European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 44 Issue 11

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: John Foxe and Paul Bolam

Impact Factor: 2.975

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 114/256 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1460-9568

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  1. 1 - 67
  1. Research Reports

    1. Functional brain networks involved in gaze and emotional processing

      Maryam Ziaei, Natalie C. Ebner and Hana Burianová

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13464

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      Eye gaze is critical in processing emotional facial expressions. The overarching aim of this study was to delineate the brain networks involved in integrating eye gaze and emotional expressions. Our results demonstrated that in contrast to happy expressions, recognition of angry expressions was gaze dependent. Functional connectivity analysis further confirmed this finding by showing a large-scale brain network that was connected to the amygdala during recognition of angry expression which was gaze dependent.

    2. In vitro and in vivo effects of a novel dimeric inhibitor of PSD-95 on excitotoxicity and functional recovery after experimental traumatic brain injury

      Jens Bak Sommer, Anders Bach, Hana Malá, Kristian Strømgaard, Jesper Mogensen and Darryl S. Pickering

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13483

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      No convincing neuroprotective effects were seen of the dimeric PSD-95 inhibitor UCCB01-147 on NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in vitro or functional recovery and histopathology after experimental TBI in rats in vivo. The data suggest potential differential effects of PSD-95 inhibition in stroke and TBI that should be investigated further taking important experimental factors such as timing of treatment, dosage, and anesthesia into consideration.

    3. Selective contribution of the telencephalic arcopallium to the social facilitation of foraging efforts in the domestic chick

      Qiuhong Xin, Yukiko Ogura, Leo Uno and Toshiya Matsushima

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13475

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      Bilateral electrolytic lesions of arcopallium (Arco, the major descending pallial area of the avian telencepholon), particularly its lateral part, significantly reduced the social facilitation of the foraging effort in chicks. In good accordance, anterograde tracing revealed dense projections of the lateral Arco to limbic areas. The avian Arco is thus functionally and anatomically analogous to the anterior cingulate cortex and basolateral amygdala in mammals.

    4. Steady-state VEP responses to uncomfortable stimuli

      Louise O'Hare

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13479

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      Geometric patterns can provoke physical sensations in the observer, possibly due to eye movements. Models of efficient coding predict that uncomfortable visual stimuli will be those that evoke excessive cortical responses. Using steady-state visual evoked potentials, this study provides evidence that the cortex also has a role in determining visual discomfort from striped patterns inspired by op-art.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Reductions in cortical alpha activity, enhancements in neural responses and impaired gap detection caused by sodium salicylate in awake guinea pigs

      Joel I. Berger, Ben Coomber, Mark N. Wallace and Alan R. Palmer

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13474

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      Tinnitus, the perception of a phantom auditory sensation, can be reliably induced by sodium salicylate. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a chronic ECoG implant, we demonstrate clear changes in awake neural and behavioural activity in guinea pigs following salicylate administration, including poorer gap detection, enhanced evoked potentials and reductions in alpha band activity. These data highlight possible combined neural and behavioural correlates of tinnitus and enhanced sound sensitivity (hyperacusis).

  2. Short Communication

    1. The perception of affective touch in Parkinson's disease and its relation to small fibre neuropathy

      Lewis Kass-Iliyya, Matthew Leung, Andrew Marshall, Paula Trotter, Christopher Kobylecki, Susannah Walker, David Gosal, Maria Jeziorska, Rayaz A. Malik, Francis McGlone and Monty A. Silverdale

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13481

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      We investigated pleasantness induced by cutaneous tactile stimulation in Parkinson's disease patients using different stroking velocities. We also used 2 separate measures of small fibre nerve density – skin biopsy and corneal confocal microscopy. This figure demonstrates a relationship between perceived pleasantness ratings and both measures of small fibre neuropathy.

  3. Research Reports

    1. The phosphodiesterase type 2 inhibitor BAY 60-7550 reverses functional impairments induced by brain ischemia by decreasing hippocampal neurodegeneration and enhancing hippocampal neuronal plasticity

      Ligia Mendes Soares, Erika Meyer, Humberto Milani, Harry W. M. Steinbusch, Jos Prickaerts and Rúbia M. Weffort de Oliveira

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13461

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      Repeated treatment with the PDE2-I BAY 60-7550 prevented the functional impairments induced by BCCAO while increasing cAMP/CREB and/or cGMP/CREB signaling.

  4. Short Communication

    1. Amygdala mu-opioid receptors mediate the motivating influence of cue-triggered reward expectations

      Nina T. Lichtenberg and Kate M. Wassum

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13477

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      Using local pharmacological manipulations, we found that activation of basolateral amygdala mu-, but not delta-opioid receptors is required for a reward-predictive cue to selectively invigorate the performance of actions directed at the same unique predicted reward. These data reveal a new role for basolateral amygdala mu-opioid receptor activation in the cued recall of precise reward expectations and the use of this information to motivate specific action plans.

    2. Sex differences in depolarizing actions of GABAA receptor activation in rat embryonic hypothalamic neurons

      Franco R. Mir, Hugo F. Carrer and María J. Cambiasso

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13467

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      There are more male than female hypothalamic neurons responding with depolarization to muscimol at 9 days in vitro. In neurons with depolarizing responses, males have larger voltage changes and longer lasting responses than females. These sex differences in GABAAR function are independent of gonadal hormones because hypothalamic tissue has been taken from male and female embryos at E16, two days before neurons would be exposed to gonadal steroids in utero.

