European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 42 Issue 10

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: John Foxe and Paul Bolam

Impact Factor: 3.181

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 108/252 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1460-9568


  1. 1 - 48
  1. Research Reports

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Perirhinal cortex lesions impair tests of object recognition memory but spare novelty detection

      Cristian M. Olarte-Sánchez, Eman Amin, E. Clea Warburton and John P. Aggleton

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13106

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Apparently normal novelty discrimination performance by rats with perirhinal cortex lesions on sequential (yes-no) test of object preference in contrast to their deficit on simultaneous (forced-choice) object preference (Experiment 4). *< 0.05, **< 0.01.

    2. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor treatment results in recovery of motor function after white matter damage in mice

      Jennifer K. Theoret, Nafisa M. Jadavji, Min Zhang and Patrice D. Smith

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13105

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      GM-CSF treatment promotes recovery from stroke-induced white matter damage. Endothelin-1 induced subcortical white matter (SWM) stroke enhances GM-CSF receptor expression in the mouse brain. GM-CSF treatment, following SWM stroke, promotes functional recovery via an mTOR-dependent mechanism.

    3. Absence of direction-specific cross-modal visual–auditory adaptation in motion-onset event-related potentials

      Ramona Grzeschik, Jörg Lewald, Jesko L. Verhey, Michael B. Hoffmann and Stephan Getzmann

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13102

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      When testing within one modality, adaptation to visual or auditory motion greatly affects the visual or auditory motion-onset evoked potentials (VEPs, AEPs) to the onset of subsequent motion. Here, we combined both modalities and tested whether adaptation to visual motion affects the auditory motion-onset response. VEPs and AEPs of 21 subjects were recorded from 57 EEG channels in six blocks. They were analysed for the Scatter, Same-Direction, and Opposite-Direction adaptation conditions (see Figure). While the VEP results prooved the existence of a direction-specific effect of motion adaptation within the visual modality, the AEP findings suggested merely a motion-related effect.

    4. Effects of social defeat on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area in male and female California mice

      Gian D. Greenberg, Michael Q. Steinman, Ian E. Doig, Rebecca Hao and Brian C. Trainor

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13099

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We used TH and c-fos immunohistochemistry to examine the responses of VTA dopamine neurons in contexts of social defeat and social approach across dorsal and ventral divisions of the VTA. Females exposed to three episodes of defeat, but not a single episode, had more tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive and TH/c-fos positive cells in ventral VTA compared to controls. After a social interaction test females had more TH/c-fos positive cells than males across the entire extent of the VTA but there was no effect of defeat stress.

    5. Role of HSP70 in motoneuron survival after excitotoxic stress in a rat spinal cord injury model in vitro

      Ayisha Shabbir, Elena Bianchetti, Renato Cargonja, Antonela Petrovic, Miranda Mladinic, Kristina Pilipović and Andrea Nistri

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13108

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The intracellular activity of HSP70 determines whether a spinal motoneuron withstands an excitotoxic insult through prevention of the nuclear translocation of the deadly factor AIF to trigger cell death. A shows a control motoneuron equipped to bind and block the AIF nuclear translocation, whereas B shows that a pharmacological inhibitor of HSP70 prevents this protective action and leads to cell death. Exploiting the HSP70 activity may be a promising tool for neuroprotection against injury.

    6. Network-selectivity and stimulus-discrimination in the primary visual cortex: cell-assembly dynamics

      Vishal Bharmauria, Lyes Bachatene, Sarah Cattan, Simon Brodeur, Nayan Chanauria, Jean Rouat and Stéphane Molotchnikoff

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13101

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A ‘salient’ functional network is activated within an assembly of layer II/III neurons (area 17) in the cat primary visual cortex that is contingent upon the specific orientation of the sine-wave drifting grating. We suggest that network-selectivity in an assembly is inevitable for stimulus-discrimination. This study reflects upon the importance of a ‘signature’ functional network in an assembly that is exclusively related to a particular input.

    7. The impact of baroreflex function on endogenous pain control: a microneurography study

      Gothje Lautenschläger, Kathrin Habig, Christoph Best, Manfred Kaps, Mikael Elam, Frank Birklein and Heidrun H. Krämer

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13096

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using microneurography we found thermal pain to increase MSNA. Different mental stress tasks further increased MSNA independent from perceived stress. In contrast to the control task, the mental stress tasks were sufficient to reduce thermal pain indicating stress-induced analgesia. High MSNA vasoconstrictor outflow was associated with decreased thermal pain intensity and high stress-induced pain reduction. Our study directly indicates an impact of central sympathetic drive on pain and pain control.

