Pathology International

Cover image for Vol. 65 Issue 11

Edited By: Michiie Sakamoto

Impact Factor: 1.691

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 46/76 (Pathology)

Online ISSN: 1440-1827

Author Guidelines

Please read the complete Author Guidelines carefully prior to submission, including Section 8 on the copyright terms available for the journal. Please note that some submission and publication charges apply – refer to section 5 for details. Note that submission implies that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium.

Once you have prepared your submission in accordance with the Guidelines, manuscripts should be submitted online at


Aims and scope
Pathology International is the official English journal of the Japanese Society of Pathology, publishing articles of excellence in human and experimental pathology. The Journal focuses on the morphological study of the disease process and/or mechanisms. For human pathology, morphological investigation receives priority but manuscripts describing the result of any ancillary methods (cellular, chemical, immunological and molecular biological) that complement the morphology are accepted. Manuscript on experimental pathology that approach pathologenesis or mechanisms of disease processes are expected to report on the data obtained from models using cellular, biochemical, molecular biological, animal, immunological or other methods in conjunction with morphology. Manuscripts handling cytopathology are also considered for publication.

Editorial Review and Acceptance
Submitted manuscripts are first read by Associate Editors. At this stage, some reports may be declined. The others are sent for peer review to two or three reviewers, who are usually selected from Editorial Board members. The Associate Editors decide whether to accept, request a revision or reject based on the reviewers’ comments and their own judgment.


Pathology International is committed to integrity in scientific research and recognizes the importance of maintaining the highest ethical standards.

Authorship and Acknowledgements. The journal adheres to the definition of authorship set up by The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The ICMJE recommends that authorship be based on the following 4 criteria: i) Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; ii) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; iii) Final approval of the version to be published; and i) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Contributors who do not qualify as authors should be mentioned under ‘Acknowledgements’.

Declaration of Helsinki. Manuscripts must contain a statement to the effect that all human studies have been reviewed by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in an appropriate version of the Declaration of Helsinki (as revised in Brazil 2013), available at It should also state clearly in the text that all persons gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study. Details that might disclose the identity of the subjects under the study should be omitted.

Use of Animals in Research. Reports of animal experiments must state that the ‘Principles of Laboratory Animal Care’ (NIH Publication Vol 25, No. 28 revised 1996; were followed, as well as specific national laws (e.g. the current version of the German Law on the Protection of Animals), where applicable.

Recombinant DNA. In the case of research involving recombinant DNA, experiments should be carried out according to the guidelines issued by the authorized agency in the country in which the research was performed.

Plagiarism Detection. The journal employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

Committee on Publication Ethics. The journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).


Pre-acceptance English-language Editing
Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. Visit our site to learn about the options. All services are paid for and arranged by the author. Please note using the Wiley English Language Editing Service does not guarantee that your paper will be accepted by this journal.

Optimising Your Article for Search Engines
Many students and researchers looking for information online will use search engines such as Google, Yahoo or similar. By optimising your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. We have compiled these guidelines to enable you to maximise the web-friendliness of the most public part of your article.

General Format

  • Manuscripts should be submitted as Word documents (.doc, .docx; not write-protected), double-spaced and the top, bottom and side margins should be 2.5cm, with numbered pages and should include the abstract, the main text, references, tables and figure legends.
  • No identifying details of the authors or their institutions should appear in the manuscript to facilitate double-blinded review. Authors should create a separate Word document and submit this as the ‘title page’.
  • Spelling: Pathology International publishes in American English. For word usage and word division, our authority is Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary supplemented by Webster’s Third New International Dictionary.
  • Abbreviations: In general, terms should not be abbreviated unless they are used repeatedly and the abbreviation is helpful to the reader. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation only.
  • Units of Measurement: All measurements must be given in SI or SI derived units. Please go to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) website for more information about SI units.

Manuscript Categories and Length
Manuscripts are published in five categories: (i) Original Articles; (ii) Case Reports; (iii) Short Communication; (iv) Letter to the Editor and (v) Review Article.