  5. Research Reports

    1. Electrophysiological correlates of decision making impairment in multiple sclerosis

      Elisa Azcárraga-Guirola, Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo, Julia Velázquez-Cardoso, Yamel Rito-García and Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13465

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      Impaired decision making (DM) in multiple sclerosis (MS) is revealed by a lack of event-related potential (ERP) (FRN and P3b) amplitude modulation based on choice results. ERPs and behavior related to DM were associated with temporal lobe lesions in MS patients. DM deficits in patients with MS could be due to an impairment in their evaluation of choice outcomes or to a general alteration in emotional reactivity.

  6. Reviews

    1. Memory under stress: from single systems to network changes

      Lars Schwabe

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13478

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      Stress has a major impact on the hippocampusand other areas critical for memory. Beyond its effects on single memory systems, stress may also induce large-scale network reconfigurations that result in a shift from deliberative, thoughtful processing towards more reflexive, habitual responding.

  7. Research Reports

    1. Castration alters the number and structure of dendritic spines in the male posterodorsal medial amygdala

      Mariana Zancan, Aline Dall'Oglio, Edson Quagliotto and Alberto A. Rasia-Filho

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13460

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      Castration promotes a synaptic reorganization in the posterodorsal medial amygdala of male rats; Castration reduces the density of dendritic spines, but is spine-specific: thin, mushroom-like, and ramified spines are reduced whereas stubby/wide and atypical spines increase after castration; the lack of androgens hinder the function of integrated circuitries for social behavior in the male brain.

  8. Short Communication

    1. Modulation of cue-triggered reward seeking by cholinergic signaling in the dorsomedial striatum

      Sean B. Ostlund, Angela T. Liu, Kate M. Wassum and Nigel T. Maidment

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13462

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      We examined the role of acetylcholine signaling in the dorsomedial region of the striatum in the flexible selection of actions based on cue-evoked reward expectations. Our findings provide initial evidence that muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in this area make distinct contributions to this important aspect of behavior, which is thought to contribute to both adaptive and maladaptive decision making, including compulsive drug seeking.

  9. Research Reports

    1. Effect of interstimulus interval on cortical proprioceptive responses to passive finger movements

      Eero Smeds, Harri Piitulainen, Mathieu Bourguignon, Veikko Jousmäki and Riitta Hari

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13447

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      We explored with MEG the effect of interstimulus interval (ISI) on proprioceptive SI-cortex responses elicited by passive finger movements. Response strength (A) followed an exponential saturation function of ISI with response lifetimes of 1.3 s for extensions and 2.2 s for flexions. Our model indicated that an ISI of 1.5–3 s will maximize the responses’ signal-to-noise ratio in a given recording time. The results help optimize assessment of proprioceptive afference both in health and disease.

    2. Optogenetic excitation in the ventral tegmental area of glutamatergic or cholinergic inputs from the laterodorsal tegmental area drives reward

      Stephan Steidl, Huiling Wang, Marco Ordonez, Shiliang Zhang and Marisela Morales

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13436

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      We used optogenetic methods in Cre transgenic mice to compare the effects of driving LDTg-cholinergic or LDTg-glutamatergic inputs to the VTA. Mice could control VTA light stimulation by entering one chamber of a place preference apparatus. Results indicate that VTA excitation of LDTg-glutamatergic inputs may be more important for reinforcement of initial chamber entry while VTA excitation of LDTg-cholinergic inputs may be more important for the rewarding effects of chamber stays.

    3. Ageing affects dual encoding of periodicity and envelope shape in rat inferior colliculus neurons

      Björn Herrmann, Aravindakshan Parthasarathy and Edward L. Bartlett

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13463

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      Amplitude-modulated sounds were presented to younger and older rats while local field potentials (LFPs) and spikes were recorded from inferior colliculus neurons. Ageing was associated with an enhanced gain in onset response and neural synchronisation strength (for a 45-Hz modulation rate) from LFPs to spikes, and with a decrease in LFP synchronisation strength for higher modulation rates (128, 256 Hz). These changes might be due to an altered excitation-inhibition balance accompanying ageing.

  10. Featured Paper Commentary

    1. You have free access to this content
  11. Research Reports

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Human tau increases amyloid β plaque size but not amyloid β-mediated synapse loss in a novel mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

      Rosemary J. Jackson, Nikita Rudinskiy, Abigail G. Herrmann, Shaun Croft, JeeSoo Monica Kim, Veselina Petrova, Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Rose Pitstick, Susanne Wegmann, Monica Garcia-Alloza, George A. Carlson, Bradley T. Hyman and Tara L. Spires-Jones

      Version of Record online: 12 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13442

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      Interactions of amyloid and tau pathologies in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: overexpressing human wild-type tau in the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model caused increased plaque size and more dystrophic neurite accumulation around plaques but did not worsen other pathological phenotypes including synapse loss and neuron loss around plaques.