    8. Ghrelin receptor activity amplifies hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents and increases phosphorylation of the GluN1 subunit at Ser896 and Ser897

      Brandon G. Muniz and Masako Isokawa

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13107

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Recent evidence suggests extra-hypothalamic function of ghrelin and its cognate receptor GHSR1a beyond the regulation of metabolism. We demonstrate that GHSR1a is highly localized in the hippocampus, and the activation of GHSR1a rapidly amplifies the NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the CA1 pyramidal cell by promoting the phosphorylation of GluN1 subunit. Our findings suggest GHSR1a may act as a molecular modulator for hippocampal functions that are linked to innate behavior such as feeding.

    9. Rebound spiking properties of mouse medial entorhinal cortex neurons in vivo

      Yusuke Tsuno, George W. Chapman and Michael E. Hasselmo

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13097

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using in vivo patch clamp recording, we showed that hyperpolarizing current injection pulses during the later descending phases (180–270°) of a sinusoidal current injection oscillation had a higher probability of eliciting subsequent spikes in some medial entorhinal cortex neurons in ketamine anesthetized mice. This result indicates that the specific timing of hyperpolarizing input can affect subsequent spike generation in vivo, which could contribute to the mechanisms of grid cell activity.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A robust and representative lower bound on object processing speed in humans

      Magdalena M. Bieniek, Patrick J. Bennett, Allison B. Sekuler and Guillaume A. Rousselet

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13100

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using event-related potentials in a sample of 120 human participants aged 18–81, we found evidence for onsets of neuronal activity to images of objects within 100 ms. The results are reliable across testing days, independent of age, and not due to filtering distortions or lack of control for multiple comparisons. The results provide a new lower benchmark for the earliest neuronal responses to complex objects in the human visual system.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ionic mechanisms of spinal neuronal cold hypersensitivity in ciguatera

      Ryan Patel, Nicola L. Brice, Richard J. Lewis and Anthony H. Dickenson

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13098

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study examines the neural mechanisms of sensory disturbances following ciguatoxin food poisoning. Subcutaneous Pacific ciguatoxin-2 induces spinal neuronal hyperexcitability to cooling and mechanical stimuli dependent on peripheral Nav1.8 and TRPA1, but not TRPM8 channels. Ciguatoxins may confer cold sensitivity to a subpopulation of cold-insensitive Nav1.8/TRPA1+ primary afferents, which could underlie cold allodynia reported in ciguatera.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dissociation of perception and action in audiovisual multisensory integration

      Lynnette M. Leone and Mark E. McCourt

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13087

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two experiments investigated the requirements of simultaneity for audiovisual multisensory integration (AVMI). Experiment 1 employed an RT/race model paradigm to measure AVMI as a function of AV stimulus onset asynchrony under fully dark adapted conditions for visual stimuli that were either rod- or cone-isolating. AVMI in both conditions occurred exclusively at an audiovisual stimulus onset asynchrony of 0 ms, showing that multisensory integration demands both physical and physiological simultaneity. Experiment 2 investigated the accuracy of simultaneity and temporal order judgments under the same stimulus conditions. Judgments of AV stimulus simultaneity or temporal order were significantly influenced by stimulus intensity indicating different simultaneity requirements for these tasks. We propose that separate subsystems for audiovisual multisensory integration exist which pertain to action and perception.

    13. Ca2+–BK channel clusters in olfactory receptor neurons and their role in odour coding

      Guobin Bao, Daniëlle de Jong, Mihai Alevra and Detlev Schild

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13095

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We determined the number and distribution of HVA Ca2+ channel clusters on the somata of olfactory receptor neurons by using patch clamp current fluctuation analysis as well as fluorescence fluctuation analysis. BK channels co-localize with HVA Ca2+ channels, forming functional Ca2+/BK – domains. They affect frequency, width and timing of action potentials, speeding up repolarization during odor responses and altering odor coding in the olfactory bulb.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The effect of oppositional parietal transcranial direct current stimulation on lateralized brain functions

      Lucia M. Li, Rob Leech, Gregory Scott, Paresh Malhotra, Barry Seemungal and David J. Sharp

