Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

Cover image for Vol. 70 Issue 12

Edited By: Shigenobu Kanba and Tadafumi Kato

Impact Factor: 2.025

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 78/142 (Psychiatry); 111/193 (Clinical Neurology); 177/256 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1440-1819

Author Guidelines


Please read the complete Author Guidelines carefully prior to submission, including the section on copyright.

Once you have prepared your submission in accordance with the Guidelines, manuscripts should be submitted online at

Pre-submission: If you would like editorial feedback on whether your paper might be a strong candidate for consideration by Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences (PCN), you can send a pre-submission inquiry to PCN Editorial Office ( The inquiry should include a preliminary manuscript or an abstract plus a brief description of the results. The inquiry should also include an explanation of the interest and significance to the readership of PCN.Two of the following 9 fields have to be chosen: molecular psychiatry and psychobiology; neurophysiology and psychophysiology; psychopathology and psychotherapy; neuroimaging; neuropsychopharmacology; social psychiatry and epidemiology; infant, child, and adolescent psychiatry; psychogeriatrics and old age psychiatry; general topics in psychiatry and related fields. A preliminary manuscript that has not been conformed to the style of PCN can be attached to expedite the decision.


Aims and Scope

Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences is published at least 12 online issues a year by the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology as its official journal. The journal publishes papers in all fields of psychiatry and related neurosciences in the following categories: Review Articles, Regular Articles and Letters to the Editor. Other categories may be occasionally set for invited articles.

Editorial Decision: The Editor will ask authors of a manuscript to revise it, if it is judged to require alterations through its review process. The Editor reserves the right to refuse any material for publication. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editor. Authors are informed about the Editor’s decision after the review process is completed. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of scientific content, the Editor or the Publisher reserve the right to modify typescripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition and improve communication between author and reader.

Ethical Considerations

The journal is committed to integrity in scientific research and recognizes the importance of maintaining the highest ethical standards.

• Plagiarism Detection. The journal employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.
• Committee on Publication Ethics. The journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
• Clinical Trial Registration. The journal requires that the clinical trials submitted for its consideration are registered in a publicly accessible database. Authors should include the name of the trial register and their clinical trial registration number below the ‘Abstract’ section of their manuscript. If you wish the editor[s] to consider an unregistered trial, please explain briefly why the trial has not been registered.
• Patient Releases. For submissions reporting clinical cases, authors must state in the text that a signed release from the patient or legal guardian authorizing publication has been obtained.

Acceptable secondary publication
Secondary publication in the same or another language, especially in other countries, is justifiable and can be beneficial provided that the following conditions are met.
1. The authors have received approval from the editors of both journals; the editor concerned with secondary publication must have a photocopy, reprint, or manuscript of the primary version.
2. The priority of the primary publication is respected by a publication interval of at least 1 week (unless specifically negotiated otherwise by both editors).
3. The paper for secondary publication is intended for a different group of readers; an abbreviated version could be sufficient.
4. The secondary version faithfully reflects the data and interpretations of the primary version.
5. The footnote on the title page of the secondary version informs readers, peers, and documenting agencies that the paper has been published in whole or in part and states the primary reference. A suitable footnote might read: “This article is based on a study first reported in the [title of journal, with full reference].


If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For Authors Signing the Exclusive License Agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the Exclusive License Agreement (ELA) to sign.

For Authors Choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by certain funders (e.g. The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK [RCUK] or the Austrian Science Fund [FWF]) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying your Funder requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

For RCUK, Wellcome Trust, FWF authors go to the link below to preview the terms and conditions of this license:

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit


Review Articles: Review articles usually bring together important information on a topic of general interest to psychiatry and clinical neurosciences. Review articles should not exceed 7500 words, including title page, an abstract in 250 words or less, key words, text, acknowledgments, disclosure statement, author contributions, figure legends, tables and figures, with one table or figure counted as at least 250 words.

Regular Articles: A regular article describing original work should not exceed 5000 words, including an abstract in 250 words or less, key words, text, acknowledgments, disclosure statement and author contributions.

