Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 10

Edited By: David Isaacs

Impact Factor: 1.193

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 74/117 (Pediatrics)

Online ISSN: 1440-1754

Author Guidelines

Aims And Scope
The Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health is the official journal of the Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians) in affiliation with the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand, the Paediatric Research Society of Australia and the Australasian Association of Paediatric Surgeons, and publishes original research articles of scientific excellence in paediatrics and child health. Research Articles and Editorial Correspondence are published, together with invited Reviews, Annotations, Editorial Comments and manuscripts of educational interest.

Editorial Review and Acceptance
The acceptance criteria for all papers are the quality and originality of the research and its significance to our readership. Except where otherwise stated, manuscripts are peer reviewed by two anonymous reviewers and the Editors. Editors reserve the right to rwefuse any material for publication and advise that authors should retain copies of submitted manuscripts and correspondence as material cannot be returned. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editors.

Manuscripts should be written so that they are intelligible to the professional reader who is not a specialist in the particular field. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of scientific content, the Editors or the Publisher reserve the right to modify typescripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition and improve communication between author and reader. If extensive alterations are required, the manuscript will be returned to the author for revision.

Annotations should be no more than 1500 words with a maximum of 12 references. Authors must supply a maximum of 5 key words and an unstructured abstract. Authors must supply three brief 'Key Points' summarising the main points raised in the manuscript. Authors must also provide 3 multiple choice questions (preferably 'A-type' single best of 5 alternatives with brief explanations for each answer) based on their Annotation. Please ensure that brief explanations are provided for both correct and incorrect answers.

Editorial Comments
Editorial Comments should be no more than 1500 words with a maximum of 12 references. Authors must supply a one-line summary of the key point raised and provide a reference to the manuscript(s) the paper comments on.

Original Articles
Original Articles should be no more than 2500 words with a structured abstract that states in 250 words or fewer the purpose, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions of the study. Divide the abstract with the headings: Aim, Methods, Results, Conclusions. Authors must supply up to three brief points 'What is already known on this topic' and up to three brief points stating 'What this paper adds'.

Review Articles
Review Articles should be no more than 2500 words with a maximum of 50 references. Abstracts can be either structured or unstructured, at a maximum of 150 words. The abstract should not contain abbreviations or references. Authors must supply three brief 'Key Points' summarising the main points raised in the manuscript. Authors must also provide 3 multiple choice questions (preferably 'A-type' single best of 5 alternatives with brief explanations for each answer) based on their Review. Please ensure that brief explanations are provided for both correct and incorrect answers.

Case Reports
The Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health has amended its Case Report section. New Case Notes/Reports will now only be considered for publication in the Letters to the Editor section. In order to suit this format, manuscripts need to be formatted as a Letter to the Editor and be approximately 400 words in length, with no more than one figure or table, and a maximum of four references.

Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials must be registered with the appropriate governing body.

Instructive Cases
Instructive Cases involve a clinical problem or issue of clear educational benefit. There is an initial case report, then a brief discussion with appropriate references. No abstract or key words are required (when the website requests an Abstract, type N/A for 'not applicable'). A Summary listing learning points should be included at the end of the Instructive Case. Instructive Cases should be no more than 1200 words in length, with no more than 3 figures or tables and a maximum of 8 references. Authors must also provide 3 multiple choice questions (preferably 'A-type' single best of 5 alternatives with brief explanations for each answer) based on their Instructive Case. Please ensure that brief explanations are provided for both correct and incorrect answers.

Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor should be no more than 400 words in length, with no more than one figure or table, and a maximum of four references.

Heads Up
Heads Up submissions should be a summary, approximately 200 words, of a recent paper of interest. This should not be the abstract but a short digest of the results, putting them in context of what the paper adds. Please attach a file with a single graph or histogram (preferably not a table) from the paper to make the most important point visually (not essential). A photograph or illustration (subject to copyright) would also be suitable. The names of authors of Heads Up pieces will be published.

Journal Club
Journal Club articles should be no more than 2500 words. They should be based on what happens at hospital journal clubs, where doctors come with a clinical question, search for evidence, critically appraise the best evidence, apply it to their patient, and reflect how the research could have been conducted. Each article should be divided into the headings: clinical scenario; structured clinical question; search strategy; table (of relevant papers found in the search - see below); best paper (identifying the best paper to answer and critically appraising that paper using standard critical appraisal guidelines); brief discussion of how to do the research better, how to apply the information to the patient and the clinical bottom line.

