Nursing & Health Sciences

Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 3

Edited By: Teresa Stone

Impact Factor: 1.042

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 45/108 (Nursing (Social Science)); 48/110 (Nursing (Science))

Online ISSN: 1442-2018

Author Guidelines


Thank you for your interest in Nursing & Health Sciences. Please read the complete Author Guidelines carefully prior to submission, including the section on copyright. To ensure fast peer review and publication, manuscripts that do not adhere to the following instructions will be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing peer review.

Note that submission implies that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium. Once you have prepared your submission in accordance with the Guidelines, manuscripts should be submitted online at

We look forward to your submission.


Aims and Scope
Nursing & Health Sciences (NHS) is a premier international journal focusing on the exchange of knowledge in nursing and health sciences, particularly between the East and West. It has an international authorship, readership and Editorial Board. The journal was the first nursing and health sciences journal to be fully published in English in Japan. It began in 1999 and is published with the Society for Nursing and Health Sciences at Yamaguchi University. By encouraging Eastern and Western scholars to share their knowledge and experiences, Nursing & Health Sciences provides readers with a deeper understanding of health care around the world, and the opportunity to enrich their own practices to improve global health.

Nursing & Health Sciences provides an opportunity for the sharing of both formal, research based knowledge and more informal clinical experience and practice. The journal publishes scholarly manuscripts, case reports and opinion papers that enrich the understanding of nursing and health sciences around the world.

Editorial Review and Acceptance Criteria
Criteria for acceptance of manuscripts by NHS include: the originality and timeliness of the scholarly endeavor; International relevance; methodological soundness; the quality, clarity, and readability of the manuscript; and potential importance of the work to nursing and health sciences. The revision and recommendation process may need to occur several times before a manuscript is accepted for publication.

Submissions will be reviewed in a timely manner via the system and undergo peer review by at least two anonymous members of the Editorial Board, as well as the Editor-in-Chief, who reserves the right to refuse any material for publication. Manuscripts will be published upon the recommendations of Editorial Board members and at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief.

All manuscripts should be written so that they are intelligible to the professional reader who is not a specialist in the particular field. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication, the Editor-in-Chief or the Publisher reserve the right to modify typescripts to eliminate ambiguity or repetition, and improve communication between author and reader.

Manuscripts are checked for their adherence to NHS author guidelines and for their similarity to other sources (using CrossCheck).

NHS, together with other Wiley publications, holds membership with the Committee of Publication Ethics (COPE) and adheres to the following guidelines for publication and research:

a) The Editor-in-Chief takes final responsibility for this journal to ensure the highest standards of publication. They are expected to uphold scientific standards of publication and COPE's Standards of Conduct in Editing, and to identify publication misconduct in submitted or published articles. See: for more information.
b) The protocol for any human research must have been approved by a suitably constituted research ethics committee of the institution within which the work was undertaken, and must conform to the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki (see:
c) When considering what types of studies require ethical approval, the Editor-in-Chief will conform to the Guidance for Editors: Research, Audit and Service Evaluations 2008, outlined on COPE's website:
d) All manuscripts must state the proper title of the committee(s) which gave research ethics approval for the research. Without this manuscripts will not be sent for peer review and will face rejection.
e) All contributing authors must have significantly contributed to the research and writing of the manuscript, and approved the content before submission, or resubmission.
f) All sources of funding or products must be included in the Acknowledgement section of the manuscript.
g) Any financial or personal conflicts of interest in products, technology or methodology must be declared in writing to the Editor-in-Chief at the time of submission. Such information will be treated as confidential, but may be revealed to reviewers at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief.
h) Any clinical trials should be reported using the CONSORT guidelines and the submission checklist available at:
i) The corresponding author will be responsible, where appropriate, for certifying that permission has been received to use copyrighted instruments or software employed in the research and this should be recorded in the manuscript.


