Geriatrics & Gerontology International

Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 3

Edited By: Kentaro Shimokado

Impact Factor: 2.229

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 9/32 (Gerontology); 26/49 (Geriatrics & Gerontology)

Online ISSN: 1447-0594

Author Guidelines

Important Note to Authors
It is journal policy that changes to authorship or the named corresponding author are not permitted after a paper has been submitted, other than in exception circumstances. If authors feel there are reasonable grounds to request a change in authorship or the named corresponding author, the submission of the official letter to the Editor-in-Chief is necessary. Please follow the relevant COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) flowchart for more details. COPE flowcharts regarding changes in authorship are available on the COPE website here:

Latest information
Journal became online only, and it became a monthly journal from 2015.

Letter to the Editor: GGI publish letters to the Editor that fall under the following categories: Case Report, Research Studies, Comments.
Case Report: GGI no longer publish Case report.
Disclosed Potential Conflict of Interest, Manuscript Categories and Parts of The Manuscript have been updated. Please read carefully.
Copyright form has been changed to COPYRIGHT TRANSFER AGREEMENT.

Geriatrics & Gerontology International is an interdisciplinary journal. Upon submission, authors will be asked to identify the category for their article in Biology / Behavioral and Social Sciences / Epidemiology, Clinical Practice and Health / Social Research, Planning and Practice, in order to allow their manuscripts to be processed with speed and efficiency.
The acceptance criteria for all papers are the quality and originality of the research and its significance to our readership. Except where otherwise stated, manuscripts are peer reviewed by two anonymous reviewers and Editor. The Editorial Board reserves the right to refuse any material for publication and advises that authors should retain copies of submitted manuscripts and correspondence as material cannot be returned. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editorial Board.

All articles submitted to the Journal must comply with these instructions. Failure to do so will result in return of the manuscript and possible delay in publication.
Manuscripts should be written so that they are intelligible to the professional reader who is not a specialist in the particular field. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of scientific content, the Editor or the Publisher reserve the right to modify typescripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition and improve communication between author and reader. If extensive alternations are required, the manuscript will be returned to the author for revision.

Manuscripts must be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English are strongly recommended to have their submissions checked by a qualified, native speaker. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of scientific content but where the English is poor, the Editor or Publisher may elect to have the English of such contributions improved. This English improvement may be undertaken by the Publisher and the cost will be borne by the author.

The manuscript must be accompanied by a covering letter bearing the corresponding author’s signature. Papers are accepted for publication in the Journal on the understanding that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. This must be stated in the covering letter.
Authors state that the protocol for the research project has been approved by a suitably constituted Ethics Committee of the institution within which the work was undertaken and that it conforms to the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki (as revised in Brazil 2013), available at
All investigations on human subjects must include a statement that the subject gave informed consent and patient anonymity should be preserved.
The covering letter must contain an acknowledgement that all authors have contributed significantly and that all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript.
Authors should declare any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest.

Authors should declare any financial support or relationship that may pose conflicts of interest as a Disclosure statement between the Acknowledgments and References sections of their manuscript. Authors are also required to include a Geriatrics & Gerontology International Self-reported Potential Conflict of Interest Disclosure Statement when submitting a manuscript. Please download the form at The absence of any interest to disclose must also be stated as “The authors declare no conflict of interest.”

Supporting Information is provided by the authors to support the content of an article but they are not integral to that article. They are hosted via a link on Wiley Online Library but do not appear in the print version of the article. Supporting Information must be submitted together with the article for review; they should not be added at a later stage. They can be in the form of tables, figures, appendices and even video footage. Reference to Supporting Information in the main body of the article is allowed. However, it should be noted that excessive reference to a piece of Supporting Information may indicate that it would be better suited as a proper reference or fully included figure/table. The materials will be published as they are supplied and will not be checked or typeset in any way. All Supporting Information files should come with a legend, listed at the end of the main article. Each figure and table file should not be larger than 5MB, although video files may be larger. Prior to submission, please check the guidelines at:

