European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 44 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: John Foxe and Paul Bolam

Impact Factor: 2.975

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 114/256 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1460-9568


  1. 1 - 47
  1. Research Reports

    1. Do wholes become more than the sum of their parts in the rodent (Rattus Norvegicus) visual system? A test case with the configural superiority effect

      John C. Talpos, Lee de-Wit, Joseph Olley, Jack Riordan and Thomas Steckler

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13350

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      Unlike humans, rats do not show evidence of seeing shapes as ‘more than the sum of their parts’. Despite the similarities between the rodent and human visual systems, rats do not display a configural superiority effect and are heavily biased towards the use of ‘local’, as opposed to ‘global’ cue when solving a visual discrimination. These data highlight important differences in the processing of visual stimuli between rats and humans.

  2. Special Issue Articles

    1. Preserved dopaminergic homeostasis and dopamine-related behaviour in hemizygous TH-Cre mice

      Annika H. Runegaard, Kathrine L. Jensen, Ciarán M. Fitzpatrick, Ditte Dencker, Pia Weikop, Ulrik Gether and Mattias Rickhag

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13347

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      Phenotypic characterization of the TH-Cre mouse strain validates its use to target and study the dopamine system. Hemizygous TH-Cre mice display preserved dopaminergic homeostasis with unaltered levels of TH and dopamine as well as unaffected dopamine turnover in striatum. TH-Cre mice demonstrate normal responses in basic behavioural paradigms related to dopaminergic signalling (Sagittal and coronal brain sections in illustration were modified from Paxinos and Franklin, 2001).

  3. Research Reports

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Temporally stable adaptation is robust, incomplete and specific

      Katinka van der Kooij, Krista E. Overvliet and Jeroen B. J. Smeets

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13355

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      We investigated the effect of repeated sensorimotor adaptation sessions over longer periods of time. A 3D pointing task that was repeated on different days yielded temporally stable but incomplete adaptation that was specific to pointing with the adapted hand and remained incomplete. This saturation of adaptation does not support the idea that slow components in common models of adaptation underlie the seemingly perfect adaptation to natural changes such as body growth.

    2. Blocking transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 channel in astrocytes enhances astrocyte-mediated neuroprotection after oxygen–glucose deprivation and reoxygenation

      Han Zhang, Jun Xiao, Zheng Hu, Minjie Xie, Wei Wang and Dan He

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13352

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      Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) channel expresses functionally in rat cortical astrocytes and oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation treatment enhances the expression. Blocking the TRPV2 channel in astrocytes promotes cell proliferation and the secretion of nerve growth factor via the mitogen-activated protein kinase-c-JunN-terminalkinase pathway. TRPV2 channel may be a candidate target for the astrocyte-mediated therapy in ischemic stroke.

  4. Editorial

    1. You have free access to this content
      History of neuroscience in Greece: from Alkmaion to austerity

      George K. Kostopoulos

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13341

  5. Research Reports

    1. Phosphorylation of NMDA receptor GluN2B subunit at Tyr1472 is important for trigeminal processing of itch

      Akitoshi Inoue, Hitoshi Uchida, Takanobu Nakazawa, Tadashi Yamamoto and Seiji Ito

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13337

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      In this study, we showed that the phosphorylation of GluN2B subunits of the NMDA receptor at its Tyr1472 is important for trigeminal transmission of itch. NMDA receptor activation occurs upstream of the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-GRP receptor pathway.

    2. Age-dependent increase in Kalirin-9 and Kalirin-12 transcripts in human orbitofrontal cortex

      Melanie J. Grubisha, Chien-Wei Lin, George C. Tseng, Peter Penzes, Etienne Sibille and Robert A. Sweet

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13351

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      Global KALRN analysis in BA11 shows no significant age-dependent change. Isoform-specific analyses within this same region, however, demonstrate a modest but statistically significant age-dependent change in the longer isoforms, KAL9 and KAL12. This finding is overlooked in global expression analyses.