Articles types published by NHS include:
• Original research of all designs and methods, related to clinical practice, education, health policy, health management, health service delivery and evaluation, or public health.
• Research methodology and protocols.
• Systematic reviews of research evidence (qualitative, quantitative, mixed methods); meta-analyses, meta-syntheses. (Please note that narrative or traditional literature reviews are no longer published).
• Scholarly papers presenting in-depth analysis and discussion of philosophical, theoretical, conceptual, professional practice or health policy issues or innovations. NHS publishes concept analysis papers when it is clear that the analysis extends any other similar work about the concepts, and the concept is relevant to an international readership.
• Commentary on previous articles published in NHS (include all details of the article being published) or Letters to the Editor.

NOTE: Authors wishing to write Guest Editorials should communicate directly with the Editor-in-Chief.

Word length. Due to space restrictions, the length of a manuscript must not exceed the totals stated below. Over length manuscripts will be returned to authors for revision prior to being considered for peer review. The title page and reference pages are not counted in the total words.

Original research, practice or education articles: 4,000 words
Review article: 6,000 words
Special reports: 2,000 words
Commentary on previous papers published in NHS: 1,500 words.

Page charges. A page charge of 25,000 Japanese Yen per excess page may be levied to the author(s) when articles exceed 8 printed pages for a research article and 10 pages for a review article after proof copying. Authors are therefore requested to ensure that tables, figures and other supplementary material are kept to a minimum.

NOTE: The title page and reference pages are not counted in the total words.


Author Services

Prior to submission, we encourage you to browse the ‘Author Resources’ section of the Wiley ‘Author Services’ website: This site includes useful information covering such topics as copyright matters, ethics and electronic artwork guidelines.

Pre-acceptance English-language editing

Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. Visit our site to learn about the options. All services are paid for and arranged by the author. Please note using the Wiley English Language Editing Service does not guarantee that your paper will be accepted by this journal.

Optimising Your Article for Search Engines

Many students and researchers looking for information online will use search engines such as Google, Yahoo or similar. By optimising your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. We have compiled these guidelines to enable you to maximise the web-friendliness of the most public part of your article.


• The journal uses US spelling and authors should follow the latest edition of the Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary.
• All measurements must be given in SI units.
• Abbreviations should be used sparingly and only where they reduce the repetition of long, technical terms. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, use the abbreviation.
• Drugs should be referred to by their generic names, rather than brand names.

Parts of the Manuscript

The manuscript should be submitted in separate files: title page; main text file; figures (if relevant); supporting information (if relevant).

Title page
The title page should contain:
(i) a short title of approximately 12 words. The title should be informative and contain the major key words, including the country or countries where the project took place and the study design. The title should not contain abbreviations
(ii) the full names of the authors
(iii) the addresses of the author’s affiliated institutions at which the work was carried
(iv) an authorship declaration. For ALL types of manuscripts, all those listed as authors must certify their contribution, which will form part of the publication. Please insert the each author's initials in capitals against at least one of the following: Study Design; Data Collection and Analysis; Manuscript Writing.
(v) the full postal and email address, plus telephone numbers, of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript should be sent (vi) a short running title (less than 40 characters, including spaces)
(vii) acknowledgements. The source of financial grants and other funding should be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the authors’ industrial links and affiliations. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged. Thanks to anonymous reviewers are not allowed.
(viii) word count, excluding title page, abstract, references, figures and tables.

The present address of any author, if different from that where the work was carried out, should be supplied in a footnote.

Main text file
The length of papers should adhere to the guidelines outlined for each manuscript type in the ‘Manuscript Categories and Length’ section. As papers are double-blind peer reviewed the main text file should not include any information that might identify the authors.

The main text file should be presented in the following order: (i) title, abstract and key words, (ii) text, (iii) references, (iv) tables (each table complete with title and footnotes), (v) figure legends and (vi) appendices. Figures and supporting information should be supplied as separate files. Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.

(i) Title, Abstract and Keywords

All articles must have a brief abstract that states in 180 words or less the purpose, basic procedures, main findings, principal conclusions of the study, and implications for practice. The abstract should not contain abbreviations or references, and should not be written in various sections under headings.