    2. Cotinine administration improves impaired cognition in the mouse model of Fragile X syndrome

      Marta Pardo, Eleonore Beurel and Richard S. Jope

      Version of Record online: 12 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13446

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      Stimulation of α7 nicotinic receptors activates PI3K leading to the activating phosphorylations on Akt, which phosphorylates the inhibitory Ser-9 of GSK3β, leading to pro-cognitive effects.

    3. Early life diets with prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions attenuate the impact of stress on learned helplessness behaviours and alter gene expression within neural circuits important for stress resistance

      Agnieszka Mika, Heidi E. W. Day, Alexander Martinez, Nicole L. Rumian, Benjamin N. Greenwood, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M. Berg and Monika Fleshner

      Version of Record online: 12 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13444

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      Following four week on diets formulated with the prebiotic ingredients galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX) and/ or the glycoprotein lactoferrin (LAC), juvenile rats exhibited attenuated stress-induced anxiety and depressive-like behaviors as well as alterations in gene expression within corresponding stress circuits. Notably, diets also attenuated stress-induced cfos mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a region important for mediating these behavioral consequences of stress.

    4. Dopamine and noradrenaline, but not serotonin, in the human claustrum are greatly reduced in patients with Parkinson's disease: possible functional implications

      Harald H. Sitte, Christian Pifl, Ali H. Rajput, Heide Hörtnagl, Junchao Tong, George K. Lloyd, Stephen J. Kish and Oleh Hornykiewicz

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13435

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      In the human brain, the claustrum is a small subcortical telencephalic nucleus, situated between the insular cortex and the putamen. We examined the behaviour of the classical monoamine neurotransmitters in the claustrum of the normal autopsied human brain and of patients who died with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). In patients, we found the levels of dopamine and noradrenaline to be greatly reduced in comparison to control. We propose that loss of dopamine and noradrenaline in the PD claustrum is critical in the aetiology of both the motor and the non-motor symptoms of PD.

    5. Differential localization of PER1 and PER2 in the brain master circadian clock

      Malini Riddle, Erica Mezias, Duncan Foley, Joseph LeSauter and Rae Silver

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13441

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      The photomicrograph shows a triply labeled sagittal section through the entire rostro-caudal extent of the SCN, labeled for PER1 and PER2 protein at their times of peak expression. Automated analysis of the topography of protein expression is shown in contour diagrams highlighting broad regions with differential expression of PER1 and PER2. Individual cells expressing one but not the other PER protein were commonly seen within these broad regions. Mag bar = 100 μm.

    6. Coupling between spontaneous pupillary fluctuations and brain activity relates to inattentiveness

      A. L. Breeden, G. J. Siegle, M. E. Norr, E. M. Gordon and C. J. Vaidya

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13424

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      We investigated how interactions between the central and autonomic nervous systems relate to individual differences in attention. Using simultaneous pupillometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that individuals less prone to distractibility in every day behavior demonstrated stronger coupling between pupil diameter and resting brain activity in cingulo-opercular regions.

    7. Progesterone analogue protects stressed photoreceptors via bFGF-mediated calcium influx

      Alice C. Wyse-Jackson, Sarah L. Roche, Ana M. Ruiz-Lopez, Jennifer N. Moloney, Ashleigh M. Byrne and Thomas G. Cotter

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13445

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      We propose that Norgestrel protects through the following pathway: binding to and activating PGRMC1 expressed on the surface of photoreceptor cells, PGRMC1 activation drives bFGF upregulation and subsequent calcium influx, primarily from extracellular sources. Importantly, raised intracellular calcium is critical to Norgestrel's protective efficacy to stressed 661W photoreceptor cells in vitro.

    8. Dorsal root ganglion axon bifurcation tolerates increased cyclic GMP levels: the role of phosphodiesterase 2A and scavenger receptor Npr3

      Hannes Schmidt, Stefanie Peters, Katharina Frank, Lai Wen, Robert Feil and Fritz G. Rathjen

      Version of Record online: 3 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13434

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      Expression of phosphodiesterase 2A in embryonic DRG neurons and localization of Npr3 in the dorsal roots, the roof plate and lining the floor plate is shown. Their influence on intracellular cGMP levels and their role in axon bifurcation of DRG neurons in PDE2A or Npr3 mutants was analyzed.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Behavioural benefits of multisensory processing in ferrets

      Amy Hammond-Kenny, Victoria M. Bajo, Andrew J. King and Fernando R. Nodal

      Version of Record online: 3 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13440

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      We characterized the ability of ferrets to localize auditory, visual and spatiotemporally coincident auditory–visual stimuli, by measuring their head-orienting and approach-to-target responses. Approach-to-target behaviour was more accurate and faster to auditory–visual stimuli than to either of the unisensory stimuli. Race model analysis of the approach-to-target response times indicated that this multisensory advantage reflects neural integration.

    10. Comparative effects of adaptation on layers II–III and V–VI neurons in cat V1

      Nayan Chanauria, Vishal Bharmauria, Lyes Bachatene, Sarah Cattan, Jean Rouat and Stéphane Molotchnikoff

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13439

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      V1 neurons are phenomenally plastic. Neurons exhibit attraction and repulsion in response to the ‘adapter’. We hypothesize that neurons not only to a specific layer change as a result of adaptation, but whole cortex is reprogrammed. Simultaneous recordings in V1 revealed that infragranular neurons also exhibit classical attractive and repulsive shifts in response to the imposed stimulus. The results indicate that in an adult brain not only the cells pertaining to specific layer learn to respond to an imposed stimulus but the entire neuronal column changes its preferred orientation.