Manuscripts should be submitted online at Authors must supply an email address as all correspondence will be by email. Two files should be supplied: the covering letter and the manuscript (in Word or rich text format (.rtf)). The covering letter should be uploaded as a file not for review.
Submissions should be double-spaced.
• Do not use the carriage return (enter) at the end of lines within a paragraph.
• Turn the hyphenation option off.
• Specify any special characters used to represent non­keyboard characters.
• Take care not to use l (ell) for 1 (one), O (capital o) for 0 (zero) or ß (German esszett) for b (Greek beta).
• Use a tab, not spaces, to separate data points in tables.
• If you use a table editor function, ensure that each data point is contained within a unique cell; i.e. do not use carriage returns within cells.
• All pages should be numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner, beginning with the title page.
• Indent new paragraphs.
• The top, bottom and side margins should be 30 mm.
Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name. For submission, low-resolution figures saved as .jpg or .bmp files should be uploaded, for ease of transmission during the review process. Upon acceptance of the article, high-resolution figures (at least 300 d.p.i.) saved as .eps or .tif files should be uploaded. Digital images supplied only as low-resolution files cannot be used.
Further instructions are available at the submission site.

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:
CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution Non­Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non­Commercial ­NoDerivs License OAA
If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC­BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:
To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit http://www.wiley­­License.html.

Manuscripts should follow the style of the Vancouver agreement detailed in the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ revised ‘Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication’, as presented at

The Journal uses US spelling and authors should therefore follow the latest edition of the Merriam–Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary.

All measurements must be given in SI or SI-derived units. Please go to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) website at for more information about SI units.

Abbreviations should be used sparingly – only where they ease the reader’s task by reducing repetition of long, technical terms. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation only.

Trade names:
Drugs should be referred to by their generic names, rather than brand names.

(1) Original Article
Word limit:
3,000 words including abstract but excluding references, tables and figures
References: Up to 30
Abstract: 250 words, structured
Figures/tables: Up to 5 in total
Description: Full length reports of current research in either basic or clinical science

Word limit:
5,000 words including abstract but excluding references, tables and figures
References: No limit (Prefer appx. 100)
Abstract: 250 words, unstructured
Figures/tables: No limit
Description: Reviews are comprehensive analyses of specific topics.They are submitted upon invitation by the Editor. Proposals for reviews may be submitted; however, in this case authors should only send an outline of the proposed paper for initial consideration. Both solicited and unsolicited review articles will undergo peer review prior to acceptance.

(3) Letter to the Editor
Word limit:
750 words
Abstract: No abstract
References: Up to 10
Figures/tables: Up to 1 (Multi panel figures allowed)
GGI publish letters to the Editor that fall under the following categories:
• Case Report
• Research Studies
• Comments
Case Report
Case reports and preliminary research findings may also be appropriate for this section.
New observations of diseases, clinical findings or novel/unique treatment outcomes relevant to practitioners in the field.
Research Studies
Letters in the Research Studies category may discuss matters of general interest to physicians involved in the care of older patients, interesting clinical or research findings, or provide a brief commentary on any aspect of human aging.
A Comments letter is an objective, constructive, and educational critique of a previously published article in GGI; these should be submitted within 3 months after publication of the original paper. The editorial office may forward letters critiquing a paper published in GGI to the authors of the paper, who will be given 1 month to reply to the critique. The letter and the reply will usually be published in tandem. Generally, we do not publish letters critiquing papers published in other journals.

(4) Editorial
Word limit:
750 - 1,500 words
Abstract: No abstract
References: Up to 5
Figures/tables: No Limit
Description: Only invite of Editor

(5) Methodological Report
Word limit:
3,000 words
Abstract: 250 words, structured
References: Up to 30
Figures/tables: Up to 3 in total
Description: Full length reports of current research in either basic or clinical Science

Manuscripts should be presented in the following order: (i) title page, (ii) abstract and key words, (iii) text, (iv) acknowledgments, (v) disclosure statement, (vi) references, (vii) figure legends, (viii) tables (each table complete with title and footnotes), (ix) figures. Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.

Title page
The title page should contain:
(i) the title of the paper, (ii) the full names of the authors, (iii) the addresses of the institutions at which the work was carried out together with, (iv) the full postal and email address, plus facsimile and telephone numbers, of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript should be sent.
In keeping with the latest guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, each author’s contribution to the paper is to be quantified.
The present address of any author, if different from that where the work was carried out, should be supplied in a footnote.
The title should be short, informative and contain the major key words. Do not use abbreviations in the title. A short running title (less than 40 characters) should also be provided.

Abstract and key words
Articles must have a structured abstract that states in 250 words or fewer the purpose, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions of the study. Divide the abstract with the headings: Aim, Methods, Results, Conclusions. The abstract should not contain abbreviations or references.
Five key words, for the purposes of indexing, should be supplied below the abstract, in alphabetical order, and should be taken from those recommended by the US National Library of Medicine’s Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) browser list at

The text should be organized into an introductory section, conveying the background and purpose of the report, and then into sections titled Methods,Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, Disclosure statement, References.