No more than six key words (for the purposes of indexing) should be supplied below the abstract in alphabetical order.

(ii) Text
Authors should use subheadings to divide the sections according to the type of article:

Original (research) article: Introduction, Literature review (which must include analysis of contemporary literature from the last five years in particular), Study Aim or Purpose, Methods, (design, participants, ethical considerations (including name of research ethics committee(s), protection of participants, how they maintained ethical integrity, any important ethical issues), data collection, data analysis), Results, Discussion (including any limitations of research), Conclusion (including implications for practice), Acknowledgements, and References.

Systematic Review article: Introduction, Aim or Purpose, Methods (including the type of review, inclusion or exclusion criteria used for literature, data bases surveyed, number of articles reviewed), Results, Discussion, Conclusion (including implications of findings for practice), Acknowledgements, References, Figures and Tables.

iii) References
No more than 40 references are to be used. It is wise to download a recent sample copy of a published article from the NHS website to guide your referencing techniques. Authors should follow the Harvard (author, date) system of referencing. In the text give the author's name followed by the year in parentheses: Smith (2000). If there are two authors, in the text use 'and': Smith and Jones (2001), in brackets use '&' (Watanabe & Ito, 2009). When reference is made to a work by three or more authors, the first name followed by et al. should be used: MacDonald et al. (2002) or (MacDonald et al, 2002) when brackets are used.

The list of references should be in alphabetical order. Cite the names of all authors when there are six or fewer; when more than seven list the first three followed by et al. Names of journals should be abbreviated in the style used in Index Medicus. Reference to unpublished data and personal communications should not appear in the list but should be cited in the text only (e.g. Smith A, 2000, unpubl. data).

Examples of correct reference formats follow:

Xiaolian J, Chaiwan S, Panuthai S, Yijuan C, Lei Y, Jiping L. Family support and self-care behavior of Chinese chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Nurs. Health Sci. 2002; 4: 41-49.

Online article not yet published in an issue
An online article that has not yet been published in an issue (therefore has no volume, issue or page numbers) can be cited by its Digital Object Identifier (DOI). The DOI will remain valid and allow an article to be tracked even after its allocation to an issue.

Aga F, Kylmä J, Nikkonen M. Sociocultural factors influencing HIV/AIDS caregiving in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Nursing and Health Services 2009 doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2018.2009.00448.x

Marriner-Tomey A, Alligood M. Nursing Theorists and Their Work. St Louis: Mosby, 2002.

Chapter in a book
Redeker N. A description of the nature and dynamics of coping following coronary bypass surgery. In: Hyman R, Corbin J (eds). Chronic Illness: Research and Theory for Nursing Practise. New York: Springer, 2001; 25-35.

Osgood D, Wilson J. Co-variation of adolescent health problems. Report. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska, 2000. NTIS no. PB 91-154 377/AS.

Journal article in electronic format
Department of Health. Strengthening Accountability. [Cited 25 May 2003]. Available from URL:

(iv) Tables
Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Number tables consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals. Type tables on a separate page with the legend above. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the table, legend and footnotes must be understandable without reference to the text. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses; all abbreviations must be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, ¶, should be used (in that order) and *, **, *** should be reserved for P-values. Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified in the headings.

(v) Figure Legends
Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.

(vi) Appendices
These should be placed at the end of the paper, numbered in Roman numerals and referred to in the text. If written by a person other than the author of the main text, the writer’s name should be included below the title.


All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) are classified as figures. Figures should be numbered using Arabic numerals, and cited in consecutive order in the text. Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name.

Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication: Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (line art) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented programmes. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size (see below). EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible).

For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: line art: >600 dpi; half-tones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi.

More advice on figures can be found at Wiley’s guidelines for preparation of figures:

Color figures: Figures submitted in color may be reproduced in color online free of charge. Please note, however, that it is preferable that line figures (eg graphs and charts) and supplied in black and white so that they are legible if printed by a reader in black and white. If you wish to have figures printed in color in hard copies of the journal, a fee will be charged by the Publisher. Please let the Editor know if you wish to reproduce figures in colour.