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13086

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We investigated the effect of oppositional parietal stimulation on lateralised cognitive tasks and sustained attention. Right-anodal/left-cathodal parietal tDCS exaggerated the distance effect in a number comparison task as well as affecting vigilance level in a choice reaction task. We postulate that the effect of tDCS on attentional effects may also impact performance on other cognitive tasks. This modulation was polarity specific and observed only when task demands were high, suggesting that stimulation type and cognitive load interact in producing behavioural effects.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ionotropic glutamate receptor GluA4 and T-type calcium channel Cav3.1 subunits control key aspects of synaptic transmission at the mouse L5B-POm giant synapse

      Min Seol and Thomas Kuner

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13084

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A single action potential elicited in a mouse giant synapse connecting cortical L5B to thalamic POm neurons drives bursts of action potentials at hyperpolarized but only a single action potential at more depolarized potentials. We found that two molecular entities mediate these crucial features: GluA-4 containing glutamate receptors produce the EPSC and short-latency transmission while T-type Ca channels establish voltage-dependent amplification and burst generation.

    16. Depression-like behaviour in mice is associated with disrupted circadian rhythms in nucleus accumbens and periaqueductal grey

      Dominic Landgraf, Jaimie E. Long and David K. Welsh

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13085

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An association between circadian rhythms and mood regulation is well established, and disturbed circadian clocks are believed to contribute to the development of mood disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Lacking the tight neuronal network that couples single-cell oscillators in the SCN, circadian clocks outside the SCN may be less stable and more susceptible to disturbances, for example by clock gene mutations or uncontrollable stress. We found that helplessness in mice is associated with absence of circadian rhythms in the nucleus accumbens and the periaqueductal gray, two of the most critical brain regions within the reward circuit. Our study provides evidence that susceptibility of mice to depression-like behavior is associated with disturbed local circadian clocks in a subset of mood-regulating brain areas, but the direction of causality remains to be determined.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The selectivity of responses to red-green colour and achromatic contrast in the human visual cortex: an fMRI adaptation study

      Kathy T. Mullen, Dorita H. F. Chang and Robert F. Hess

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13090

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We measured responses to red-green color and achromatic contrast in human visual cortex with fMRI adaptation. Cross adaptation between the two contrast types occurred across the visual hierarchy indicating integrated color and achromatic responses. Selective adaptation for color (i.e. greater adaptation to color than achromatic contrast) emerged in ventral cortex, particularly in areas V4 and VO, whereas selective adaptation to achromatic contrast (i.e. greater adaptation to achromatic than color contrast) was evident in dorsal cortex (V3a, hMT+). Our findings suggest a progression from integrated color and achromatic responses in early visual cortex to more selective processing in extrastriate visual areas.

  2. Special Issue Articles

    1. Nerve regeneration in chitosan conduits and in autologous nerve grafts in healthy and in type 2 diabetic Goto–Kakizaki rats

      Lena Stenberg, Akira Kodama, Charlotta Lindwall-Blom and Lars B. Dahlin

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13068

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nerve regeneration after reconstruction of sciatic nerve defects with autologous nerve grafts or hollow chitosan conduits in healthy and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats was better in the nerve grafts and was enhanced in the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. The study provides insights into the nerve regeneration process in diabetes in a relevant diabetic animal model in which clinically appropriate nerve reconstructions were used.

  3. Special Issue Reviews

    1. Clinical and neurobiological advances in promoting regeneration of the ventral root avulsion lesion

      Ruben Eggers, Martijn R. Tannemaat, Fred De Winter, Martijn J. A. Malessy and Joost Verhaagen

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13089

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ventral root avulsion lesions lead to severe motoneuron degeneration and axons fail to regenerate over long distances, resulting in complete and permanent loss of function. Here we present an overview of the pathophysiology and progress in clinical and experimental repair strategies for ventral root avulsion, including cell implantation, gene therapy, pharmacological interventions and neurotrophic support.

  4. Research Reports

    1. Contrast and response gain control depend on cortical map architecture

      Markus A. Hietanen, Shaun L. Cloherty and Michael R. Ibbotson

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13091

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We used optical intrinsic signal imaging to measure orientation preference maps in cat primary visual cortex (A). We then measured the contrast response functions of single cells in orientation pinwheels and in iso-orientation zones before and after adaptation (B). We found that cells in orientation pinwheels showed greater contrast and response gain control than cells in iso-orientation zones (C).

