Austral Entomology

Cover image for Vol. 55 Issue 1

Edited By: Dr MF Braby

Online ISSN: 2052-1758

Author Guidelines

Thank you for your interest in Austral Entomology. Please read the complete Author Guidelines carefully prior to submission, including the section on copyright. To ensure fast peer review and publication, manuscripts that do not adhere to the following instructions will be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing peer review.

Note that submission implies that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium. Once you have prepared your submission in accordance with the Guidelines, manuscripts should be submitted online at

Austral Entomology is a scientific journal of entomology for the Southern Hemisphere. It publishes Original Articles that are peer-reviewed research papers from the study of the behaviour, biology, biosystematics, conservation biology, ecology, evolution, forensic and medical entomology, molecular biology, public health, urban entomology, physiology and the use and control of insects, arachnids and myriapods. The journal also publishes Reviews on research and theory or commentaries on current areas of research, innovation or rapid development likely to be of broad interest – these may be submitted or invited. Book Reviews will also be considered provided the works are of global significance. Manuscripts from authors in the Northern Hemisphere are encouraged provided that the research has relevance to or broad readership within the Southern Hemisphere. All submissions are peer-reviewed by at least two referees expert in the field of the submitted paper. Special issues are encouraged; please contact the Chief Editor for further information.

Austral Entomology is the official publication of the Australian Entomological Society, an incorporated non-profit Australian company limited by guarantee. Membership of the Society is open to any person interested in entomology in its broadest sense. Application forms are available from the Australian Entomological Society website (

Manuscripts must not present work that has been published, accepted for publication or is currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. Submission of a manuscript must be approved by all authors.

All manuscripts are reviewed by two specialist referees and a Subject Editor or by a member of the Editorial Board before acceptance. Manuscripts considered unsuitable for publication will be returned to authors who may resubmit after amendment. If a reviewed manuscript that is returned to the author for revision is not resubmitted within three months, it will be considered to have been withdrawn unless an extension has been granted by the Chief Editor. Revised manuscripts may be subject to further external review at the discretion of the Subject Editor. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Chief Editor.

The Editors and the Publisher reserve the right to modify manuscripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition, and to improve communication between author and reader. To encourage the valuable ongoing services of highly qualified reviewers and to avoid unnecessary delays, authors are strongly advised to have their manuscripts thoroughly reviewed by impartial colleagues prior to submission, especially if English is not their first language.

Manuscripts should be submitted online at The manuscript should preferably be submitted as a single file, with the figures embedded as low resolution files. The first page should include the title, author names, affiliations, email address of the corresponding author, and running title (see below). Name the manuscript file as: authorname.doc. All correspondence will be by email.

All articles submitted to the Journal must comply with these and the following instructions. Failure to do so will result in return of the manuscript.

• Submissions should be typed in 12 pt Times New Roman and have 1.5 line spacing.
• All margins should be set to 2.5 cm.
• All pages should be numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner, beginning with the title page.
• All pages should have line numbers, numbered consecutively from the first page.
• The first paragraph under each heading is not indented; indent following paragraphs, with no blank line between paragraphs.
• Do not use Enter at the end of lines within a paragraph.
• Turn the hyphenation option off; include only those hyphens that are essential to the meaning.
• Specify any special characters used to represent non-keyboard characters.
• Take care not to use l (ell) for 1 (one), O (capital o) for 0 (zero) or ß (German esszett) for β (Greek beta).
• Use the Table editor, not tabs, to construct tables and ensure that each data point is contained within a unique cell (i.e. do not use Enter within cells).
• Ensure that all mark-up (‘Track Changes’) done during manuscript preparation is removed (‘Accept All Changes’ on Reviewing Toolbar) so that reviewers have a clean copy on which to insert suggested changes and comments.

Tables and figures should be inserted at the end of the manuscript. For submission, low-resolution figures (e.g. .jpg) should be used to ensure file size is not excessive. See below for further instructions on how to prepare figures.

Pre-acceptance English-language editing
Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. Visit our site to learn about the options. All services are paid for and arranged by the author.  Please note using the Wiley English Language Editing Service does not guarantee that your paper will be accepted by this journal.

Taxonomic Papers
For taxonomic papers, authors must follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). Revisionary papers and small monographs will be accepted provided they occupy no more than 25 printed journal pages due to competition for space. The Introduction of all taxonomic papers must provide a clear statement outlining the context and purpose of the paper – why the work was done and what it aims to achieve.

Plagiarism Detection
The journal employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

Publication Ethics
The journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and subscribes to the principles set out by COPE. The journal also refers to Wiley’s Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics:

Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley’s production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting him or her to login into Wiley’s Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

FAQs about the terms and conditions of the standard copyright transfer agreements (CTA) in place for the journal, including terms regarding archiving of the accepted version of the paper, are available at: Copyright Terms and Conditions FAQs.