    3. The active zone protein CAST regulates synaptic vesicle recycling and quantal size in the mouse hippocampus

      Shizuka Kobayashi, Yamato Hida, Hiroyoshi Ishizaki, Eiji Inoue, Miki Tanaka-Okamoto, Miwako Yamasaki, Taisuke Miyazaki, Masahiro Fukaya, Isao Kitajima, Yoshimi Takai, Masahiko Watanabe, Toshihisa Ohtsuka and Toshiya Manabe

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13331

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      A hypothetical schema of synaptic vesicle dynamics in the presynaptic terminal. (Upper) Normal dynamics of synaptic vesicles in WT mice. Following the release of glutamate, newly-generated synaptic vesicles are transported directly or indirectly via the endosome to the pool of synaptic vesicles, which may be regulated by CAST. CAST may also regulate membrane fusion of synaptic vesicles. (Lower) Impaired synaptic vesicle dynamics in CAST KO mice or by brefeldin A. The indirect pathway via the endosome is impaired in CAST KO mice or blocked by brefeldin A. The lack of CAST may also impair membrane fusion of synaptic vesicles.

    4. Spatially resolved time-frequency analysis of odour coding in the insect antennal lobe

      Marco Paoli, Nathan Weisz, Renzo Antolini and Albrecht Haase

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13344

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      Antennal lobes constitute the first neurophils in the insect brain involved in coding and processing of olfactory information. Combining fast calcium imaging with time-frequency analysis, we have investigated the oscillatory components of neural activity upon olfactory stimulation. With this study, we report of a low-frequency oscillatory pattern, the intensity of which is perturbed by an incoming stimulus in a glomerulus- and odorant-specific manner.

    5. Reducing falls in Parkinson's disease: interactions between donepezil and the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist idalopirdine on falls in a rat model of impaired cognitive control of complex movements

      Aaron Kucinski, Inge E. M. de Jong and Martin Sarter

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13354

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      Following short freezes, rats with dual cortical cholinergic and striatal dopaminergic deafferentation resumed forward movement relatively slowly, generally with the tail positioned relatively low and with a slouched posture, yielding slips and falls. When treated with donepezil and idalopirdine (DON + IDL), such rats resumed forward movement, sometimes starting with a hop, they quickly regaining regular traversal speed and fluid forward movement, with high and firm tail position and upright posture, thereby preventing slips and falls.

    6. Neuroprotective effect of propofol against excitotoxic injury to locomotor networks of the rat spinal cord in vitro

      Jaspreet Kaur, Javier Flores Gutiérrez and Andrea Nistri

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13353

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      The general anaesthetic propofol can prevent excitotoxic death of motoneurons (immunostained with a cholineacetyltransferase antibody) evoked by the glutamate agonist kainic acid applied to the isolated spinal cord of the rat. This effect is manifested even when propofol is administered after washout of the toxic agent and is indicative of a potential neuroprotective action to be explored in future experiments in vivo.

  6. Commentary

    1. You have free access to this content
      Cerebellar output encodes a corrective saccadic command (Commentary on Sun et al.)

      David J. Herzfeld and Reza Shadmehr

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13345

  7. Research Reports

    1. Hearing, feeling or seeing a beat recruits a supramodal network in the auditory dorsal stream

      Rodrigo Araneda, Laurent Renier, Daniela Ebner-Karestinos, Laurence Dricot and Anne G. De Volder

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13349

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      There is one centralized and multisensory neural network involved in the processing of a beat, whatever detected in audition, in vision or via the vibrotactile modality. Among these regions within the auditory doesal pathway and motor planning areas, which are similarly acitivated in all three modalities, the supplementary motor area and the putamen are the most specific to the beat. See Figure 5 in the article.