    2. Scene coherence can affect the local response to natural images in human V1

      Damien J. Mannion, Daniel J. Kersten and Cheryl A. Olman

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13082

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The local activity in human primary visual cortex, as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, was significantly higher for natural image patches that were coherent with the dominant scene than the activity elicited by the same patches when non-coherent. The effect of coherence was mostly evident for patches in the periphery of the visual field, in the centre of the image patches, and in the middle to superficial regions of the cortical gray matter.

    3. Thyroid hormone is required for pruning, functioning and long-term maintenance of afferent inner hair cell synapses

      Srividya Sundaresan, Jee-Hyun Kong, Qing Fang, Felipe T. Salles, Felix Wangsawihardja, Anthony J. Ricci and Mirna Mustapha

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13081

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In the hypothyroid Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1dw), we show that a lack of thyroid hormone (TH) caused defective afferent synaptic pruning and delayed calcium channel clustering in the cochlea. We also saw afferent terminal damage and reduced levels of the glial glutamate transporter, GLAST. We restored normal pruning with TH supplementation from postnatal day 3 (P3) to P8, establishing the critical window for TH action on this process. TH is required for both afferent synapse pruning and maintenance.

  5. Special Issue Articles

    1. A regenerative microchannel device for recording multiple single-unit action potentials in awake, ambulatory animals

      Akhil Srinivasan, John Tipton, Mayank Tahilramani, Adel Kharbouch, Eric Gaupp, Chao Song, Poornima Venkataraman, Jessica Falcone, Stéphanie P. Lacour, Garrett B. Stanley, Arthur W. English and Ravi V. Bellamkonda

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13080

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We report on the development of a fully integrated regenerative microchannel interface, the GT-RE, with large numbers microelectrodes and signal extraction capabilities enabling evaluation in an awake and freely moving rat animal model. In vivo, the GT-RE was successfully utilized for high-throughput recordings of single unit action potentials through 63% of the 30 integrated microelectrodes at the early time point of 3 weeks marking a significant advancement in microchannel interfacing.

  6. Research Reports

    1. β-Arrestin1 regulates the morphology and dynamics of microglia in zebrafish in vivo

      Yuanyuan Li, Xufei Du, Gang Pei, Jiulin Du and Jian Zhao

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13065

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Arrb1 regulates resting microglial morphology and dynamics. Arrb1 regulates phagocytosis probability of activated microglia.

    2. Phenytoin enhances the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and fibroblast growth factor receptor in the subventricular zone and promotes the proliferation of neural precursor cells and oligodendrocyte differentiation

      Alma Y. Galvez-Contreras, Rocio E. Gonzalez-Castaneda, Tania Campos-Ordonez, Sonia Luquin and Oscar Gonzalez-Perez

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13079

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Phenytoin increases the EGFR/FGFR phosphorylation and cell proliferation of ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) progenitor cells. Phenytoin promotes the expression of Sox2 and doublecortin in the V-SVZ and increases the expression of Olig2 in the corpus callosum and striatum. After drug removal a high number of BrdU+Olig2+ cells remained in the white matter.

  7. Commentary

    1. You have free access to this content
  8. Research Reports

    1. The cerebral correlates of subliminal emotions: an eleoencephalographic study with emotional hybrid faces

      Giulia Prete, Paolo Capotosto, Filippo Zappasodi, Bruno Laeng and Luca Tommasi

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13078

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In a high-resolution EEG study, we presented “hybrid faces”, containing an emotional core hidden in low spatial frequencies. Hybrid faces elicit the posterior emotion- and face-related components (P1, N170, P2), previously shown by presenting non-subliminal emotional stimuli; these components were stronger in the right hemisphere and were both enhanced and delayed by face inversion. Hybrid faces represent an original approach in the study of the electrophysiological correlates of subliminal emotions.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Optogenetic stimulation of astrocytes in the posterior hypothalamus increases sleep at night in C57BL/6J mice

      Dheeraj Pelluru, Roda Rani Konadhode, Narayan R. Bhat and Priyattam J. Shiromani

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13074

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Astrocytes in posterior hypothalamus of C57BL/6J mice (n = 7) were transduced with rAAV-GFAP-ChR2 (H134R)-EYFP to express ChR2. When optogenetically stimulated at 10 Hz with blue light (473 nm) during the dark phase (active period), the mice had significant increase in NREM and REM sleep. This underscores the importance of astrocytes in sleep.