CitationsStudy populationStudy design and Level of evidenceResultsComments

Image of the Month
Please send a photograph or other image, together with a short clinical question and a brief answer. For an example, please follow these links: Question and Answer. If the photograph is identifiable, please send written permission from a parent and/or child or confirm that verbal approval has been obtained. Privacy is the responsibility of the author(s).

Position Papers
Position Papers express the consenses view of an organisation, e.g. about the management of a condition. Any recommendations should be evidence-based and should state the Level of Evidence (using NHMRC criteria). They should be up to 2,500 words long with a maximum of 50 references.

Viewpoint is available for papers expressing a personal practice or personal view on medical or non-medical topics that are relevant to the readers. They can be up to 2,500 words long and referenced if appropriate.

Ethical Debate
Ethical debate is available for papers describing an ethical dilemma in clinical practice. They may argue only one perspective or two different viewpoints. They can be up to 2,500 words long and reference if appropriate.

Brief Communications
Brief Communications are used to fill gaps in the JPCH and will be indexed. They are supposed to be entertaining, humorous, informative, thought-provoking or all of the above. They should be relevant, in a broad sense, to paediatrics and those who work in child health. They should be no longer than 600 words. Examples include humorous or poignant stories or instructive mistakes. Consent will be needed if the subject of the Brief Communication is identifiable.

FIllers are used to fill gaps in the JPCH, but are not indexed. They are supposed to be entertaining, humorous, informative, thought-provoking or all of the above. Examples of Fillers include cartoons and poems. Consent will be needed if the subject of the Filler is identifiable.

Submission of Manuscripts
Manuscripts should be submitted online at

Authors must supply an email address as all correspondence will be by email. Two files should be supplied: the covering letter and the manuscript (in Word or rich text format (.rtf)). The covering letter should be uploaded as a file not for review.

All articles submitted to the Journal must comply with these instructions. Failure to do so will result in return of the manuscript and possible delay in publication.

  • Submissions should be double-spaced.

  • All margins should be at least 30 mm.

  • All pages should be numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner, beginning with the title page.

  • Do not use Enter at the end of lines within a paragraph.

  • Turn the hyphenation option off; include only those hyphens that are essential to the meaning.

  • Specify any special characters used to represent non-keyboard characters.

  • Take care not to use l (ell) for 1 (one), O (capital o) for 0 (zero) or ß (German esszett) for b (Greek beta).

  • Use a tab, not spaces, to separate data points in tables. If you use a table editor function, ensure that each data point is contained within a unique cell (i.e. do not use carriage returns within cells).

Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name. For submission, low-resolution figures saved as .jpg or .bmp files should be uploaded, for ease of transmission during the review process. Upon acceptance of the article, high-resolution figures (at least 300 d.p.i.) saved as .eps or .tif files should be uploaded. Digital images supplied only as low-resolution files cannot be used.
Further instructions are available at the submission site.

Covering Letter
Authors must provide a Cover Letter with submitted manuscripts. Manuscripts are accepted for publication in the journal on the understanding that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. This must be stated in the covering letter.

If tables or figures have been reproduced from another source, a letter from the copyright holder (usually the Publisher), stating authorisation to reproduce the material, must be attached to the covering letter.

The covering letter must contain an acknowledgement that all authors have contributed significantly, and that all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript.

Author material archive policy
Authors who require the return of any submitted material that is accepted for publication should inform the Editorial Office after acceptance. If no indication is given that author material should be returned, Wiley Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy and electronic material 2 months after publication.

Ethical Considerations
Authors must state that the protocol for the research project has been approved by a suitably constituted Ethics Committee of the institution within which the work was undertaken and that it conforms to the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki in 1995 (as revised in Tokyo 2004).

All investigations on human subjects must include a statement that the subject(s) gave informed consent and patient anonymity should be preserved.

In general, submission of Instructive Cases and Case Notes should be accompanied by the written consent of the subject (or parent/guardian) prior to publication; this is particularly important where photographs are to be used or in cases where the unique nature of the incident reported makes it possible for the patient to be identified. While the Editors recognise that it might not always be possible or appropriate to seek such consent, the onus will be on the authors to demonstrate that this exception applies in their case.