    11. Early exposure to Aroclor 1254 in vivo disrupts the functional synaptic development of newborn hippocampal granule cells

      A. S. Parent, A. Pinson, N. Woods, C. Chatzi, C. E. Vaaga, A. Bensen, A. Gérard, J. P. Thome, J. P. Bourguignon and G. L. Westbrook

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13437

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      Environmental exposure PCBs has been associated with cognitive deficits in children. We assessed the effects of early exposure to PCBs on newly generated neurons in the mouse hippocampus as a sensitive indicator of neural dysfunction. Although the proliferation and survival of newborn neurons was not affected, PCBs interfered with functional synaptic development that could contribute to their neurotoxicity.

    12. Environment-specific modulation of odorant representations in the honeybee brain

      Neloy Kumar Chakroborty, Randolf Menzel and Marco Schubert

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13438

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      Honeybees were presented to odor stimuli and calcium imaging responses were recorded as characteristic neuronal activity patterns of projection neurons in the antennal lobe. Background odors changed the glomerular response strength to test odorants. The background odor of a honeybee colony reduced responses to floral-related odorants but had a lesser effect on responses to alarm pheromone-related odorants.

    13. A resting-state fMRI study of obese females between pre- and postprandial states before and after bariatric surgery

      Lyle Wiemerslage, Wei Zhou, Gaia Olivo, Julia Stark, Pleunie S. Hogenkamp, Elna-Marie Larsson, Magnus Sundbom and Helgi B. Schiöth

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13428

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      Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) was measured in both the fasted and postprandial state, in obese females before and after bariatric surgery. Neural activity was rapidly altered following surgery, and changes were also dependent on prandial state. Affected areas included the putamen, insula, cingulate, thalamus and frontal regions.

  12. Reviews

    1. VTA dopamine neuron plasticity – the unusual suspects

      Wendy Xin, Nicholas Edwards and Antonello Bonci

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13425

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      Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons are critical for reward related behaviours and display many forms of plasticity. Previous studies have focused on the regulation and expression of plasticity at excitatory inputs, but changes can also occur at inhibitory inputs and in nearby astrocytes, which may have important consequences for dopamine neuron output. The following review will examine a few ways in which inhibitory inputs and astrocytes can undergo plasticity, and consequently, shape VTA dopamine neuron transmission.

  13. Research Reports

    1. The rhythm of the executive gate of speech: subthalamic low-frequency oscillations increase during verbal generation

      Lars Wojtecki, Saskia Elben, Jan Vesper and Alfons Schnitzler

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13429

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      Subthalamic stimulation with alpha-theta frequency exerts beneficial effects on verbal fluency in Parkinson's disease, leading to the assumption that an alpha-theta oscillatory network involving the subthalamic nucleus underlies such a task performance. Subthalamic local field potential recordings revealed a significant alpha-theta local power increase and enhanced alpha-theta coherence between the subthalamic nucleus and frontal EEG during a verbal generation task. Improvement of verbal fluency during subthalamic alpha-theta stimulation is therefore likely due to an enhancement of alpha-theta oscillatory network activity.

    2. High sensitivity of spontaneous spike frequency to sodium leak current in a Lymnaea pacemaker neuron

      T. Z. Lu, W. Kostelecki, C. L. F. Sun, N. Dong, J. L. Pérez Velázquez and Z.-P. Feng

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13426

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      Simulation modeling showing that spiking activity is more sensitive to changes in Na+ leak current than in K+ leak current. (A and B) 3D heat-map plots showing rhythmic spiking duration generated during RPeD1 simulations using different settings for gLNa and gLK, respectively. (C and D) Corresponding spike rates for the range of simulated conductance (blue), and the spike rate sensitivity (green) to changes in conductance of Na+ leak current and K+ leak current, respectively. (E) Heat map plot of spike rate (Hz), as a function of Na+ leak current conductance (gLNa, Y) to K+ leak current conductance (gLK, X) ratio. High firing frequency was observed at low K+ leak conductance, and the firing threshold is dependent on the Na+ leak conductance.

    3. Concurrently induced plasticity due to convergence of distinct forms of spike timing-dependent plasticity in the developing barrel cortex

      Chiaki Itami and Fumitaka Kimura

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13431

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      Two opposite forms of STDP converge onto L2/3, t-LTP from L4 and t-LTD from the thalamus during the second postnatal week. Thalamic projection to L4 lost STDP at this age. Thalamic activity may facilitate L4-L2/3 synapse formation by t-LTP, while simultaneously weakening and retracting from direct innervation of L2/3 by t-LTD through CB1R, thus, reorganization of neural circuits may proceed in a self-organizing manner. Illustration adapted from Itami et al. (2016) with modifications.

  14. Special Issue Articles

    1. Coupling of D2R Short but not D2R Long receptor isoform to the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway renders striatal neurons vulnerable to mutant huntingtin

      Beatriz Galan-Rodriguez, Elodie Martin, Emmanuel Brouillet, Nicole Déglon, Sandrine Betuing and Jocelyne Caboche

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13415

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      Specific coupling of D2R Short to Rho/Rock signaling and striatal vulnerability in Huntington's Disease.