Supporting Information

Supporting information is not essential to the article but provides greater depth and background and may include tables, figures, videos, datasets, etc. This material can be submitted with your manuscript, and will appear online, without editing or typesetting. Guidelines on how to prepare this material and which formats and files sizes are acceptable can be found at:

Please note that the provision of supporting information is not encouraged as a general rule. It will be assessed critically by reviewers and editors and will only be accepted if it is essential.


Manuscripts: should be submitted online at

• A cover letter should be included in the ‘Cover Letter Field’ of the ScholarOne system. The text can be entered directly into the field or uploaded as a file.
• The cover letter should include the following:
- A statement confirming that the manuscript, has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere, and any explanations about that
- All authors approve the content of the manuscript and have contributed significantly to research involved/ the writing of the manuscript;
- The protocol for the research project has been approved by a suitably constituted research ethics committee of the institution within which the work was undertaken. You must give the proper title of the committee(s) in the cover letter as well as the manuscript;
- The research conforms to the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki (as revised in Brazil 2013). o All participants gave informed consent for the research, and that their anonymity was preserved; and
- Any financial or personal matters that may pose a conflict of interest.
• Two Word-files need to be included upon submission: A title page file and a main text file that includes all parts of the text in the sequence indicated in the section 'Parts of the manuscript', including tables and figure legends but excluding figures which should be supplied separately.
• The main text file should be prepared using Microsoft Word.
• Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name. For submission, low-resolution figures saved as .jpg or .bmp files should be uploaded, for ease of transmission during the review process. Upon acceptance of the article, high-resolution figures (at least 300 d.p.i.) saved as .eps or .tif files will be required.

7. Publication Process After Acceptance

Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley’s production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley’s Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper. More details on the copyright and licencing options for the journal appear below.

Wiley’s Author Services

Author Services enables authors to track their article through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The corresponding author will receive a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.


Once the paper has been typeset the corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing instructions on how to provide proof corrections to the article. It is therefore essential that a working e-mail address is provided for the corresponding author. Proofs should be corrected carefully; the responsibility for detecting errors lies with the author.

Early View

The journal offers rapid speed to publication via Wiley’s Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. Early View articles are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before allocation to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article. More information about DOIs can be found at


A PDF reprint of the article will be supplied free of charge to the corresponding author. Additional printed offprints may be ordered online for a fee. Please click on the following link and fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields: If you have queries about offprints please e-mail:

Author Marketing Toolkit

The Wiley Author Marketing Toolkit provides authors with support on how to use social media, publicity, conferences, multimedia, email and the web to promote their article.

8. Copyright, Licencing and OnlineOpen

Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley’s production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley’s Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

Authors may choose to publish under the terms of the journal’s standard copyright transfer agreement (CTA), or under open access terms made available via Wiley OnlineOpen.

Standard Copyright Transfer Agreement: FAQs about the terms and conditions of the standard CTA in place for the journal, including standard terms regarding archiving of the accepted version of the paper, are available at: Copyright Terms and Conditions FAQs.

Note that in signing the journal’s licence agreement authors agree that consent to reproduce figures from another source has been obtained.

OnlineOpen – Wiley’s Open Access Option: OnlineOpen is available to authors of articles who wish to make their article freely available to all on Wiley Online Library under a Creative Commons license. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made open access. Authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on their personal website, and in an institutional repository or other free public server immediately after publication. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

OnlineOpen licenses. Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright in their article and have a choice of publishing under the following Creative Commons License terms: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY NC); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License (CC BY NC ND). To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright Terms and Conditions FAQs.

Funder Open Access and Self-Archiving Compliance: Please click here for more information on Wiley’s compliance with specific Funder Open Access and Self Archiving Policies, and click here for more detailed information specifically about Self-Archiving definitions and policies.

11. Sign up for Table of Content Alerts

Keep up to date with the latest tables of contents emailed directly to your desktop by registering free at:

Author Guidelines updated 21 July 2015