The source of financial grants and other funding must be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the authors’ industrial links and affiliations. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged. Thanks to anonymous reviewers are not appropriate.

Disclosure statement
Authors should declare any financial support or relationship that may pose conflicts of interest as a Disclosure statement between the Acknowledgments and References sections of their manuscript. The absence of any interest to disclose must also be stated as “The authors declare no conflict of interest.”

To cite this journal please use Geriatr Gerontol Int.
The Vancouver system of referencing should be used (examples are given below).
In the text, references should be cited using superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear. If cited in tables or figure legends, number according to the first identification of the table or figure in the text.
In the reference list, the references should be numbered and listed in order of appearance in the text. Cite the names of all authors when there are six or less; when seven or more list the first three followed by et al. Names of journals should be abbreviated in the style used in Index Medicus. Reference to unpublished data and personal communications should appear in the text only.
References should be listed in the following form:
Journal article
Yamaya M, Yanai M, Ohrui T, Arai H, Sasaki H. Interventions to prevent pneumonia among older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001; 49: 85–90.
Journal articles published ahead of issue (print or online)
Yamauchi J, Nakayama S, Ishii N. Effects of bodyweight-based exercise training on muscle functions of leg multi­joint movement in elderly individuals. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2009. doi: 10.1111/j.1447­0594.2009.00530.x
Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and Leadership Skills for Nurses, 2nd edn. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers, 1996.
Chapter in a Book
Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, eds. Hypertension: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management, 2nd edn. New York: Raven Press, 1995; 465–478.
Journal article on the Internet
Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jun [Cited 12 Aug 2004]; 102(6): [about 3 p.]. Available from:
Monograph on the Internet
Foley KM, Gelband H, editors. Improving palliative care for cancer [monograph on the Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001 [Cited 9 Jul 2004]. Available from:

These should be placed at the end of the paper, numbered in Roman numerals and referred to in the text. If written by a person other than the author of the main text, the writer’s name should be included below the title.

Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Number tables consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals. Table should be double spaced and vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses; all abbreviations must be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, ¶, should be used (in that order) and *, **, *** should be reserved for P-values. The table and its legend/footnotes should be understandable without reference to the text.

ScholarOne Manuscripts Figures
All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) are classified as figures. Figures should be cited in consecutive order in the text. Figures should be sized to fit within the column (87 mm) or the full text width (175 mm). Magnifications should be indicated using a scale bar on the illustration.
Line figures should be sharp, black and white graphs or diagrams, drawn professionally or with a computer graphics package. Lettering must be included and should be sized to be no larger than the journal text.

Figure legends
Type figure legends on a separate page. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.

If tables or figures have been reproduced from another source, a letter from the copyright holder (usually the Publisher), stating authorization to reproduce the material, must be attached to the covering letter.

It is essential that corresponding authors supply an email address to which correspondence can be emailed while their article is in production. Notification of the URL from where to download a Portable Document Format (PDF) typeset page proof, associated forms and further instructions will be sent by email to the corresponding author. The purpose of the PDF proof is a final check of the layout, and of tables and figures. Alterations other than the essential correction of errors are unacceptable at PDF proof stage. The proof should be checked, and approval to publish the article should be emailed to the Publisher by the date indicated, otherwise, it may be signed off on by the Editor or held over to the next issue.

A minimum of 50 offprints will be provided upon request, at the author’s expense. These paper offprints may be ordered online. Please visit, fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields.
If you have queries about offprints please email

Visit the Geriatrics & Gerontology International homepage at for more information, and Wiley Publishing’s web pages for submission guidelines and digital graphics standards at and This journal is available online at Wiley Online library. Visit to search the articles and register for table of contents and e-mail alerts.

Geriatrics & Gerontology International is covered by Wiley EarlyView service. Early View articles are complete full text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Early View articles are complete and final, therefore no changes can be made after online publication. Early View articles are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non­subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author’s funding agency, or the author’s institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non­subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency’s preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see
Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at:
Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal’s standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

Kentaro Shimokado
Editor-in-Chief, Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Editorial Office
Frontier Koishikawa Bldg 4F
1-28-1, Koishikawa, Bunkyo-ku
Tokyo 112-0002
Tel: 81-3 3830-1220
Fax: 81-3 5689-7278 

Author Guidelines revised May 2016