  15. Research Reports

    1. Visuomotor signals for reaching movements in the rostro-dorsal sector of the monkey thalamic reticular nucleus

      Yosuke Saga, Yoshihisa Nakayama, Ken-ichi Inoue, Tomoko Yamagata, Masashi Hashimoto, Léon Tremblay, Masahiko Takada and Eiji Hoshi

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13421

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      The rostro-dorsal sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRNrd) projects via the motor thalamic nuclei, such as X and VLo, to the ventral premotor cortex (PMv). In monkeys performing a visually guided task, TRNrd and PMv neurons showed visual-, set-, and movement-related activity modulation. These results indicate that TRNrd modulates the information flow from the cerebellum and basal ganglia to the PMv via the motor thalamic nuclei for achieving visually guided reaching movements.

    2. Encoding of global visual motion in the nidopallium caudolaterale of behaving crows

      Lysann Wagener and Andreas Nieder

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13430

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      Carrion crows discriminated the motion direction of dynamic random-dot displays in a delayed match-to-sample task. Almost a third of neurons in the ‘nidopallium caudolaterale’ (NCL) responded selectively to the motion direction of the sample stimulus. Neuronal responses were predictive of behavioural performance.

  16. Special Issue Reviews

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Are reprogrammed cells a useful tool for studying dopamine dysfunction in psychotic disorders? A review of the current evidence

      Ulrich Sauerzopf, Roberto Sacco, Gaia Novarino, Marco Niello, Ana Weidenauer, Nicole Praschak-Rieder, Harald Sitte and Matthäus Willeit

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13418

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      We have reviewed 19 publications on reprogrammed cells derived from patients with schizophrenia and five publications on cells derived from patients with bipolar disorder. This review summarizes findings suggesting alterations in synaptic transmission, neuro-development and energy metabolism observed in induced pluripotent stem cells, neuronal progenitor cells and induced neuron-like cells.

  17. Special Issue Articles

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism affects encoding of object locations during active navigation

      Joost Wegman, Anna Tyborowska, Martine Hoogman, Alejandro Arias Vásquez and Gabriele Janzen

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13416

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      This fMRI study demonstrates that variations in the BDNF gene affect the encoding of object locations in memory. Met carriers of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism compared to Val homozygotes activated the left hippocampus more during successful object location memory, pointing to a compensatory mechanism in Met allele carriers.

    2. Long-term progressive motor skill training enhances corticospinal excitability for the ipsilateral hemisphere and motor performance of the untrained hand

      Lasse Christiansen, Malte Nejst Larsen, Michael James Grey, Jens Bo Nielsen and Jesper Lundbye-Jensen

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13409

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      Six weeks of unimanual progressive visuomotor training increased motor performance of the untrained hand and corticospinal excitability of the untrained hemisphere compared to conventional training. This suggests that compared to conventional training, progressive training creates a motor representation accessible to both the trained and untrained hand. Differences between effects of progressive and conventional motor practice persisted 8 days following the intervention, but not 14 months later in a long-term retention test. Potential clinical implications are discussed.

  18. Research Reports

    1. Transient and persistent behavioral and molecular changes in primiparous female Wistar rats

      Roshan R. Naik and Trynke R. de Jong

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13411

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      Reduced anxiety and increased maternal responsiveness in mid-lactation coincided with strongly increased expression of the oxytocin receptor gene (Oxtr) and vasopressin 1A receptor gene (Avpr1a) in the BNST. Anxiety behavior and gene expression patterns were normalized either at weaning (3 weeks after birth) or 4 weeks after weaning, whereas maternal responsiveness remained elevated. These results emphasize the transient nature of lactation-induced behavioral and molecular adaptations.

    2. Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 attenuates mechanical allodynia and neuroinflammatory responses in a chronic post-ischemic pain model of complex regional pain syndrome type I in rats

      Jijun Xu, Yuying Tang, Mian Xie, Bihua Bie, Jiang Wu, Hui Yang, Joseph F. Foss, Bin Yang, Richard W. Rosenquist and Mohamed Naguib

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13414

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      Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP) animal model appears to characterize the pathophysiological changes seen in the complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) in humans. Administration of MDA7, a selective agonist for cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), mitigates CPIP-mediated peripheral inflammation, spontaneous pain behaviors, mechanical allodynia, loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers and upregulation of spinal chemokine receptor CX3CR1 in rats.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Hippocampal shape alterations are associated with regional Aβ load in cognitively normal elderly individuals

      Clemens Schroeder, Min Tae M. Park, Jürgen Germann, M. Mallar Chakravarty, Lars Michels, Spyros Kollias, Sara L. Kroll, Alfred Buck, Valerie Treyer, Egemen Savaskan, Paul G. Unschuld, Roger M. Nitsch, Andrea M. Kälin, Christoph Hock, Anton F. Gietl and Sandra E. Leh

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13408

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      The authors of this study report a significant association between left hippocampal shape and amyloid deposition measured by PiB-PET in this region in a sample of cognitively healthy elderly individuals. This result was paralleled by a negative association between cortical amyloid burden and thickness of the entorhinal cortex, which is part of the cortical signature of AD. The results of this study show that measurements of entorhinal cortical thickness and hippocampal shape are capable to identify early structural brain changes that occur in association with regional or cortical amyloid deposition in presymptomatic AD.