Conflict of interest
Authors should declare any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest. If there is none, this should be stated.

Pre-acceptance English-language editing
Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. Visit our site to learn about the options. All services are paid for and arranged by the author.  Please note using the Wiley English Language Editing Service does not guarantee that your paper will be accepted by this journal.

Copyright, Licensing and OnlineOpen
Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley’s production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley’s Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

FAQs about the terms and conditions of the standard copyright transfer agreements (CTA) in place for the journal, including terms regarding archiving of the accepted version of the paper, are available at: CTA Terms and Conditions FAQs

OnlineOpen – ‘Gold road’ Open Access
OnlineOpen is available to authors of articles who wish to make their article freely available to all on Wiley Online Library under a Creative Commons licence. In addition, authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on a website, institutional repository or other free public server, immediately on publication. With OnlineOpen the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made open access, known as ‘gold road’ open access.

OnlineOpen licenses. Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright in their article and have a choice of publishing under the following Creative Commons License terms: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY NC); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License (CC BY NC ND)

For more information about the OnlineOpen license terms and conditions click here.

Note to Contributors on Deposit of Accepted Version

Funder arrangements
Certain funders, including the NIH, members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) and Wellcome Trust require deposit of the Accepted Version in a repository after an embargo period. Details of funding arrangements are set out at the following website: Please contact the Journal production editor if you have additional funding requirements.

Wiley has arrangements with certain academic institutions to permit the deposit of the Accepted Version in the institutional repository after an embargo period. Details of such arrangements are set out at the following website:

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant selfarchiving policy please visit:

For RCUK and Wellcome Trust authors click on the link below to preview the terms and conditions of this license:

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

Plagiarism Policy
Authors submitting papers to the Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health have a responsibility to ensure that the submitted paper follows good ethical principals, as outlined by the Committee on Publication Ethics or COPE website:

In particular, authors should be sure that they could not be accused of:
1. Plagiarism: when authors used the words, ideas and results of other authors to an unacceptable extent without acknowledgement.
2. Redundant publication: re-use of the authors' own data without acknowledgement (sometimes called dual or duplicate publication).

The Journal will follow the recommended policy of COPE with regard to transgressions, as outlined in the COPE flowcharts

Authors should be aware that the Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health considers infringements regarding plagiarism and redundant publication to be serious ethical lapses. The Journal will reject inappropriately submitted papers and may demand retraction of infringing papers that are inadvertently published. In addition, the Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health advises authors that serious cases may be reported to the author's parent institution, a course that COPE recommends should be considered.

Style of the Manuscript
Manuscripts should follow the style of the Vancouver agreement detailed in the International Comiittee of Medical Journal Editors' revised 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication', as presented at

The journal uses UK spelling and authors should therefore follow the latest edition of the Concise Oxford Dictionary.

All measurements must be given in SI units.

Abbreviations should be used sparingly and only where they ease the reader’s task by reducing repetition of long, technical terms. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation.

Scientific names
Upon its first use in the title, abstract and text, the common name of a species should be followed by the scientific name (Genus, species and authority) in parentheses. However, for well-known species, the scientific name may be omitted from the article title. If no common name exists in English, the scientific name should be used only.

Trade names
At the first mention of a chemical substance, give the generic name only. Trade names should not used.

Drugs should be referred to by their generic names, rather than brand names.

Equations should be numbered sequentially with Arabic numerals; these should be ranged right in parentheses. All variables should appear in italics. Use the simplest possible form for all mathematical symbols.

Parts of the Manuscript
Manuscripts should be presented in the following order:

  1. title page

  2. abstract and keywords

  3. text

  4. acknowledgements

  5. references

  6. appendices

  7. figure legends

  8. tables (each table complete with title and footnotes)

  9. figures

Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.

Title page
The title page should contain (i) the title of the paper, (ii) type of manuscript (e.g. Original Article, Instructive Case, Editorial Correspondence: Case Note), (iii) the full names of the authors and (iv) the addresses of the institutions at which the work was carried out together with (v) the full postal and email address, plus facsimile and telephone numbers, of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript, proofs and requests for offprints should be sent. The present address of any author, if different from that where the work was carried out, should be supplied in a footnote.