Original Articles
Full-length reports of current research in either basic or clinical science.
Word limit: 3000-3500 words including the abstract but excluding references, tables and figures.
Abstract: 200 words maximum, unstructured (no-subheaders): Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussions.
References: 50 maximum. Figures/Tables: 7 maximum.

Case Reports
Case reports should provide new information that enhances our knowledge on the disease process, such as the discover of new markers for diagnosis, unusual, clinicopathological features that promote further study on a larger scale, and new information that sheds light on histogenisis or other aspects of disease. The following reports will not be accepted: (i) pathologically typical lesion in an unusual location without new findings to add to existing knowledge; (ii) a combination of two rare lesions that can be regarded as a mere coincidence without suggestive data to explain the coincidence; (iii) a rare case but without significantly new information regarding histogenesis and clinicopathological characteristics. Authors are requested to clarify in the Discussion what readers could learn from the case. A pathologist should be included as an author when the histological findings play a key role in the report. Information that can be linked to the patients' identification must be carefully masked. Only cases of exceptional interest and novelty are considered.
Word limit: 1500-2000 words including the abstract but excluding references, tables and figures.
Abstract: 200 words maximum, unstructured (no sub-headers): Introduction, Clinical Summary, Pathological Findings and Discussion. References: 20 maximum. Figures/Tables: 5 maximum.

Short Communication
Brief communication of exceptional merit, both clinical and experimental, may be given rapid publication.
Word limit: 1200-1500 words including the abstract but excluding references, tables and figures.
Abstract: 200 words maximum, unstructured (no sub-headers): Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion.
References: 20 maximum. Figures/Tables: 5 maximum.

Letter to the Editor (includes Short Case Reports and Research Notes)
Opinions, interpretation and new information on various aspects of pathology, including original observation, brief and concise report of rare or difficult cases which could be of great interest for the pathologist as well as educational cases. Letters commenting on papers published in recent issues are also welcomed. Main text should start with "To the Editor:" No subheadings allowed.
Word limit: 1200 words excluding references, tables and figures. Abstract: none required.
References: 5 maximum. Figures/Tables: One figure (or table) in total (maximum four panels within one figure).

Review Articles
Reviews are authoritative analyses of specific topics. Their references should cover the existing literature and include recent studies. Both solicited and unsolicited review articles will undergo peer review prior to acceptance.
Word limit: 5000-5500 words including abstract but excluding references, tables and figures.
Abstract: 200 words maximum, unstructured (no headers). References: 50 maximum. Figures/Tables: 10 maximum.

Parts of the Manuscript
Manuscripts should be presented in the following order: (i) title page, (ii) abstract and key words, (iii) text (introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion), (iv) acknowledgments, (v) disclosure statement, (vi) references, (vii) tables (each table complete with title and footnotes) (viii) figure legends and (ix) list of supplementary material if relevant. Figures and supplementary material should be supplied as separate files. For case reports the main text should be presented as follows: introduction, clinical summary, pathological findings and discussion. In all cases each section should start on a new page.

Title Page
The title should be short, informative and contain the major key words. Do not use abbreviations in the title. A short running title (less than 40 characters including spaces) should also be provided. The title page must contain both a descriptive and concise title of the paper; names and qualifications of all authors; affiliations and full mailing address, including e-mail addresses and a contact telephone number. The present address of any author, if different from that where the work was carried out, should be supplied in a footnote.

Abstracts are required for some manuscript types. For further details on which manuscript types require abstracts and how to prepare these, please refer to the ‘Manuscript Types and Criteria’ section. If an abstract is required, please provide an unstructured abstract. The abstract should include the purpose, basic procedures, main findings and the principal conclusions of the investigation, and should not exceed 200 words.

Three to 10 key words or key phrases should be supplied below the abstract, in alphabetical order, and should be taken from those recommended by the US National Library of Medicine’s Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) browser list.

The source of financial grants and other funding must be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the authors’ industrial links and affiliations. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged. Personal thanks and thanks to anonymous reviewers are not appropriate.

