Weed Biology and Management

Cover image for Vol. 15 Issue 4

Edited By: Hiroaki Watanabe, Lowland Farming Division, NARO Agricultural Research Center for Tohoku Region (NARCT)

Impact Factor: 0.537

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 58/81 (Agronomy); 168/204 (Plant Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1445-6664

Author Guidelines

Weed Biology and Management is an international journal published four times per year.

This journal publishes papers covering all aspects of weed science, including weed biology, management and utilization, and the connection to their environment. The Weed Science Society of Japan (WSSJ) accepts submissions from members and non-members.


All articles submitted to the journal must comply with these instructions. Failure to do so will result in return of the manuscript and possible delay in publication.

Manuscripts are accepted for publication in the journal on the understanding that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. This must be stated in a covering letter.

Except where otherwise stated, manuscripts are peer reviewed by two anonymous reviewers and the Editor. The Editorial Board reserves the right to refuse any material for publication and advises that authors should retain copies of submitted manuscripts and correspondence as material cannot be returned. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editorial Board. Invited Articles may also be accepted, on occasion, at the request of the Editorial Board.

Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of scientific content, the Editor or the Publisher reserves the right to modify typescripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition and improve communication between author and reader. If extensive alterations are required, the manuscript will be returned to the author for revision.

Pre-acceptance English-language editing

Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at http://wileyeditingservices.com/en/. All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

Online submission
Manuscripts should be submitted online at
http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/wbm. Authors must supply an email address as all correspondence will be by email. Two files should be supplied: the covering letter and the manuscript (in Word or rich text format (.rtf)). The covering letter should be uploaded as a file not for review.

All articles submitted to the Journal must comply with the Journal Instructions for Authors. Failure to do so will result in return of the manuscript and possible delay in publication.

For authors unable to submit their manuscript online, please consult the Editor-in-Chief at the Editorial Office address

A word-processed file of your manuscript should include all parts of the text of the paper in a single file following the sequence indicated below (under 'Parts of the manuscript').

•  The final version of the hard copy and the file on disk must be the same.
•  Do not use the carriage return (enter) at the end of lines within a paragraph.
•  All pages should be numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner, beginning with the title page.
•  Turn the hyphenation option off; include only those hyphens that are essential to the meaning (e.g. 3,4-dichloro-5-).
•  Specify any special characters used to represent non-keyboard characters.
•  Use italic and/or bold fonts whenever necessary; however, if you are unable to format the text in  this way, then use hand-written underlining to indicate italic and hand-written wavy underlining to indicate bold.
•  Take care not to use l (ell) for 1 (one), O (capital o) for 0 (zero) or ß (German esszett) for Greek beta.
•  Use a tab, not spaces, to separate data points in tables.
•  If you use a table editor function, ensure that each data point is contained within a unique cell (i.e. do not use carriage returns within cells).

Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name. For submission, low-resolution figures saved as .jpg or .bmp files should be uploaded, for ease of transmission during the review process. Upon acceptance of the article, high-resolution figures (at least 300 d.p.i.) saved as .eps or .tif files should be uploaded. Digital images supplied only as low-resolution files cannot be used.

Covering letter and ethics
Papers are accepted for publication in the Journal on the understanding that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. This must be stated in the covering letter.

Author material archive policy
Authors who require the return of any submitted material that is accepted for publication should inform the Editorial Office after acceptance. If no indication is given that author material should be returned, Wiley will dispose of all hardcopy and electronic material two months after publication.


Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley’s production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley’s Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

FAQs about the terms and conditions of the standard copyright transfer agreements (CTA) in place for the journal, including terms regarding archiving of the accepted version of the paper, are available at: CTA Terms and Conditions FAQs

OnlineOpen – ‘Gold road’ Open Access
OnlineOpen is available to authors of articles who wish to make their article freely available to all on Wiley Online Library under a Creative Commons licence. In addition, authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on a website, institutional repository or other free public server, immediately on publication. With OnlineOpen the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made open access, known as ‘gold road’ open access.

OnlineOpen licenses. Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright in their article and have a choice of publishing under the following Creative Commons License terms: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY NC); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License (CC BY NC ND)

For more information about the OnlineOpen license terms and conditions click here.


Research Papers should not exceed six pages (approximately 4000 words), including the title page, tables and figures. Reviews should not exceed eight pages. Articles exceeding these limits are published at an extra cost to the author (see PUBLICATION FEE AND PAGE CHARGES).

Submissions should be prepared using Microsoft Word, doubled-spaced, on one side only of A4 paper. The top, bottom and side margins should be 30 mm. Laser or near-letter quality print is essential. All pages should be numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner, beginning with the title page. Indent new paragraphs.