    3. Oligomeric α-synuclein and β-amyloid variants as potential biomarkers for Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases

      Stephanie M. Williams, Philip Schulz and Michael R. Sierks

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13056

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Anti-oligomeric alpha-synuclein antibodies preferentially recognized PD cases, whereas anti-oligomeric beta-amyloid antibodies favored AD cases. Oligomeric protein variants were identified in human brain tissue, CSF and sera using the corresponding antibodies. Multiple protein pathologies were also detected in some cases. Recognition in sera indicates the sensitivity of our phage ELISA technology and its potential to simplify future diagnostic procedures.

  9. Special Issue Articles

    1. Pre-differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells in combination with a microstructured nerve guide supports peripheral nerve regeneration in the rat sciatic nerve model

      Arne Hendrik Boecker, Sabien Geraldine Antonia van Neerven, Juliane Scheffel, Julian Tank, Haktan Altinova, Katrin Seidensticker, Ronald Deumens, Rene Tolba, Joachim Weis, Gary Anthony Brook, Norbert Pallua and Ahmet Bozkurt

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13052

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The Perimaix nerve guide was seeded with pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells and presented well regenerated axon for histomorphological analysis. However, the extent of functional recovery is independent from the differentiation status of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    2. Persistent alterations in active and passive electrical membrane properties of regenerated nerve fibers of man and mice

      Mihai Moldovan, Susana Alvarez, Mette R. Rosberg and Christian Krarup

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13047

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We assessed persistent changes in excitability of regenerated peripheral nerves by mathematical modeling in humans and experimental studies in mice. We found that the nodal voltage-gated ion channel machinery is restored in regenerated axons, although the electrical separation from the internodal compartment remains compromised. The hyperactivity of the Na+/K+ pump could account for the membrane hyperpolarization and neurotoxic energy insufficiency during strenuous activity in regenerated axons.

    3. Substratum preferences of motor and sensory neurons in postnatal and adult rats

      Francisco Gonzalez-Perez, Albert Alé, Daniel Santos, Christina Barwig, Thomas Freier, Xavier Navarro and Esther Udina

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13057

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Different neuron types show selective neurite growth on defined ECM molecules at early postnatal stages. Fibronectin enhances motor and proprioceptive sensory neurons outgrowth, whereas laminin does so on other myelinated sensory neurons. This selective guidance is reduced at adult stage in vitro. In vivo, in adult rats, the introduction of fibronectin and laminin enriched matrices in a conduit results in slight promotion of selective regeneration of motor and sensory axons.

    4. The topographic specificity of muscle reinnervation predicts function

      Andres O'Daly, Charles Rohde and Thomas Brushart

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13058

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The rat musculocutaneous nerve (biceps, elbow flexion) and radial nerve (elbow extension) were lesioned so as to generate progressive degrees of axonal misdirection. Lesions ranged from crush, leaving basal lamina intact (upper left) to reversal of proximal and distal stumps (upper right). After 12 weeks of regeneration, the specificity with which the musculocutaneous nerve was reinnervated by musculocutaneous rather than radial motoneurons was evaluated by retrograde labeling, and elbow function was evaluated with the Montoya grasping test. Regeneration specificity (% correct) was found to predict grasping function (pellets retrieved: r = 0.72).

  10. Research Reports

    1. The postcentral sulcal complex and the transverse postcentral sulcus and their relation to sensorimotor functional organization

      Veronika Zlatkina, Céline Amiez and Michael Petrides

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13049

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The postcentral sulcus of each subject may be divided into five segments and there is a tight relationship between sensorimotor representations of different body parts and specific segments of the postcentral sulcus. When the transverse postcentral sulcus is present on the inferior postcentral gyrus, it is functionally related to the oral (mouth and tongue) sensorimotor representation. When this sulcus is not present, the inferior postcentral sulcus which is also related to the oral representation is longer.