Letters to the Editor: A brief letter (less than 500 words, including references; no abstract, no key words and no figures) will be considered for publication if they include the notation ‘for publication.’ Letters critical of an article published in the journal must be submitted within 12 weeks of the article’s publication. The authors of the original work will be invited to respond, and both the original letter and the authors' response may be published together. Letters that offer perspective on content already published in the Journal can use an arbitrary title, but a Response from authors must cite the title of the first letter: e.g. Response to [title of Letter]. This ensures that readers can track the line of discussion. Letters can accompany supporting information.


Pre-acceptance English-language Editing

Authors for whom English is a second language are strongly recommended to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. Visit our site to learn about the options. All services are paid for and arranged by the author. Please note using the Wiley English Language Editing Service does not guarantee that your paper will be accepted by this journal.

Optimising Your Article for Search Engines

Many students and researchers looking for information online will use search engines such as Google or similar. By optimising your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. We have compiled these guidelines to enable you to maximise the web-friendliness of the most public part of your article.

General Format

Manuscripts should also follow ‘the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication’ by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, as presented at

• Spelling. The journal uses US spelling and authors should therefore follow the latest edition of the Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary.
• Measurements. All measurements must be given in SI units as outlined in the latest edition of Units, Symbols and Abbreviations: A Guide for Medical and Scientific Editors and Authors (Royal Society of Medicine Press, London).
• Abbreviations should be used sparingly and only where they ease the reader’s task by reducing repetition of long, technical terms. Initially, use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation.
• Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.

Parts of the Manuscript

Manuscripts should be presented in the following order: (i) title page, (ii) abstract and key words, (iii) text, (iv) acknowledgments, (v) disclosure statement, (vi) Author Contributions, (vii)references, (viii) figure legends, (ixi) a list of supporting information if relevant, (x) tables (each table complete with title and footnotes). Figures and supporting information should be supplied as separate files.

Title Page. The title page should contain:
• The full title of the paper. The title should be informative and contain the major key words but should not be lengthy.
• A short running title less than 40 characters including spaces.
• The full names of the authors followed by their academic degrees.
• The names of institutions affiliated by the authors.
• The full postal and e-mail address, facsimile and telephone numbers of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript, proofs and requests for offprints should be sent.
• The number of figures and/or tables, the number of words in the manuscript (and abstract) according to the type of paper, and
• A statement indicating which of the nine available fields of the journal the manuscript is being submitted to: molecular psychiatry and psychobiology; neurophysiology and psychophysiology; psychopathology and psychotherapy; neuroimaging; neuropsychopharmacology; social psychiatry and epidemiology; infant, child, and adolescent psychiatry; psychogeriatrics and old age psychiatry; general topics in psychiatry and related fields. Primary and secondary fields should be indicated.

Abstract. Articles must have an abstract that summarizes aim, methods, results and conclusion of the study in 250 words or less for a regular article and review article. The abstract should not contain abbreviations or references. A structured abstract is required for a regular article, containing the following sections: Aim, Methods, Results and Conclusion. Abstracts for review articles also need to be well organized, but do not need to be divided into the sections required for regular articles.

Keywords. Five key words, for purpose of indexing, should be supplied below the abstract, in alphabetical order, and should be taken from those recommended by the US National Library of Medicine’s Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) browser list (

Text. Authors should use headings to divide the sections of their manuscript (e.g., regular articles): Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, Disclosure Statement and References.

Acknowledgments. This should include sources of support, including federal and industry support. Medical writers, proofreaders should not be listed as authors, but may be acknowledged at the Acknowledgment section.

Disclosure Statement. Authors must declare any financial support or relationship that may pose a conflict of interest. At the time of submission, the submitting author must include a disclosure statement in the body of the manuscript. The statement will describe all of the authors’ relationships with companies that may have a financial interest in the information contained in the manuscript. This information should be provided under the heading titled ‘Disclosure statement,’ which should appear after the ‘Acknowledgments’ section and before the ‘References’ section. The absence of any conflict of interest to disclose must also be stated as “The authors declare no conflict of interest.
All authors are required to provide Conflict of Interest Statement when they submit the revised version and should complete a standard form, which is available at This form can be uploaded with the revised manuscript at ScholarOne Manuscript. When submitting Letters to the Editor, this form should be uploaded with the author’s first submission.