    4. Reversal learning strategy in adolescence is associated with prefrontal cortex activation

      Rebecca Boehme, Robert C. Lorenz, Tobias Gleich, Lydia Romund, Patricia Pelz, Sabrina Golde, Eva Flemming, Andrew Wold, Lorenz Deserno, Joachim Behr, Diana Raufelder, Andreas Heinz and Anne Beck

      Version of Record online: 5 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13401

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      Adolescents who use task structure when solving a reversal learning task show higher prefrontal activation related to prediction errors compared to those who rely less on task structure. PE-related activity is associated with pubertal development in prefrontal areas, insula and anterior cingulate.

  19. Special Issue Articles

    1. The dopamine D3 receptor, a quarter century later

      Pierre Sokoloff and Bernard Le Foll

      Version of Record online: 3 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13390

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      This review updates the existing knowledge suggesting a role in schizophrenia and drug addiction for the D3 receptor, which is expressed in brain regions controlling reward, emotions and motivation and modulates glutamatergic pathways from the prefrontal cortex to subcortical areas. The clinical potency of selective D3 compounds still await confirmation and their development will benefit from initial assessment of target engagement through the use of PET.

    2. Effect of nucleus accumbens lesions on socially motivated behaviour of young domestic chicks

      Gergely Zachar, András Sebestyén Tóth, Márton Balogh and András Csillag

      Version of Record online: 3 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13402

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      Young domestic chicks with radiofrequency lesions to the nucleus accumbens (Ac), in comparison with control (sham-operated) birds, emitted more distress calls when tested in isolation in the open field. Yet distress vocalization was suppressed on the presentation of a predatory stimulus, similarly in lesioned and in control chicks. Both groups chose the larger flock (eight) of conspecifics over the smaller one (three). Accumbens lesions may have elicited either decreased fear of exposure to predators or increased craving for conspecifics, suggesting that the likely function of Ac is to modulate goal-driven, including socially motivated, behaviours, especially when a direct stimulus representing the goal is absent.

  20. Research Reports

    1. Chronic cocaine exposure induces noradrenergic modulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission to cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus

      Naofumi Taoka, Ryota Kamiizawa, Shintaro Wada, Masabumi Minami and Katsuyuki Kaneda

      Version of Record online: 1 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13405

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      Ex vivo electrophysiological recordings revealed that noradrenaline (NA) attenuated inhibitory synaptic transmission in laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) cholinergic neurons after repeated cocaine, but not saline, exposure. This NA-induced attenuation is mediated by α2 adrenoceptors probably located in GABAergic axon terminals. The cocaine-induced plasticity might contribute to an enhanced activity of LDT cholinergic neurons, which may be critical for cocaine-induced addictive behaviors.

  21. Special Issue Reviews

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease: what are the risk factors and what is the role of impulsivity?

      Petra Heiden, Andreas Heinz and Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth

      Version of Record online: 1 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13396

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      The incidence of pathological gambling in Parkinson's patients is significantly greater than in the general population. This review summarizes evidence in this field of research attempting to reveal the relationship between Parkinson therapy and pathological gambling, discusses the reasons why some patients react on them differently than others, what the relevant risk factors are and considers how impulsivity may contribute to the development of gambling symptoms.

  22. Special Issue Articles

    1. Dopamine receptor activity participates in hippocampal synaptic plasticity associated with novel object recognition

      Kechun Yang, John I. Broussard, Amber T. Levine, Daniel Jenson, Benjamin R. Arenkiel and John A. Dani

      Version of Record online: 1 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13406

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      Novel object recognition (NOR) engages the hippocampus as mice remember previously presented objects as an indication of learning. In this study, Yang et al. measured the ratio of AMPA to NMDA currents. When mice were exposed to novel objects (right), the AMPA/NMDA ratio increased in dentate granule neurons. Accurately performing the task and the associated increase in the AMPA/NMDA ratio were dependent upon D1-like receptor activity.

  23. Research Reports

    1. Muscle and motor neuron ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α together maintain adult motor neuron axons in vivo

      Nancy Lee, Carolyn R. Serbinski, Makayla R. Braunlin, Matthew S. Rasch, Carolyn E. Rydyznski and A. John MacLennan

      Version of Record online: 27 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13393

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      We used adult onset genetic disruption techniques to deplete motor neuron and muscle CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα), the essential ligand binding subunit of the receptor, and incorporated reporters labelling affected motor neuron axons and terminals. This CNTFRα depletion lead to a large loss of terminals, and retrograde labelling of motor neurons indicated axon die-back well beyond muscle, together revealing an essential role for CNTFRα in adult motor axon maintenance.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Acute stress alters individual risk taking in a time-dependent manner and leads to anti-social risk

      S. Bendahan, L. Goette, J. Thoresen, L. Loued-Khenissi, F. Hollis and C. Sandi

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13395

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      Participants take more risks immediately after exposure to social stress. However, over time, they become more risk averse than even unstressed controls. When risks carry a negative financial consequence to another person, all participants adjust their behaviour to take less risk, but stressed participants adjust less.