  8. Commentary

    1. You have free access to this content
  9. Special Issue Articles

    1. Chronic D2/3 agonist ropinirole treatment increases preference for uncertainty in rats regardless of baseline choice patterns

      Melanie Tremblay, Mason M. Silveira, Sukhbir Kaur, Jay G. Hosking, Wendy K. Adams, Christelle Baunez and Catharine A. Winstanley

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13332

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      Here, we report that chronic administration of the D2/3 receptor agonist ropinirole increased preference for uncertainty on a rat model of gambling-like behaviour, the rodent betting task (rBT), in both healthy rats and in a 6-OHDA lesion model of early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD). This suggests that D2/3 agonist-induced impulse control disorders (ICDs) are caused by drug treatment independent from pre-morbid behaviours or PD itself.

  10. Research Reports

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Timing matters: open-loop stimulation does not improve overnight consolidation of word pairs in humans

      Arne Weigenand, Matthias Mölle, Friederike Werner, Thomas Martinetz and Lisa Marshall

      Version of Record online: 10 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13334

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      Auditory clicks applied phase-locked to the up state of the slow oscillation (closed-loop stimulation) during NREM sleep have previously been shown to enhance the consolidation of declarative memories, slow oscillation and spindle power. Here, sequences of three clicks were applied to achieve a quasi-phase-dependent open-loop stimulation. Stimulation successfully elicited slow oscillations, but spindle power decreased in the stimulation period. Memory consolidation did not differ from control.

  11. Short Communication

    1. Perceived state of self during motion can differentially modulate numerical magnitude allocation

      Q. Arshad, Y. Nigmatullina, R. E. Roberts, U. Goga, M. Pikovsky, S. Khan, R. Lobo, A.-S. Flury, V. E. Pettorossi, R. Cohen-Kadosh, P. A. Malhotra and A. M. Bronstein

      Version of Record online: 10 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13335

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      Previous research has conflictingly reported the effects of motion upon numerical cognition. Herewith, we investigated separately the effects that changes solely in the perceptual state of ‘self’ during either visual or vestibular mediated motion, have upon numerical magnitude allocation. In the visual condition, we compared magnitude allocation during the perceptual states of either visual- world or self-motion, whereas during the vestibular motion experiment, we compared differences in magnitude allocation during either perceived versus subliminal angular rotations. Critically, given that eye movements' can influence numerical mechanisms,confounding results of previous studies, we ensured that there was no difference in the eye movements elicited between the different perceptual conditions. Our results demonstrate that numerical magnitude allocation can be differentially modulated by the perceptual state of self during visual but not vestibular mediated motion.

    2. Cocaine abstinence induces emotional impairment and brain region-specific upregulation of the oxytocin receptor binding

      Polymnia Georgiou, Panos Zanos, Susanna Hourani, Ian Kitchen and Alexis Bailey

      Version of Record online: 10 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13348

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      Chronic cocaine administration and withdrawal increased oxytocin receptor binding in lateral septum and amygdala. These biochemical alterations occurred concomitantly with the emergence of an anhedonic and anxiogenic phenotype during withdrawal. Our study established a relationship between cocaine abstinence and emotional impairment in a translationally relevant model and demonstrated neuroadaptations of the oxytocin system, which may contribute to abstinence-induced negative emotional state.

  12. Research Reports

    1. Hemispheric asymmetries in subcortical visual and auditory relay structures in congenital deafness

      L. Amaral, A. Ganho-Ávila, A. Osório, M. J. Soares, D. He, Q. Chen, B. Z. Mahon, O. F. Gonçalves, A. Sampaio, F. Fang, Y. Bi and J. Almeida

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13340

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      The right auditory cortex (AC) of congenitally deaf humans is neuroplastically modified to represent visual properties of a stimulus. Here, we show that the Thalamus and the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of deaf individuals are larger in the right than in the left hemisphere mirroring the functional asymmetry within the AC. This suggests that these subcortical structures may be responsible for neuroplastically rerouting visual information to the AC in congenital deafness.