Author Contributions. List the initials of the authors who have contributed to each of the key contributions that justify authorship: conception and design of the study; acquisition and analysis of data; drafting the manuscript or figures: or others. This information should be provided under the heading titled ‘Author Contributions,’ which should appear after the ‘Disclosure Statement’ section and before the ‘References’ section.

References. References follow the Vancouver style, i.e. numbered sequentially as they occur in the text and ordered numerically in the reference list.

• All citations mentioned in the text, tables or figures must be listed in the reference list.
• In the text, references should be cited using superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear. If cited only in tables or figure legends, number them according to the first identification of the table or figure in the text. When such superscript numerals come at the end of a sentence or phrase, they should be placed after a period or comma.
• In the reference list, the references should be numbered and listed in order of appearance in the text.
• Cite the names of all authors when there are six or less; when seven or more list the first three followed by et al.
• Names of journals should be abbreviated in the style used in Index Medicus.
• Reference to unpublished data and personal communications should appear in the text only.
• Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references.
• Authors can read more about the Vancouver reference style at:

References should be listed in the following form:

Journal articles
An article with six authors or less:
1. Nishi D, Matsuoka Y, Yonemoto N, Noguchi H, Kim Y, Kanba S. Peritraumatic Distress Inventory as a predictor of post-traumatic stress disorder after a severe motor vehicle accident. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2010; 64: 149-156.

An article with seven authors or more:
2. Canuet L, Ishii R, Iwase M et al. Psychopathology and working memory-induced activation of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia-like psychosis of epilepsy: Evidence from magnetoencephalography. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2011; 65: 183-190.

Journal articles published ahead of issue (print or online)
3. Benz PJ, Soll J, Bölter B. Protein transport in organelles: The composition, function and regulation of the Tic complex in chloroplast protein import. FEBS Journal 2009. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2009.06874.x

Non-English journal articles
4. Adachi J, Yukihiro R, Inoue M et al. Reliability and validity of Short Version of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS): A behavior checklist for people with PDD. Clin. Psychiatry 2008; 50: 431-438 (in Japanese).

Abstracts in journals
5. Ono Y, Yamauchi K, Yoshimura K et al. Social relationship of mixed anxiety disorder. Arch. Psychiatr. Diag. Clin. Eval. 1994; 5: 89 (abstract) (in Japanese).

6. Hyman SE, Nestler EJ. The Molecular Foundations of Psychiatry. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, 1993.

Chapters in books
7. Klerman GL. Introduction: Clinical psychopharmacology of affective disorders. In: Meltzer HY (ed.). Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress. Raven Press, New York, 1987; 1019-1020.

Electronic material
8. Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg. Infect. Dis. (Serial online) 1995 Jan-Mar: 1(1). [Cited 5 June 1996.] Available from

Tables. Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Number tables consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals. Type tables on a separate page with the legend above. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the table, legend and footnotes must be understandable without reference to the text. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses; all abbreviations must be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, ¶, should be used (in that order) and *, **, *** should be reserved for P-values. Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified in the headings.

Figure Legends

Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.


All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) are classified as figures. Figures should be numbered using Arabic numerals, and cited in consecutive order in the text. Figures should be cited in consecutive order in the text. Figures should be sized to fit within the column (80.5 mm), intermediate (112 mm) or the full text width (168 mm). Magnifications should be indicated using a scale bar on the illustration. Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name.

Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication: Although low resolution images saved as .jpg or .bmp files are adequate for review purposes, print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (line art) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are not acceptable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented programmes like Adobe Photoshop and CorelDRAW to create line art. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size (see below). EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible).

For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: line art: >600 dpi; half-tones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi.

Further information can be obtained at Wiley’s guidelines for figures:

Check your electronic artwork before submitting it:

Colour Figures: Figures submitted in colour may be reproduced in colour online free of charge. If an author wishes to have figures printed in colour in hard copies of the journal, a fee will be charged by the Publisher.