  24. Special Issue Articles

    1. Gonadectomy but not biological sex affects burst-firing in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area and in prefrontal cortical neurons projecting to the ventral tegmentum in adult rats

      Mallory N. Locklear, Michalis Michealos, William F. Collins and Mary F. Kritzer

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13380

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      Single unit recordings made in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and in ventral tegmentally projecting prefrontal cortex cells were compared among urethane-anaesthetized male, female and gonadectomized male rats. A survey of firing properties showed that gonadectomy selectively increased burst firing in both areas in a testosterone-sensitive, estradiol-insensitive manner. A working model is proposed for androgen impact originating in cortex and feeding forward to the ventral midbrain.

    2. On the properties of identified dopaminergic neurons in the mouse substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area

      Paraskevi Krashia, Alessandro Martini, Annalisa Nobili, Daniela Aversa, Marcello D'Amelio, Nicola Berretta, Ezia Guatteo and Nicola Biagio Mercuri

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13364

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      We studied the properties of identified DAergic neurons in midbrain slices from TH-GFP mice. We saw that the firing rate, membrane properties, cell size and Ih magnitude of TH-GFP+ cells varied with a mediolateral gradient across distinct SNpc and VTA subregions. TH-GFP+ cells were inhibited by DA and excited by Met-Enk, whereas Zd7288 inhibited firing only in the most lateral regions. Our work provides new insights into the variability in midbrain DAergic neurons along the mediolateral axis.

    3. The unique psychostimulant profile of (±)-modafinil: investigation of behavioral and neurochemical effects in mice

      Maddalena Mereu, Lauren E. Chun, Thomas E. Prisinzano, Amy H. Newman, Jonathan L. Katz and Gianluigi Tanda

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13376

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      Modafinil, like cocaine, increased nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) levels, produced cocaine-like discriminative-stimulus (subjective) effects and enhanced those effects when administered with cocaine. Nonetheless, modafinil is unique. Its lower dopaminergic potency and efficacy than cocaine, with subjective effects obtained at lower doses and earlier onset times than expected from effects on DA, suggest that non-dopaminergic effects may be critical in modafinil's unique pharmacologic profile.

    4. Dopaminergic neurotransmission in ventral and dorsal striatum differentially modulates alcohol reinforcement

      Marcia Spoelder, Peter Hesseling, Matthew Styles, Annemarie M. Baars, José G. Lozeman-van ‘t Klooster, Heidi M. B. Lesscher and Louk J. M. J. Vanderschuren

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13358

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      We assessed how dopamine within striatal sub-regions modulates alcohol reinforcement, using bilateral infusions of the dopamine receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol. Our results suggest that dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell is involved in the incentive motivation for alcohol, while NAcc core dopamine plays a more general role in alcohol reinforcement. Dorsolateral striatal dopamine comes into play when obtaining alcohol requires high levels of effort.

  25. Special Issue Reviews

    1. Brain dopamine neurone ‘damage’: methamphetamine users vs. Parkinson's disease – a critical assessment of the evidence

      Stephen J. Kish, Isabelle Boileau, Russell C. Callaghan and Junchao Tong

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13363

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      Striatal dopamine (DA) marker changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) vs. methamphetamine (MA) users. In autopsied brain of persons with PD, striatal levels of all DA markers (DA and metabolites DOPAC, HVA and 3-MT, synthesizing enzymes TH and AADC, and transporters VMAT2 and DAT) are low, whereas in MA users, only two markers (DA and DAT) are below normal. This suggests that any loss of brain dopamine neurones in at least a subgroup of recreational MA users, if at all present, might not be substantial.

  26. Special Issue Articles

    1. A Caenorhabditis elegans model to study dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome

      Placido Illiano, Ambra Lanzo, Damiana Leo, Maria Paglione, Giuseppina Zampi, Raul R. Gainetdinov and Elia Di Schiavi

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13366

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      Caenorhabditis elegans dopamine transporter (DAT) orthologue, cedat-1, maintains homeostasis in dopamine (DA) signalling. cedat-1 knockout (KO) causes accumulation of extracellular DA-inducing swimming-induced paralysis (SWIP). Expression of human DAT (hDATwt) in cedat-1 KO rescues SWIP defects, whereas dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome-related mutations in hDAT (hDATmut) do not, or only partially, rescue the SWIP defects. We provide a new in vivo tool for investigating mutations in hDAT gene found in DTDS patients.

  27. Special Issue Reviews

    1. Membrane transporters as mediators of synaptic dopamine dynamics: implications for disease

      Kelly M. Lohr, Shababa T. Masoud, Ali Salahpour and Gary W. Miller

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13357

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      This review describes the importance of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) on dopamine compartmentalization and neuronal health (A–C). While theoretical, this schematic highlights emerging evidence from mouse models of varying transporter levels. We predict that the continuum of transporter function in these animal models will allow for new discoveries concerning endogenous dopamine handling, pharmacological manipulation of the transporters, and dopamine-dependent behaviors (D).