    2. Deep brain stimulation in the central nucleus of the amygdala decreases ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ of food rewards

      Shani E. Ross, Emily Lehmann Levin, Christy A. Itoga, Chelsea B. Schoen, Romeissa Selmane and J. Wayne Aldridge

      Version of Record online: 5 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13342

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      Deep brain stimulation of the central nucleus of the amygdala resulted in decreased working for and consumption of sucrose pellets in rats. This same type of stimulation had no effect on animals implanted in control sites. Furthermore, animals receiving CeA stimulation demonstrated increased ‘disliking’ reactions to hedonic, neutral, and aversive tastes, although given the opportunity, they would nose-poke for short bursts of stimulation.

    3. Reputation in an economic game modulates premotor cortex activity during action observation

      Harry Farmer, Matthew Apps and Manos Tsakiris

      Version of Record online: 4 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13327

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      We investigated how the neural processing of a persons' actions during an economic game is influenced by their reputation. We found significantly greater activation in the left dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC) when participants saw the action of a person with a negative reputation compared to a person with a positive reputation. Our findings show that the processing of observed actions is modulated by an actor's reputation, and suggest a predictive role for the dPMC during action observation.

    4. Melanopsin supports irradiance-driven changes in maintained activity in the superior colliculus of the mouse

      Miguel Dasilva, Riccardo Storchi, Katherine E. Davis, Kenneth L. Grieve and Robert J. Lucas

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13336

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      The superior colliculus of visually intact mice (Opn1mwR) show maintained responses to extended light steps and to an irradiance ramp with superimposed temporal white noise. These responses are deficient when metameric stimuli with reduced melanopic irradiance are used (Mel-Low) and in mice lacking melanopsin (Opn1mwR;Opn4−/−).

  13. Editorial

    1. You have free access to this content
      Moving on: mobility for early-career neuroscientists

      Matthew S. Grubb, Casper C. Hoogenraad, Lars Schwabe and Guillermina López-Bendito

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13339

  14. Special Issue Articles

    1. Spike-timing dependent inhibitory plasticity to learn a selective gating of backpropagating action potentials

      Katharina Anna Wilmes, Jan-Hendrik Schleimer and Susanne Schreiber

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13326

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      Feedforward inhibitory circuits can provide a switch for excitatory synaptic plasticity and BAC firing by temporally precise control of backpropagating action potentials. The precision in the circuit, however, first has to be established. This study demonstrates that an inhibitory learning rule can achieve automatic fine-tuning of such feedforward circuits, a regulatory mechanism that allows to dynamically control learning in the nervous system.

  15. Research Reports

    1. Brain processing of consonance/dissonance in musicians and controls: a hemispheric asymmetry revisited

      Alice Mado Proverbio, Andrea Orlandi and Francesca Pisanu

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13330

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      Hemispheric differences in the processing of consonant vs. dissonant chords were investigated in highly experienced musicians and inexperienced participants via Electroencephalogram (EEG)/ERP recordings. Dissonant chords consisted either of a widely spaced tone range or included intervals down to a quarter tone. A finer and more tuned neural representation of tones was found in musicians. A hemispheric specialization (much stronger in musicians) for processing dissonant chords in the left and consonant chords in the right temporal cortex (BA21/38)was found at N1 and N2 level.

    2. Functional consequences of experience-dependent plasticity on tactile perception following perceptual learning

      Natalie K. Trzcinski, Manuel Gomez-Ramirez and Steven S. Hsiao

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13343

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      Participants discriminated temporal patterns of multi-digit tactile bars during an extensive training period. We predicted that this training would enhance discrimination of stimuli delivered to multiple digits at the expense of single-digit discrimination. We observed a decline in spatial discrimination on single fingers and improvements in temporal discrimination across multiple digits. Our findings provide evidence that perceptual learning interferes and improves related perceptual tasks.

    3. Is electrical coupling involved in the generation of posterior hypothalamic theta rhythm?

      Renata Bocian, Bartosz Caban, Paulina Kłos-Wojtczak, Jan Konopacki and Tomasz Kowalczyk

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13338

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      The aim of this study was to examine the effect of gap junctions (GJs) modulation on the production of posterior hypothalamic (PHa) theta. Present data shows that electrical coupling via GJs is not involved in theta rhythm generation in the PHa. Surprisingly, we observed a significant enhancement of the theta rhythm in response to the gap junctions blocker – carbenoxolone. We suggest that the observed excitatory effects could be mediated by mineralocorticoid receptors.