Supporting Information

Supporting information is not essential to the article but provides greater depth and background and may include tables, figures, videos, datasets, etc. This material can be submitted with your manuscript, and will appear online, without editing or typesetting. Guidelines on how to prepare this material and which formats and files sizes are acceptable can be found at:

Please note that the provision of supporting information is not encouraged as a general rule. It will be assessed critically by reviewers and editors and will only be accepted if it is essential.


• A cover letter should be included in the ‘Cover Letter Field’ of the ScholarOne system. The text can be entered directly into the field or uploaded as a file. The covering letter must contain:
◦ A statement confirming that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium.
◦ A statement that all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript.
◦ A statement indicating which of the nine available fields of the journal the manuscript is being submitted to: molecular psychiatry and psychobiology; neurophysiology and psychophysiology; psychopathology and psychotherapy; neuroimaging; neuropsychopharmacology; social psychiatry and epidemiology; infant, child, and adolescent psychiatry; psychogeriatrics and old age psychiatry; general topics in psychiatry and related fields.
◦If the opposed reviewers are input in the SholorOne Manuscript, the reason has to be written in the cover letter.
Ethical Conduct Confirmations: Authors are required to click the checkbox in ScholarOne to confirm:
◦ whether the protocol for the research project has been approved by a suitably constituted Ethics Committee of an institution and that it conforms to the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki (as revised in Brazil 2013), available at
◦ whether all investigations on human subjects include a statement that the subject gave informed consent and that patient anonymity has been preserved. These ethical issues should also be described in Methods section.
◦ that authors have declared any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest. This should also be described in the acknowledgment.
• The main text file should be prepared using Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx; not write-protected), doubled-spaced, on one side only of A4 paper. The top, bottom and side margins should be 30 mm. All pages should be numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner, beginning with the first page of the main text file.
• Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name. Files saved as .ppt are not acceptable at any stage. For submission, low-resolution figures saved as .jpg or .bmp files should be uploaded, for ease of transmission during the review process. Upon acceptance of the article, high-resolution figures (at least 300 d.p.i.) saved as .eps or .tif files should be uploaded. Lack of high-resolution figures at this stage can substantially delay the publication process.
•Authors should present names of three Recommended Reviewers in the ‘Recommended reviewers Field’ of the ScholarOne system, which will be used at the discretion of the editors.
• Manuscripts should be submitted online at


Wiley’s Author Services: Tracking Your Paper’s Progress

Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley’s production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley’s Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their article through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The corresponding author will receive a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Accepted Articles

The journal offers Wiley’s Accepted Articles service for all manuscripts. This service ensures that accepted ‘in press’ manuscripts are published online very soon after acceptance, prior to copy-editing or typesetting. Accepted Articles appear in PDF-only format, without the accompanying full-text HTML. Each manuscript is assigned a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

E-annotation Proof Corrections

Once your paper has been typeset the corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a website from which the proof can be downloaded as a PDF. Authors will need to ensure that they have Acrobat Reader version 7.0 or above, or Acrobat Professional in order to use the annotation functionality. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the Adobe website. This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and any corrections to be added in electronically using the annotation toolbar. Electronic annotations can be used to cross out, replace or insert text, and even insert an attachment (such as a new abstract or figure). Detailed instructions and links to the Adobe website will be sent with the proof. It is therefore essential that a working e-mail address is provided for the corresponding author.

Early View

The journal offers rapid speed to publication via Wiley’s Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. Early View articles are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before allocation to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.


A PDF reprint of the article will be supplied free of charge to the corresponding author. Additional printed offprints may be ordered online for a fee. Please click on the following link and fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields: If you have queries about offprints please e-mail:


Editorial Office of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
c/o Wiley Japan
Frontier Koishikawa Bldg., 4F
1-28-1 Koishikawa, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0002, Japan
E-mail:; Tel: +81 3 3830 1256; Fax: +81 3 5689 7278

Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences has adopted CrossCheck plagiarism software.
The journal to which you are submitting your manuscript employs a plagiarism detection system.

Author Guidelines updated on 17 November 2016.