  28. Special Issue Articles

    1. Preserved dopaminergic homeostasis and dopamine-related behaviour in hemizygous TH-Cre mice

      Annika H. Runegaard, Kathrine L. Jensen, Ciarán M. Fitzpatrick, Ditte Dencker, Pia Weikop, Ulrik Gether and Mattias Rickhag

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13347

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      Phenotypic characterization of the TH-Cre mouse strain validates its use to target and study the dopamine system. Hemizygous TH-Cre mice display preserved dopaminergic homeostasis with unaltered levels of TH and dopamine as well as unaffected dopamine turnover in striatum. TH-Cre mice demonstrate normal responses in basic behavioural paradigms related to dopaminergic signalling (Sagittal and coronal brain sections in illustration were modified from Paxinos and Franklin, 2001).

  29. Research Reports

    1. Reducing falls in Parkinson's disease: interactions between donepezil and the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist idalopirdine on falls in a rat model of impaired cognitive control of complex movements

      Aaron Kucinski, Inge E. M. de Jong and Martin Sarter

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13354

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      Following short freezes, rats with dual cortical cholinergic and striatal dopaminergic deafferentation resumed forward movement relatively slowly, generally with the tail positioned relatively low and with a slouched posture, yielding slips and falls. When treated with donepezil and idalopirdine (DON + IDL), such rats resumed forward movement, sometimes starting with a hop, they quickly regaining regular traversal speed and fluid forward movement, with high and firm tail position and upright posture, thereby preventing slips and falls.

    2. Hearing, feeling or seeing a beat recruits a supramodal network in the auditory dorsal stream

      Rodrigo Araneda, Laurent Renier, Daniela Ebner-Karestinos, Laurence Dricot and Anne G. De Volder

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13349

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      There is one centralized and multisensory neural network involved in the processing of a beat, whatever detected in audition, in vision or via the vibrotactile modality. Among these regions within the auditory doesal pathway and motor planning areas, which are similarly acitivated in all three modalities, the supplementary motor area and the putamen are the most specific to the beat. See Figure 5 in the article.

  30. Special Issue Articles

    1. Chronic D2/3 agonist ropinirole treatment increases preference for uncertainty in rats regardless of baseline choice patterns

      Melanie Tremblay, Mason M. Silveira, Sukhbir Kaur, Jay G. Hosking, Wendy K. Adams, Christelle Baunez and Catharine A. Winstanley

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13332

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      Here, we report that chronic administration of the D2/3 receptor agonist ropinirole increased preference for uncertainty on a rat model of gambling-like behaviour, the rodent betting task (rBT), in both healthy rats and in a 6-OHDA lesion model of early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD). This suggests that D2/3 agonist-induced impulse control disorders (ICDs) are caused by drug treatment independent from pre-morbid behaviours or PD itself.

    2. Spike-timing dependent inhibitory plasticity to learn a selective gating of backpropagating action potentials

      Katharina Anna Wilmes, Jan-Hendrik Schleimer and Susanne Schreiber

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13326

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      Feedforward inhibitory circuits can provide a switch for excitatory synaptic plasticity and BAC firing by temporally precise control of backpropagating action potentials. The precision in the circuit, however, first has to be established. This study demonstrates that an inhibitory learning rule can achieve automatic fine-tuning of such feedforward circuits, a regulatory mechanism that allows to dynamically control learning in the nervous system.

    3. Sparse pallidal connections shape synchrony in a network model of the basal ganglia

      Bettina C. Schwab, Richard J. A. van Wezel and Stephan A. van Gils

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13324

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      It is still unknown how β synchrony arises in the parkinsonian basal ganglia, and what makes it dependent on dopamine. We show that in a network model, the combination of sparse, high-conductance inhibition and sparse, low-conductance gap junctions in the external globus pallidus could desynchronize the basal ganglia. For stronger gap junctions, activity synchronized. As dopamine decreases gap junction conductance, we suggest that gap junctions contribute to β synchrony in the parkinsonian basal ganglia.

    4. The possible consequences for cognitive functions of external electric fields at power line frequency on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons

      Rosanna Migliore, Giada De Simone, Xavier Leinekugel and Michele Migliore

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13325

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      We investigated how, why and to what extent external perturbations of the intrinsic neuronal activity, such as those caused by generation, transmission and use of electrical energy [external electric fields (EF)] can affect neuronal activity during cognitive processes. Our results suggest that, although EF effects on cognitive processes may be difficult to occur in everyday life, their functional consequences deserve some consideration, especially when EF are present in a living environment.

    5. Emergent spatial synaptic structure from diffusive plasticity

      Yann Sweeney and Claudia Clopath

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13279

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      Diffusive neurotransmitters provide a means for neurons to influence their neighbours regardless of their synaptic coupling. We propose a form of diffusive plasticity which is mediated by these neurotransmitters, and find that it introduces spatial structure in the synaptic connectivity of networks. This emergent spatial structure is reminiscent of stimulus preference structure in sensory cortex and can flexibly interact with other forms of functional synaptic organisation.

    6. Calcium dynamics predict direction of synaptic plasticity in striatal spiny projection neurons

      Joanna Jędrzejewska-Szmek, Sriraman Damodaran, Daniel B. Dorman and Kim T. Blackwell

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13287

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      We created a model spiny projection neuron with dendrites, spines and realistic calcium dynamics to investigate synaptic plasticity. Synaptic strength increases when calcium exceeds an upper threshold for a specified duration, and decreases when calcium is between the upper and lower threshold for a specified duration. This learning rule accurately predicts the timing- and NMDA-dependence of STDP, and further predicts that L-type calcium channels are required for LTD.

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