  16. Special Issue Articles

    1. Sparse pallidal connections shape synchrony in a network model of the basal ganglia

      Bettina C. Schwab, Richard J. A. van Wezel and Stephan A. van Gils

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13324

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      It is still unknown how β synchrony arises in the parkinsonian basal ganglia, and what makes it dependent on dopamine. We show that in a network model, the combination of sparse, high-conductance inhibition and sparse, low-conductance gap junctions in the external globus pallidus could desynchronize the basal ganglia. For stronger gap junctions, activity synchronized. As dopamine decreases gap junction conductance, we suggest that gap junctions contribute to β synchrony in the parkinsonian basal ganglia.

  17. Research Reports

    1. When neutral turns significant: brain dynamics of rapidly formed associations between neutral stimuli and emotional contexts

      Carlos Ventura-Bort, Andreas Löw, Julia Wendt, Florin Dolcos, Alfons O. Hamm and Mathias Weymar

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13319

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      The capacity to form associations between neutral and affective information is crucial for generating adaptive responses. In this study, we found that after single association, neutral objects previously encoded in the context of emotional compared to neutral scenes evoked a larger P100 (140–184 ms) over occipital electrodes and larger late positive potentials (LPP) over parietal–occipital electrodes (450–750 ms). The data provide direct evidence for fast emotional associative learning, which could assist in understanding binding mechanisms in stress- and addiction-related disorders.

  18. Special Issue Articles

    1. The possible consequences for cognitive functions of external electric fields at power line frequency on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons

      Rosanna Migliore, Giada De Simone, Xavier Leinekugel and Michele Migliore

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13325

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      We investigated how, why and to what extent external perturbations of the intrinsic neuronal activity, such as those caused by generation, transmission and use of electrical energy [external electric fields (EF)] can affect neuronal activity during cognitive processes. Our results suggest that, although EF effects on cognitive processes may be difficult to occur in everyday life, their functional consequences deserve some consideration, especially when EF are present in a living environment.

  19. Research Reports

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      High post-movement parietal low-beta power during rhythmic tapping facilitates performance in a stop task

      Petra Fischer, Huiling Tan, Alek Pogosyan and Peter Brown

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13328

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      12–20 Hz beta modulation during auditory-paced finger tapping over parietal and contralateral motor cortex was reduced if sudden movement inhibition was required. Negative mean asynchrony was also reduced indicating more hesitant tapping to the sound. Yet if the beta increase following the last regular tap was relatively high, tapping was more successfully interrupted when required. Elevated beta may thus reflect reduced cognitive load and increased confidence in current performance.

    2. Partial inactivation of GABAA receptors containing the α5 subunit affects the development of adult-born dentate gyrus granule cells

      Francine Deprez, Fabia Vogt, Amalia Floriou-Servou, Carlos Lafourcade, Uwe Rudolph, Shiva K. Tyagarajan and Jean-Marc Fritschy

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13329

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      Partial inactivation of Gabra5, the gene encoding the GABAAR α5 subunit causes severe alterations of migration and dendrite development of adult-born dentate gyrus granule cells in mice. In α5-het mice, the deficit could be reversed by retrovirally-mediated overexpression of Cdk5, suggesting that this signalling pathways cooperates with α5-GABAARs to regulate neuronal development. In conclusion, minor imbalance of α5-GABAAR-mediated transmission may have major consequences for neuronal plasticity; calling for caution upon chronic therapeutic use of negative allosteric modulators acting at these receptors.

