an issue.
Testro AG, Visvanathan K. Toll-like receptors and their role in gastrointestinal disease. J.Gastroenterol. Hepatol 2009 doi 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.05854.x


  • Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text.
  • Tables should be cited consecutively in the text and should be numbered using Arabic numerals.
  • Each table should be presented on a separate page at the end of the main document file, with a comprehensive, but concise legend above the table.
  • Tables should be double-spaced, and should not contain internal lines
  • Do not use tabs or spaces to separate data points in tables. Each data point must be contained within a unique cell.
  • Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses. All abbreviations should be defined in footnotes.
  • For footnotes, use the following symbols, in sequence: †, ‡, §, ¶ (*, **, *** should be reserved for P-values).
  • Identify statistical measures of variation, such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean.


  • Illustrations (line drawings and photographs) are classified as figures.
  • Figures should be cited in consecutive order in the text using Arabic numerals.
  • Insert easily seen arrows or letters to identify entities (they should be in bold and in colour).
  • Photographs should be submitted as high resolution files (at least 300 d.p.i.)
  • Photographic images should be provided as .tif or .jpeg files. Provide the figures in their original format where possible. Any accompanying text (figure legends etc.) should be included separately at the end of the main text file. Do not embed photographic images in Word or PowerPoint documents.
  • Wherever possible, line figures (graphs and drawings) should be provided as .eps files. If this is not possible, figures should be supplied in their original format. For example, line figures designed in Excel or PowerPoint should be submitted as such, and not embedded in Word (.doc) files.
  • Legends must be submitted for all figures, and should be included at the end of the manuscript text. They should be self-explanatory and incorporate definitions of symbols. Abberviations and units of measurement should be explained so that the figure and its legend are understandable without reference to the text. Indicate the stains used in histopathology. Identify statistical measures of variation, such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean.

(Further information about digital graphics standards can be found at:

Reproduction of Tables and Figures
If tables or figures have been reproduced from another source, a letter from the copyright holder (usually the Publisher), stating authorization to reproduce the material, must be attached with the cover letter.

Color figures
Color photographs should be submitted as good quality, glossy color prints. A charge of US$530 for the first three color figures and US$265 for each extra color figure thereafter will be charged to the author.

Color on the Web Service
If you do not wish to pay for color production in print, your color figures can be reproduced in color online for free. This only applies to figures which are appropriate for reproduction in color online, but black and white in the printed journal. This is not possible for some figure types such as line figures where the figure would have to be altered for print publication (changing colours to grey shading) therefore making the print and online figures different.

Authors must state that the protocol for the research project has been approved by a suitably constituted Ethics Committee (Human or Animal) of the institution within which the work was undertaken and that it conforms to the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki (as revised in Tokyo 2004), available at The Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology retains the right to reject any manuscript on the basis of unethical conduct of either human or animal studies. All investigations on human subjects must include a statement that the subject gave informed consent, usually in writing. Patient anonymity should be preserved. Photographs need to be cropped sufficiently to prevent human subjects being recognized (or an eye bar should be used).

Registration of Clinical Trials
We strongly recommend, as a condition of consideration for publication, registration in a public trials registry. Trials register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. This policy applies to any clinical trial starting enrolment after July 1, 2008. For trials that began enrolment before this date, we request registration by December 1, 2008, before considering the trial for publication. We define a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g., phase 1 trials) are exempt.
We do not advocate one particular registry, but registration with a registry that meets the following minimum criteria:
(1) accessible to the public at no charge;
(2) searchable by standard, electronic (Internet-based) methods;
(3) open to all prospective registrants free of charge or at minimal cost;
(4) validates registered information;
5) identifies trials with a unique number; and
(6) includes information on the investigator(s), research question or hypothesis, methodology, intervention and comparisons, eligibility criteria, primary and secondary outcomes measured, date of registration, anticipated or actual start date, anticipated or actual date of last follow-up, target number of subjects, status (anticipated, ongoing or closed) and funding source(s).

Registries that currently meet these criteria include, but are not limited to:
(1) the registry sponsored by the United States National Library of Medicine (www.clinicaltrials. gov);
(2) the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Registry (;
(3) the Australian Clinical Trials Registry (;
(4) the Chinese Clinical Trials Register (; and
(5) the Clinical Trials Registry—India (; (6) University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) (

Randomized Controlled Trials
Reporting of randomized controlled trials should follow the guidelines of The CONSORT Statement: Any experiments involving animals must be demonstrated to be ethically acceptable and where relevant conform to international standards for animal usage in research. These include but are not limited to the NHMRC of Australia, NIH and European Union.

Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology offers Accepted Articles for selected articles. Accepted Articles is a Wiley Blackwell service whereby peer-reviewed accepted articles are published online prior to their ultimate inclusion in a print or online issue. Articles published within Accepted Articles have been fully refereed, but have not been through the copy-editing, typesetting and proof correction process.

OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see

Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the combined payment and copyright license form available from our website at:

(Please note this form is for use with OnlineOpen material ONLY)

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

It is essential that corresponding authors supply an email address to which correspondence can be emailed while their article is in production. Notification of the URL from where to download a Portable Document Format (PDF) typeset page proof, associated forms and further instructions will be sent by email to the corresponding author. The purpose of the PDF proof is a final check of the layout, and of tables and figures. Alterations other than the essential correction of errors are unacceptable at PDF proof stage. The proof should be checked, and approval to publish the article should be emailed to the Publisher by the date indicated, otherwise, it may be signed off by the Editor or held over to the next issue.