Disclosure Statement
Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest in a Disclosure Statement to be placed between the Acknowledgements and References sections. Please click here (in Japanese) or here (in English) to view the details of the latest disclosure guidelines. If there are no competing interests, the author should state 'None Declared'. Please note that editors may request the authors to provide further information if the Disclosure Statement in the original submission is insufficient.


  • References follow the Vancouver style, i.e. numbered sequentially as they occur in the text and ordered numerically in the reference list.
  • If cited in tables or figure legends, number according to the first identification of the table or figure in the text.
  • In the reference list, cite the names of all authors when there are six or fewer; when seven or more, list the first three followed by et al.
  • Do not use ibid. or op cit.
  • Reference to unpublished data and personal communications should not appear in the list but should be cited in the text only (e.g. Smith A, 2000, unpublished data).
  • Names of journals should be abbreviated in the style used in Index Medicus. If a journal is not listed in Index Medicus then its name should be written out in full.
  • Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references.

You can read more about the Vancouver reference style at:

Examples of reference style

Journal article
Tajima S, Maeda I, Kanemaki Y et al. Evaluation of CD56 and CD57 immunostainings for discrimination between endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ and intraductal papilloma. Pathol Int 2010; 60: 459–65.

Online Article Not Yet Published in an Issue
An online article that has not yet been published in an issue (therefore has no volume, issue or page numbers) can be cited by its Digital Object Identifier (DOI). The DOI will remain valid and allow an article to be tracked even after its allocation to an issue.

Nagasaka T, Murakami Y, Sasaki E, Hosoda W, Nakanishi T and Yatabe Y. (2015), Minute perivascular epithelioid cell (PEC) nests in the abdominal lymph nodes—a putative precursor of PEComa. Pathology International. doi: 10.1111/pin.12262

Morson BC, Dawson IMP, Day DW, Jass JR, Price AB, Williams GT, eds. Morson & Dawson’s Gastrointestinal Pathology, 3rd edn. Oxford: Wiley, 1992.

Chapter in a Book
Weinstein L, Swartz MN. Pathologic properties of invading microorganisms. In: Sodeman WA Jr, Sodeman WA, eds. Pathologic Physiology: Mechanisms of Disease. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1974; 457–72.

Electronic Material
Clea Japan [homepage on the Internet]. Osaka: Clea Japan, c1999–2004. (Cited 25 November 2004) Inbred animals. Available from:

These should be included on a separate page, numbered with Arabic numerals and an accompanying caption at the top. Each table must be referred to in the text and an indication of the preferred position in the text should be given. Explanatory matter should be placed in footnotes below the tabular matter and not included in the caption. All non-standard abbreviations should also be explained in the footnotes. Footnotes should be indicated by †, ‡, § and *, **, *** should be reserved for P-values. Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified in headings. Vertical rules and horizontal rules between entries should be omitted. Column headings should be brief with units of measurement in parentheses.

Figure Legends
All illustrations require legends, which should be typed on a separate sheet with double spacing. Such legends must provide a descriptive account of the illustration. Indicate the staining method for each photomicrograph.

Magnification of photomicrographs is not necessary because the observation magnification is not the same as that of the printed figure. If the size of the cells or other structures is essential for the study, a scale bar of unit length should be included in the figure. When symbols, arrows and numbers or letters are used to identify parts of illustrations, each one should be identified and explained in the legend. Use of scale markers in the image is suggested for electron micrographs.

Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication. Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (line art) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented programmes. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size (see below). EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible).

For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: line art: >600 dpi; half-tones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi.

Further information can be obtained at Wiley’s guidelines for figures. Check your electronic artwork before submitting it.

Color figures: If an author wishes to have figures published in color a fee may be charged by the Publisher. See section on ‘Submission and Publication Charges’ for details.

Supporting Information
Supporting Information is not essential to the article but provides greater depth and background and my include tables, figures, videos, datasets, etc. This material can be submitted with your manuscript, and will appear online, without editing or typesetting. Guidelines on how to prepare this material and which formats and files sizes are acceptable can be found at:

Please note that the provision of supporting information is not encouraged as a general rule. It will be assessed critically by reviewers and editors and will only be accepted if it is essential.