The title should be short (less than 80 characters, including spaces), informative and contain the major key words.

Key words
Key words should be taken from those recommended by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) browser list.

Authors should use subheadings to divide the sections of their manuscript: Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References.

The source of financial grants and other funding should be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the authors’ industrial links and affiliations. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged. Thanks to anonymous reviewers are not allowed.

The Vancouver system of referencing should be used. In the text, references should be cited using superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear. If cited only in tables or figure legends, number them according to the first identification of the table or figure in the text. In the reference list, the references should be numbered and listed in order of appearance in the text.

Cite the names of all authors when there are six or fewer; when there are seven or more list the first three followed by et al.

Names of journals should be abbreviated in the style used in Index Medicus.

Reference to unpublished data and personal communications should not appear in the list but should be cited in the text only (e.g. A Smith, unpubl. data, 2000).

Journal article
1  Soter NA, Wasserman SI, Austen KF. Cold urticaria: release into the circulation of histamine and eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis during cold challenge. N. Engl. J. Med. 1976; 294: 687–90.

Online article not yet published in an issue
An online article that has not yet been published in an issue (therefore has no volume, issue or page numbers) can be cited by its Digital Object Identifier (DOI). The DOI will remain valid and allow an article to be tracked even after its allocation to an issue.
Hall, A. and Jones G. V. (2008) Effect of potential atmospheric warming on temperature-based indices describing Australian winegrape growing conditions. The Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0238.2008.00035.x

2  Kaufmann HE, Baron BA, McDonald MB, Waltman SR, eds. The Cornea. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1988.

Chapter in a Book
3  McEwen WK, Goodner IK. Secretion of tears and blinking. In: Davson H, ed. The Eye, Vol. 3, 2nd edn. Academic Press, New York, 1969; 34–78.

References in Articles
We recommend the use of a tool such as Reference Manager for reference management and formatting.

Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:

These should be placed at the end of the paper, numbered in Roman numerals and referred to in the text. If written by a person other than the author of the main text, the writer’s name should be included below the title.

Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Tables should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals. Each table should be presented on a separate sheet of A4 paper with a comprehensive but concise legend above the table. Tables should be double-spaced and vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses; all abbreviations should be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, ¶ should be used (in that order) and *, **, *** should be reserved for P-values. Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified in the headings. The table and its legend/footnotes should be understandable without reference to the text.

All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) are classified as figures. Figures should be cited in consecutive order in the text. Figures should be sized to fit within the column (80 mm), intermediate (121 mm) or the full text width (169 mm). Magnifications should be indicated using a scale bar on the illustration.

Line figures should be sharp, black and white graphs or diagrams, drawn professionally or with a computer graphics package. Lettering must be included and should be sized to be no larger than the journal text.

Figure legends
Legends should be self-explanatory and typed on a separate page. The legend should incorporate definitions of any symbols used and all abbreviations and units of measurement should be explained so that the figure and its legend are understandable without reference to the text. (Provide a letter stating copyright authorisation if figures have been reproduced from another source.)

Wiley Blackwell Author Services
Author Services enables authors to track their article, once it has been accepted, through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated emails at key stages of production so they do not need to contact the production editor to check on progress. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources, including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

It is essential that corresponding authors supply an email address to which correspondence can be emailed while their article is in production.

Notification of the URL from where to download a Portable Document Format (PDF) typeset page proof, associated forms and further instructions will be sent by email to the corresponding author.

The purpose of the PDF proof is a final check of the layout, and of tables and figures. Alterations other than the essential correction of errors are unacceptable at PDF proof stage. The proof should be checked, and approval to publish the article should be emailed to the Publisher by the date indicated, otherwise, it may be signed off on by the Editor or held over to the next issue.

A minimum of 50 offprints will be provided upon request, at the author’s expense.

Wiley Blackwell Journals Online
Visit the Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health home page at for more information, and Wiley Blackwell’s web pages for submission guidelines and digital graphics standards here and here.

The Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health  is also available online at

Editorial Office Address
Fotini Toso, Editorial Office, Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Wiley Blackwell
155 Cremorne Street
Richmond, Victoria 3121
Email:; tel: +61 3 9274 3137; fax: +61 3 9274 3390