Spelling, style, and units
The journal uses US English and spelling should therefore follow the latest edition of Merriam–Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary.

Upon its first use in the title, abstract and text, the common name of a weed should be followed by the scientific name (genus, species and authority) in parentheses. However, for well-known species, the scientific name may be omitted from the article title. If no common name exists in English, the scientific name should be used only. At the first mention of a herbicide or other chemical substance, give its generic name only. Trade names should not be used.

Please use SI units wherever possible, as outlined in Units, Symbols and Abbreviations: A Guide for Medical and Scientific Editors and Authors, 5th edn (ed. by Baron D.N.), Royal Society of Medicine Press, London, 1994. Herbicide rates should be expressed in terms of the active ingredient, but where this is not possible, express units in terms of formulated product.

Abbreviations should be used sparingly and only where they ease the reader’s task by reducing the repetition of long, technical terms. On first use in the abstract and text, use the word in full (followed by the abbreviation in parentheses) and thereafter use the abbreviation. Abbreviations should not be used in the title.


Manuscripts should be presented in the following order: (i) title page, (ii) abstract and keywords, (iii) text, (iv) acknowledgments, (v) references, (vi) figure legends, (vii) tables (each table complete with title and footnotes) and (viii) figures.

Title page
The title page should contain (i) the category of article, (ii) the title of the paper, (iii) the full names of the authors with family name last and (iv) the addresses of the institutions at which the work was carried out together with (v) the full postal address, telephone and facsimile numbers and email address of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript, proofs and requests for offprints should be sent.

The title should be short, informative and contain the major keywords. A short running title (less than 40 characters, including spaces) should also be provided.

The title page must also contain a statement disclosing any commercial interest of the authors in the findings presented. If there is none, this must be confirmed.

Abstract and keywords
Articles must have an abstract that states in 250 words or less the purpose, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions of the study. The abstract should not contain abbreviations or references. Up to five keywords should be provided to assist with the indexing of the article.

Authors should use subheadings to label sections of their manuscript: Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, References.

The source of financial grants and the contribution of colleagues or institutions should be acknowledged.


References in articles

We recommend the use of a tool, such as EndNote or Reference Manager, for reference management and formatting. EndNote reference styles can be searched for here:

Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:

The author/date system of referencing is used.

In the text, give the author’s name followed by the year in parentheses: Sago (2000). If there are two authors, use ‘and’: Baskin and Baskin (1998); but if cited within parentheses, use ‘&’: (Baskin & Baskin 1998). When reference is made to a work by three or more authors, the first name followed by et al. should be used: Powles et al. (1998).

In the list, references should be listed in alphabetical order. Cite the names of all authors when there are seven or fewer, when more than seven cite the first six plus et al.

Personal communication, unpublished data and publications from informal meetings are not to be listed in the reference list but should be listed in full in the text (e.g. Smith A., 2000, unpublished data).

References should be listed in the following form:

Hirase K. and Molin W.T. 2003. Sulfur assimilation in plants and weed control: Potentional targets for novel herbicides and action sites of certain safeners. Weed Biol. Manag. 3, 147–157.

Powles S.B., Lorraine-Colwill D.F., Dellow J.J. and Preston C. 1998. Evolved resistance to glyphosate in rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidium) in Australia. Weed Sci. 46, 604–608.

Sago R. 2000. [Weed seedbank response to herbicide use in rice paddy fields.] J. Weed Sci. Technol. 45, 81–87 (in Japanese with English abstract).

Baskin C.C. and Baskin J.M. 1998. Seeds. Academic Press, London.

Chapter in a book
Marshall G. and Finch R.P. 1997. Molecular ecology: its role in studying herbicide resistance. In: Weed and Crop Resistance to Herbicides (ed. by De Prado R., Jorrin J. and Garcia-Torres L.). Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 171–179.

Electronic material
Cumming J. 2003. Dry White Beans-Prices, Ontario, 1981–2002. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Toronto. Available from URL: http://www.gov.ontario/stats/crops/whitebeanprices.html. Accessed 8 December 2004.

Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Tables should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals. Each table should be presented on a separate sheet of A4 paper with a comprehensive but concise legend above the table. Tables should be double-spaced and vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses; all abbreviations should be defined in footnotes. The table and its legend/footnotes should be understandable without reference to the text.

All figures should be supplied as high-quality black-and-white glossy photographs, line drawings or laser-printed graphs. Digital photographs at less than 300 d.p.i. cannot be used.