  11. Special Issue Articles

    1. Lack of motor recovery after prolonged denervation of the neuromuscular junction is not due to regenerative failure

      Miyuki Sakuma, Grzegorz Gorski, Shu-Hsien Sheu, Stella Lee, Lee B. Barrett, Bhagat Singh, Takao Omura, Alban Latremoliere and Clifford J. Woolf

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13059

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Existence of a critical period to re-establish functional NMJ after nerve trauma. 1) If muscles are denervated less than 30 days motor fibers reach NMJ and this is associated with motor function. 2) After 38 days, fibers can still grow into the tissue and form structural NMJ, but no muscle activity occurs. 3) Very prolonged denervation (> 2 months) causes the milieu to become non-permissive for nerve growth, which eventually leads to a loss of NMJ.

      1. If muscles are denervated less than 30 days motor fibers reach NMJ and this is associated with motor function.
      2. After 38 days, fibers can still grow into the tissue and form structural NMJ, but no muscle activity occurs.
      3. Very prolonged denervation (> 2 months) causes the milieu to become non-permissive for nerve growth, which eventually leads to a loss of NMJ.
  12. Special Issue Reviews

    1. In vitro models for peripheral nerve regeneration

      S. Geuna, S. Raimondo, F. Fregnan, K. Haastert-Talini and C. Grothe

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13054

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This review describes in vitro models suitable to reduce the use of animals in peripheral nerve regeneration research and rank these models according to the ethical concerns, costs and technical efforts they raise and their similarity to complex in vivo models needed for the final step for translation of new developments into the clinic.

  13. Research Reports

    1. Movement-related activity during goal-directed hand actions in the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

      Luciano Simone, Stefano Rozzi, Marco Bimbi and Leonardo Fogassi

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13040

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The findings of this study indicate that a population of ventral prefrontal (movement-related) neurons plays a role in controlling goal-directed grasping actions in several contexts. The role of these neurons would be that of activating, based on contextual information, the representation of the motor goal (taking possession of an object) of the intended action during action planning and execution. This role is likely exerted within a wider network, involving parietal and premotor regions.

  14. Special Issue Articles

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Human Schwann-like cells derived from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells rapidly de-differentiate in the absence of stimulating medium

      Alessandro Faroni, Richard J. P. Smith, Li Lu and Adam J. Reid

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13055

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Adipose derived stem cells (uASC) can be differentiated into a Schwann cell-like morphological and molecular phenotype (dASC). These cells represent a promising source of transplantable cells for nerve regeneration. However, the efficiency and the stability of the differentiation protocol are poorly understood. In this study, we show that the withdrawal of the differentiation media for 72 h reverts most of the changes that are obtained with the 18 days differentiation protocol. The data presented suggests that further refinement of cell protocols may be required to maximise efficiency and stability of this potential cell therapy.

  15. Commentary

    1. You have free access to this content
  16. Special Issue Review

    1. Functional evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration and target reinnervation in animal models: a critical overview

      Xavier Navarro

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13033

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An overview of the most useful methods to assess nerve regeneration, target reinnervation and recovery of sensory and motor functions in experimental models is provided. The methods have to be selected depending on the main objectives of the research study. For a multimodal approach, it is recommended to combine electrophysiological, locomotion and algesimetry tests that can be repeated along follow-up, and add also morphological studies of the nerve and reinnervated targets.

  17. Special Issue Reviews

    1. Membrane turnover and receptor trafficking in regenerating axons

      Barbara Hausott and Lars Klimaschewski

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13025

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Peripheral axon regeneration requires surface-expanding membrane addition. The continuous incorporation of new membranes into the axolemma allows the pushing force of elongating microtubules to drive axonal growth cones forward. While endo- and exocytosis of membrane vesicles are balanced in intact axons, membrane incorporation exceeds membrane retrieval during regeneration to compensate for the loss of membranes distal to the lesion site. In this review, the current knowledge on membrane traffic in axon outgrowth is summarised with a focus on endosomal vesicles as the provider of membranes and carrier of growth factor receptors required for initiating signalling pathways to promote the elongation and branching of regenerating axons in lesioned peripheral nerves.