    3. Atorvastatin enhances kainate-induced gamma oscillations in rat hippocampal slices

      Chengzhang Li, Jiangang Wang, Jianhua Zhao, Yali Wang, Zhihua Liu, Fang Li Guo, Xiao Fang Wang, Martin Vreugdenhil and Cheng Biao Lu

      Version of Record online: 17 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13322

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      Atorvastatin (AT) increased γ power in a dose-dependent manner. The enhancing effect of AT is associated with the increased interneuron firing and frequency of sIPSCs as well as the activation of PKA, ERK and PI3 kinases.

    4. Brain BDNF levels are dependent on cerebrovascular endothelium-derived nitric oxide

      Hayat Banoujaafar, Alice Monnier, Nicolas Pernet, Aurore Quirié, Philippe Garnier, Anne Prigent-Tessier and Christine Marie

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13301

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      The changes in cerebrovascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity induced by physical exercise and bilateral common carotid occlusion translated into parallel changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in both the cortex and hippocampus. When induced after vascular occlusion, physical exercise failed to increase eNOS activity and BDNF levels, whereas the exposure of brain slices to a NO donor induces elevation in BDNF and proBDNF levels.

    5. Orexin-A increases the activity of globus pallidus neurons in both normal and parkinsonian rats

      Yan Xue, Yu-Ting Yang, Hong-Yun Liu, Wen-Fang Chen, An-Qi Chen, Qing Sheng, Xin-Yi Chen, Ying Wang, Hua Chen, Hong-Xia Liu, Ya-Yan Pang and Lei Chen

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13323

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      Exogenous orexin-A increases the firing rate of globus pallidus neurons through both OX1 and OX2 receptors. Endogenously released orexins from lateral hypothalamus increase firing rate of pallidal neurons.

  20. Short Communication

    1. Systematic assessment of duration and intensity of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on primary motor cortex excitability

      Sara Tremblay, Félix Larochelle-Brunet, Louis-Philippe Lafleur, Sofia El Mouderrib, Jean-François Lepage and Hugo Théoret

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13321

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      This study suggests that none of the most frequently used anodal tDCS parameters effectively modify cortical excitability at a group level. Based on an objective classification of response rates, low levels of responders were obtained, with response rates ranging from 20 to 35%. Although none of the baseline measures were related to the magnitude of MEP changes, our result suggest that inter-trial MEP amplitude variability may contribute to variability to response to anodal tDCS.

  21. Research Reports

    1. Neural activity of orbitofrontal cortex contributes to control of waiting

      Xiong Xiao, Hanfei Deng, Lei Wei, Yanwang Huang and Zuoren Wang

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13320

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      We trained rats to perform a waiting task, and recorded neural activities of the orbitofrontal cortex during the task. The orbitofrontal activity during the waiting period reflected the differential states of control of waiting. Lesion or inactivation of orbitofrontal cortex impaired the waiting control, whereas optogenetic activation during the waiting period increased the waiting performance.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Identification of biological pathways regulated by PGRN and GRN peptide treatments using transcriptome analysis

      Sara Rollinson, Kate Young, Janis Bennion-Callister and Stuart M. Pickering-Brown

      Version of Record online: 9 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13297

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      Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that treating neural differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with PGRN and the granulins that the majority of genes were down-regulated, with a role in spliceosome, proteasome and lysosomal function implicated for PGRN.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Adult microbiota-deficient mice have distinct dendritic morphological changes: differential effects in the amygdala and hippocampus

      Pauline Luczynski, Seán O. Whelan, Colette O'Sullivan, Gerard Clarke, Fergus Shanahan, Timothy G. Dinan and John F. Cryan

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13291

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      Germ-free mice (GF; microbiota deficient from birth) exhibit alterations in stress responsivity, anxiety-like behaviour, and sociability, effects influenced by the amygdala and hippocampus. Here, we show that there are alterations in the gross morphology and ultrastructure of the amygdala and hippocampus of GF mice. These findings indicate that the microbiota is required for normal brain structure and that these neuronal changes may contribute to the maladaptive behavioural profile of GF mice.