Line figures -Line figures will be digitally scanned from the originals provided by the author.Therefore, the originals must be of high quality and resolution. All keys, symbols and notations should be present within the figure. Submit each figure on a separate sheet of A4 paper.

Figures will be scanned to fit column width and any lettering should be of a size that will be no more than 3 mm high when reduced. Please refer to a recent issue of the journal for the style and formatting of lettering. If a figure requires redrawing or extensive relettering by a technical artist because of poor-quality or low-resolution originals, the cost will be charged to the author.

Photographs - Photographs (half-tones) are considered figures, and are normally published in black and white. Color photographs may also be accepted and the author will be charged the cost of color reproduction. Place all photographs in an envelope attached to the original manuscript (be careful not to dent the photographs). Label each photograph on the back in very soft pencil or in soft felt-tip pen with the author’s name, figure number and orientation (indicated with an arrow).

Indicate the desired location of tables, figures and photographs in the margins (e.g. Table 1, Fig. 1 near here).

Figure legends - Legends should be comprehensive but concise and typed on a separate sheet. The legend should incorporate definitions of any abbreviations used so that the figure and its legend is understandable without reference to the text.


For further information on preparation and submission of articles and figures, authors are encouraged to visit the websites Author Services at
http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/journal.asp and http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/illustration.asp.

Author Services enables authors to track their article, once it has been accepted, through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated emails at key stages of production so they do not need to contact the production editor to check on progress.

http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/ for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources, including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission, and more.


OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, seehttp://wileyonlinelibrary.com/onlineopen#OnlineOpen_Terms

Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at: https://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/onlineopen_order.asp

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

It is essential that corresponding authors supply an email address to which correspondence can be emailed while their article is in production.

Notification of the URL from where to download a Portable Document Format (PDF) typeset page proof, associated forms and further instructions will be sent by email to the corresponding author. The purpose of the PDF proof is a final check of the layout, and of tables and figures. Alterations other than the essential correction of errors are unacceptable at PDF proof stage. The proof should be checked, and approval to publish the article should be emailed to the Publisher by the date indicated, otherwise, it may be signed off on by the Editor or held over to the next issue.


E-annotation is a natural extension of PDF proofing, with a number of benefits:

·         Increased speed of journals publication schedules

·         Increased efficiency for authors and journal Production Editors

·         Clearer corrections in the annotated files

·         More accurate interpretations of corrections by typesetters

·         Easy and efficient circulation of annotated proofs via email to Editors and co-authors

E-annotation works as follows: The typesetter uses Acrobat 7 to enable annotation on the proofs. The recipient then needs to ensure that they have Acrobat Reader version 7.0 or above (instructions and link provided with the PDF proof) or Acrobat Professional in order to use the annotation functionality. The annotation toolbar allows proof corrections to be marked Setting Up E-annotation of Proofs 4 of 7 electronically – by crossing out, replacing or inserting text, and even inserting an attachment (such as a new abstract or figure). The corrected proofs are then sent to the person who collates them and, after checking, they are then returned to the typesetter.

This system reduces the time taken for authors to send proofs in the post, and results in more legible proofs for the typesetters, avoiding problems of text being cut off (as can happen when faxing) or illegible handwriting.


A minimum of 50 additional offprints will be provided upon request, at the author’s expense. These paper offprints may be ordered online. Please visit http://offprint.cosprinters.com/, fill in the necessary details, and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields.

If you have any queries about offprints, please email: offprint@cosprinters.com

PUBLICATION FEE AND PAGE CHARGES (updated on 28 April 2015)

The following fees and charges will be levied on each article appearing in the journal (fees may be waived, upon request, for authors outside Japan in some cases).

  • Publication fee - No publication fee will be required both for Reviews and Research Papers.
  • Page charge - There is no page charge up to the page limit for the given type of manuscript on condition that one of the authors has current WSSJ membership. Non-members of WSSJ are charged ¥5000 per printed page. For pages in excess of page limits, the submitting author will be billed ¥8000 per 1/2 printed page (see above for page limits).
  • Offprints and reprints- Charges vary according to page length and number required.
  • Colour figures and redrawing of figures- Actual cost will be charged to the author.

'WSSJ Activities of Aid for Publication of Research Result' to Weed Biology and Management subsidizes publication in weed science to promote correct evaluation of researchers' achievements in weed research in the Asia-Pacific region (this aid is not limited to APWSS members, but will not be given to Japanese members of the WSSJ).

The aid applies to the publication fee of the above-mentioned authors, whose contributed articles should be accepted for publication by the Editorial Board of Weed Biology and Management.