OnlineOpen – 'Gold Road' Open Access
OnlineOpen is available to authors of articles who wish to make their article freely available to all on Wiley Online Library under a Creative Commons license. In addition, authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on a website, institutional repository or other free public server, immediately on publication. With OnlineOpen the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made open access, known as ‘gold road’ open access.

OnlineOpen licenses
Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright in their article and have a choice of publishing under the following Creative Commons License terms: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY NC); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License (CC BY NC ND). For more information about the OnlineOpen licence terms and conditions click here.

Manuscripts should be written in clear, concise and grammatically correct English so that they are intelligible to the professional reader who is not a specialist in any particular field. The Journal uses Australian spelling and authors should therefore set the Language in MS Word to English (Australia) (accessible under the Tools menu in MS Word) and follow the latest edition of the Macquarie Dictionary. Manuscripts that do not conform to this requirement and the following format will be returned to the author prior to review for correction.

The manuscript should be presented in the following order:

Title page
This should contain the title of the contribution, and the name(s) and address(es) of the author(s) as well as the present address of any author if different from that where the work was carried out. The email address of the author who will receive correspondence and check the proofs must be included. The title should, where possible, contain the key words used in the body of the manuscript; the title should contain the scientific name of the insect, with the order and family placed in parentheses. A short running title (less than 50 characters, including spaces) should also be provided.

All manuscripts must include a brief but informative Abstract intelligible without reference to the main text. It should not exceed 350 words and should describe the scope of the work and the main findings. Both common and scientific names of the insect should be included. Authorities to species names are not required except for taxonomic papers. References to the literature should not be included. Use the passive voice in the Abstract. DO NOT use the uninformative phrase ‘Results are discussed.’

Additional key words
Up to 10 additional key words should be provided below the Abstract; these should not duplicate words or phrases already listed in the title.

This section should include sufficient background information to set the work in context. The aims and goals of the manuscript should be clearly stated. The introduction should not contain findings or conclusions.

Materials and Methods
This should be concise but provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be repeated by others.

This should be presented in a logical sequence in the text, tables and figures; repetitive presentation of the same data in different forms is not permissible. The results should not contain material appropriate to the Discussion.

This should consider the results in relation to any hypotheses advanced in the Introduction and place the study in the context of other work.

The source of financial grants and other funding must be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the author’s industrial links and affiliations. Financial and technical assistance may be acknowledged here. Do not acknowledge anonymous reviewers.

Research permits. When the research is carried out in areas for which research permits are required (e.g. nature reserves or National Parks), or when it deals with organisms for which collection or import/export permits are required (e.g. protected species), the authors must clearly state these permits in the Acknowledgements.

Human/Animal Ethics. Where research is carried out involving humans or materials of human origin (e.g. blood sera, DNA), or involves the use of animals, the permit number and issuing body must be included in the Acknowledgements.

Author statements. Papers are accepted for publication in the Journal on the understanding that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. If tables or figures have been reproduced from another source, or copyright is not held by any of the authors, then written permission from the copyright holder must be mentioned in the Acknowledgements.

Conflict of Interest. Austral Entomology requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, which might be perceived as influencing an author’s objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include but are not limited to patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, the testing of a commercial product paid or sponsored by the manufacturer, distributor or seller of that product, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker’s fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and to collectively list on the front page of the manuscript and in the manuscript (under the Acknowledgments), ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships. You are also required to state if no conflict of interests exist.

The Harvard (author, date) system of referencing is used. In the text give the author’s name followed by the year in parentheses: Sago (2000). If there are two authors use ‘and’: Baskin and Baskin (1998); but if cited within parentheses use ‘&’: (Baskin & Baskin 1998). When reference is made to a work by three or more authors, the first name followed by et al. should be used: Powles et al. (1998). If several manuscripts by the same author(s) and from the same year are cited, a, b, c etc. should be put after the year of publication. Within parentheses, groups of references should be cited in chronological order. Personal communication, unpublished data and publications from informal meetings are not to be listed in the reference list but should be listed in full in the text (e.g. Smith A, 2000, unpublished data). References should be listed in alphabetical order at the end of the manuscript. Cite the names of all authors when there are six or fewer; when seven or more cite the first three plus et al. References should be listed in the following form:

Journal articles
North RC & Shelton AM. 1996. Ecology of Thysanoptera within cabbage fields. Environmental Entomology 15, 520–526.

Eberhard WG. 1985. Sexual Selection and Animal Genitalia. Harvard University Press, Harvard.

Chapters in books
Bray RA. 1994. The leucaena psyllid. In: Forage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture (eds RC Gutteridge & HM Shelton) pp. 283–291. CAB International, Oxford.