Editorial processing charge: There is a submission fee of US$50/¥5,000 per paper. This charge will not be refunded to the author. This form can be downloaded at Authors may also download the form here.

Page charges: For non-solicited articles, there is a page charge of US$40/¥4,000 per printed page. The number of pages is determined at proof stage.

Color figures: The cost of reproducing color figures will be charged to authors. For non-solicited papers, a charge of US$500/¥50,000 applies for the first three colour figures. Additional figures are US$400/¥40,000 each. Additional figure charges will be waived if the first author or the corresponding author is a member of the Japanese Society of Pathology. For solicited papers, there is no page or colour figure charges.


  • A cover letter should be included in the ‘Cover Letter Field’ of the ScholarOne system. The text can be entered directly into the field or uploaded as a file. The covering letter must contain an acknowledgment that all authors have contributed significantly, and that all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript.
  • Two Word-files need to be included upon submission: A title page file and a main text file that includes all parts of the text in the sequence indicated in the section 'Parts of the manuscript'.
  • The main text file should be prepared using Microsoft Word, doubled-spaced, on one side only of A4 paper. The top, bottom and side margins should be 30 mm. All pages should be numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner, beginning with the first page of the main text file.
  • Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name. For submission, low-resolution figures saved as .jpg or .bmp files should be uploaded, for ease of transmission during the review process. Upon acceptance of the article, high-resolution figures (at least 300 d.p.i.) saved as .eps or .tif files should be uploaded. Digital images supplied only as low-resolution files cannot be used.


Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley’s production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley’s Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper. More details on the Wiley Author services appears below, and details about the copyright and licencing options available can be section ‘Copyright, Licensing and OnlineOpen’.

Wiley’s Author Services: Tracking your paper’s progress
Author Services also enables authors to track their article through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The corresponding author will receive a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit Wiley Author Services for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

E-annotation Proof Corrections
Once your paper has been typeset the corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a website from which the proof can be downloaded as a PDF. Authors will need to ensure that they have Acrobat Reader version 7.0 or above, or Acrobat Professional in order to use the annotation functionality. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the Adobe website. This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and any corrections to be added in electronically using the annotation toolbar. Electronic annotations can be used to cross out, replace or insert text, and even insert an attachment (such as a new abstract or figure). Detailed instructions and links to the Adobe website will be sent with the proof. It is therefore essential that a working e-mail address is provided for the corresponding author.

Early View
Pathology International offers rapid speed to publication via Wiley’s Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. Early View articles are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before allocation to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the

A PDF reprint of the article will be supplied free of charge to the corresponding author. Additional printed offprints may be ordered online for a fee. Please click on the following link and fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields: If you have queries about offprints please email:


Authors may choose to publish under the terms of the journal’s standard copyright transfer agreement (CTA), or under open access terms made available via Wiley OnlineOpen.

Standard Copyright Transfer Agreement: FAQs about the terms and conditions of the standard CTA in place for the journal, including standard terms regarding archiving of the accepted version of the paper, are available at: Copyright Terms and Conditions FAQs Note that in signing the journal’s licence agreement authors agree that consent to reproduce figures from another source has been obtained.

OnlineOpen – Wiley’s Open Access Option: OnlineOpen is available to authors of articles who wish to make their article freely available to all on Wiley Online Library under a Creative Commons license. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made open access. Authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on their personal website, and in an institutional repository or other free public server immediately after publication. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

OnlineOpen licenses: Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright in their article and have a choice of publishing under the following Creative Commons License terms: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY NC); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License (CC BY NC ND). To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright Terms and Conditions FAQs.

Funder Open Access and Self-Archiving Compliance: Please click here for more information on Wiley’s compliance with specific Funder Open Access and Self Archiving Policies (including NIH), and click here for more detailed information specifically about Self-Archiving definitions and policies.

Guidelines updated online May 2015.