  18. Special Issue Articles

    1. Characterisation of cell–substrate interactions between Schwann cells and three-dimensional fibrin hydrogels containing orientated nanofibre topographical cues

      Dorothee Hodde, José Gerardo-Nava, Vanessa Wöhlk, Stefan Weinandy, Stefan Jockenhövel, Andreas Kriebel, Haktan Altinova, Harry W. M. Steinbusch, Martin Möller, Joachim Weis, Jörg Mey and Gary A. Brook

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13026

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Schwann cells that were embedded in a matrix of a three-dimensional fibrin hydrogel with multiple layers of highly orientated electrospun nanofibres showed a strong tendency to migrate away from the fibrin hydrogel to align closely with the orientation of the nanofibres. The ability of this three-dimensional scaffold to support Schwann cell survival and direct process extension suggest it as an appropriate device design for the bridging of experimental lesions of the peripheral nervous system.

  19. Special Issue Reviews

    1. Releasing ‘brakes’ to nerve regeneration: intrinsic molecular targets

      Anand Krishnan, Arul Duraikannu and Douglas W. Zochodne

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13018

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Tumor suppressors, with multiple modes of action, modify critical growth signaling cascades and have the potential to modulate peripheral nerve regeneration. However, molecular requirements of regrowing nerves are complex and vary depending upon specific stages of regeneration. This review discusses the stage specific changes in expression and roles of selected tumor suppressors during peripheral nerve regeneration. The potential therapeutic benefits of targeting individual tumor suppressors are summarised.

  20. Special Issue Articles

    1. Strategies to promote peripheral nerve regeneration: electrical stimulation and/or exercise

      Tessa Gordon and Arthur W. English

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13005

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Enhancing the regeneration of axons is often considered a therapeutic target for improving functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. In this review, the evidence for the efficacy of electrical stimulation (ES), daily exercise, and their combination in promoting nerve regeneration after peripheral nerve injuries in both animal models and in human patients, is explored. The rationale, effectiveness, and molecular basis of ES and exercise in accelerating axon outgrowth are reviewed, concluding that both ES and exercise are promising experimental treatments for peripheral nerve injury that are ready for translation to clinical use.

    2. The immunomodulatory properties of adult skin-derived precursor Schwann cells: implications for peripheral nerve injury therapy

      Jo Anne Stratton, Prajay T. Shah, Ranjan Kumar, Morgan G. Stykel, Yuval Shapira, Joey Grochmal, Gui Fang Guo, Jeff Biernaskie and Rajiv Midha

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13006

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Transplantation of skin-derived precursor Schwann Cells (SKPSCs) into injured peripheral nerves has been shown to improve functional recovery. We have shown that an increase in macrophages and enhanced clearance of myelin debris correlates with this recovery. Additionally, we found that IL-6 is particularly elevated in SKPSCs. Surprisingly, however, IL-6 appears to be detrimental in this context, since neutralisation of IL-6 in combination with SKPSC transplant resulted in improved muscle reinnervation after nerve injury.

    3. The Neuregulin1/ErbB system is selectively regulated during peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration

      Giulia Ronchi, Kirsten Haastert-Talini, Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Isabelle Perroteau, Stefano Geuna and Giovanna Gambarotta

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12974

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The expression of different neuregulin1 (NRG1) isoforms and of their ErbB receptors was investigated at mRNA and protein level in the peripheral nerve under regenerating and degenerating conditions and related to nerve ultrastructure changes. Our results show that the NRG1/ErbB system is selectively regulated after injury, thus suggesting that each molecule of the system plays a specific role that could be clinically exploited to improve nerve regeneration.

  21. Research Reports

    1. Inhibitory short-term plasticity modulates neuronal activity in the rat entopeduncular nucleus in vitro

      Hagar Lavian and Alon Korngreen

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12965

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We recorded from neurons in the entopeduncular nucleus in rat brain slices during stimulation of the striatum and the globus pallidus. We show that synapses from the striatum display short-term facilitation and those from the globus pallidus show short-term depression. The data suggests that striatal output may be encoded as progressive phase shifts while high frequency pallidal output may continuously modulate entopeduncular nucleus firing.

    2. Individual differences in perceptual abilities predict target visibility during masking

      Silvia Pagano and Veronica Mazza

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12948

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      What happens when we attend to multiple masked objects? Are all the people equally sensitive to masked information? We found that the neural marker of object individuation, an ERP component named N2pc, can still track multiple objects even when masked. However, ERSP analyses demonstrated that participants that were not sensitive to masking were associated to higher evoked gamma contralateral to target side. These participants were also associated to a larger modulation of the N2pc component, suggesting that more efficient segmentation and individuation mechanisms, indexed by gamma and N2pc respectively, reduce the effects of masking.


  1. 1 - 48