Bureau of Meteorology. 2014. Southern Oscillation Index Archives – 1876 to present. Available from URL: [Accessed 5 March 2014]

Titles of journals should be given in full. ‘In press’ can only be used to cite manuscripts actually accepted for publication in a journal. Citations such as ‘manuscript in preparation’ or ‘manuscript submitted’ are not permitted. Data from such manuscripts can only be mentioned in the text as ‘unpublished data’. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references.It is recommend that a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager is used for reference management and formatting. EndNote reference styles can be searched for here: Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:

Tables must be constructed using the ‘Table’ function of your word processor and must not have the Enter key used in any cell. Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Tables should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals. Each table should be presented on a separate page at the end of the text with a comprehensive but concise legend above the table. Tables should be double-spaced and vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses; all abbreviations should be defined in footnotes. Use superscript letters (not numbers) for footnotes and keep footnotes to a minimum. *, **, *** should be reserved for P-values. The table and its legend/footnotes should be understandable without reference to the text.

Only scientifically necessary illustrations should be included. All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) are classified as figures. Figures should be cited in consecutive order in the text. Figures should be sized to fit a single column width (83 mm), mid-column width (125 mm) or the full text width (171 mm). Magnifications should be indicated using a scale bar on the illustration. Line figures should be sharp, black and white graphs or diagrams, drawn professionally or with a computer graphics package. Lettering must be included and should be sized to be no larger than the journal text.

Upon acceptance of the manuscript, high-resolution figures (at least 300 d.p.i.) saved as .eps or .tif files should be uploaded as separate files. Name figure files as Figure 1, Figure 2 etc. Digital images supplied only as low-resolution files cannot be used.

Figure legends. Figure legends should be prepared on a separate page. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.

Colour figures. A charge of A$150 for the first colour figure and A$50 for each extra colour figure thereafter will be charged to the author. (Prices in A$ include GST.) In the event that an author is not able to cover the costs of reproducing figures in colour in the printed version of the journal, Austral Entomology offers authors the opportunity to reproduce figures in colour for free in the online version of the article, but will appear in black and white in the print version. If an author wishes to take advantage of this free colour-on-the-web service, they should make that election at time of submission to ensure that the appropriate documentation is completed for the Publisher.

Supporting Information
Supporting Information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supporting Information include additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. Supporting Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format.

For further information on recommended file types and requirements for submission, please visit:

SI units (metre, kilogram etc.), as outlined in the latest edition of Units, Symbols and Abbreviations: A Guide for Medical and Scientific Editors and Authors (Royal Society of Medicine Press, London), should be used wherever possible. Give statistics and measurements in figures; that is, 10 mm, except where the number begins the sentence. When the number does not refer to a unit measurement, it is spelt out, except where the number is greater than nine. Use only standard abbreviations. Shorten the word ‘Figure’ to Fig. unless starting a sentence.

The complete scientific name (genus and species), and cultivar or strain where appropriate, should be given for all animals when first mentioned; authorities are only needed for taxonomic papers. The generic name may be abbreviated to an initial in subsequent references except at the start of sentences and where intervening references to other genera would cause confusion. Common names of organisms, if used, should conform to the list on All names must conform to the Articles and Recommendations of the fourth edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Common names of pesticides listed in Pesticides – Synonyms and Chemical Names (Australian Dept of Health, Canberra) must be used.

All DNA sequences must be lodged with GenBank and should not be repeated in the paper unless highly relevant. The GenBank registration number must be provided for each sequence (e.g. in Supporting Information).

Visit the Austral Entomology home page at for more information, and Wiley’s web pages for submission guidelines and digital graphics standards at and Author Services enables authors to track their article, once it has been accepted, through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated emails at key stages of production so they do not need to contact the production editor to check on progress. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Austral Entomology is also available online at Wiley Online Library. Visit to search the articles and register for table of contents and e-mail alerts.

Before submitting your manuscript, please check that:
□ The reference section is in the proper format.
□ All references cited in the text are included in the reference section.
□ All figures and tables are cited in the text.
□ The pages are numbered.

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Austral Entomology is covered by Wiley Publishing’s Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors’ final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

It is essential that corresponding authors supply an email address to which correspondence can be emailed while their article is in production. Notification of the URL from where to download a Portable Document Format (PDF) typeset page proof, associated forms and further instructions will be sent by email to the corresponding author. The purpose of the PDF proof is a final check of the layout, especially of tables and figures. Alterations other than the essential correction of errors are unacceptable at PDF proof stage. The proof should be checked, and approval to publish the article should be emailed to the Publisher by the date indicated. Otherwise, it will be delayed in publication on Early View.

A free PDF offprint will be supplied to the corresponding author. A minimum of 50 additional offprints will be provided upon request, at the author’s expense. These paper offprints may be ordered online. Please visit, fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields. If you have queries about offprints please email

Dr Michael F Braby
Chief Editor
Austral Entomology

Author Guidelines updated 25 November 2015