    4. Individual neurons in the caudal fastigial oculomotor region convey information on both macro- and microsaccades

      Zongpeng Sun, Marc Junker, Peter W. Dicke and Peter Thier

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13289

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      The cerebellar control of saccades is achieved through the fastigial oculomotor region (FOR). Lesions of the FOR compromise saccades, independent of their size, as well as fixation. Although the properties of the FOR control signals for macrosaccades are well known, it has remained unclear how the FOR contributes to the control of microsaccades and fixation. Our work shows that FOR neurons, both at an individual and population level, process control signals for saccades that are continuous across micro- and macrosaccades. Furthermore, by analyzing the baseline firing rate, our results suggest that FOR might play an important role in precise visual fixation.

  22. Special Issue Articles

    1. Emergent spatial synaptic structure from diffusive plasticity

      Yann Sweeney and Claudia Clopath

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13279

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      Diffusive neurotransmitters provide a means for neurons to influence their neighbours regardless of their synaptic coupling. We propose a form of diffusive plasticity which is mediated by these neurotransmitters, and find that it introduces spatial structure in the synaptic connectivity of networks. This emergent spatial structure is reminiscent of stimulus preference structure in sensory cortex and can flexibly interact with other forms of functional synaptic organisation.

  23. Reviews

    1. Multiple asynchronous stimulus- and task-dependent hierarchies (STDH) within the visual brain's parallel processing systems

      Semir Zeki

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13270

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      Three parallel ‘feed-forward’ hierarchical systems feed the visual areas of the brain. The speed with which signals arrive in the different visual areas and the speed at which these areas process the signals reaching them depend both on the characteristics of the stimulus and the task. Hence the temporal order of the parallel hierarchies is variable.

  24. Special Issue Articles

    1. Calcium dynamics predict direction of synaptic plasticity in striatal spiny projection neurons

      Joanna Jędrzejewska-Szmek, Sriraman Damodaran, Daniel B. Dorman and Kim T. Blackwell

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13287

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      We created a model spiny projection neuron with dendrites, spines and realistic calcium dynamics to investigate synaptic plasticity. Synaptic strength increases when calcium exceeds an upper threshold for a specified duration, and decreases when calcium is between the upper and lower threshold for a specified duration. This learning rule accurately predicts the timing- and NMDA-dependence of STDP, and further predicts that L-type calcium channels are required for LTD.

  25. Reviews

    1. The role of neurogenesis during development and in the adult brain

      Xing Jin

      Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13251

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      The manuscript introduces the lineage of neural stem cells (NSCs) from embryonic to adult stages, describes the maturation and integration of adult-born neurons, and discusses the regulation and potential functions of adult neurogenesis in physiological and pathological conditions.

  26. Research Reports

    1. Audio-visual multisensory training enhances visual processing of motion stimuli in healthy participants: an electrophysiological study

      Paolo A. Grasso, Mariagrazia Benassi, Elisabetta Làdavas and Caterina Bertini

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13221

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      A training with spatially coincident audio-visual (AV) stimuli increases the N1 component in response to motion stimuli in the trained hemifield, in a task relying on the activity in the colliculo-dorsal MT pathway (Motion discrimination task). No enhancement is found in a task relying on the activity of the striate and early ventral extrastriate cortices (Orientation discrimination task). No post-training effect is found after a training with spatially disparate AV stimuli in both tasks.

  27. Commentary

    1. You have free access to this content
  28. Research Reports

    1. Retinal lesions induce fast intrinsic cortical plasticity in adult mouse visual system

      Katrien Smolders, Samme Vreysen, Marie-Eve Laramée, Annemie Cuyvers, Tjing-Tjing Hu, Leen Van Brussel, Ulf T. Eysel, Julie Nys and Lutgarde Arckens

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13143

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Induction of a monocular retinal lesion immediately influences neuronal activity in different lesion projection zones throughout adult mouse visual cortex. The speed of recovery of neuronal activity post injury mirrors retinotopic organization, cortical magnification factor and receptive field size. This vision impairment model can lead to a better understanding of brain region-, cell type-, and microcircuit-specific contributions to different forms of cortical neuronal plasticity in mammals.


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