European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 44 Issue 2

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: John Foxe and Paul Bolam

Impact Factor: 2.975

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 114/256 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1460-9568

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  1. 1 - 43
  1. Research Reports

    1. Strategic down-regulation of attentional resources as a mechanism of proactive response inhibition

      Zachary D. Langford, Ruth M. Krebs, Durk Talsma, Marty G. Woldorff and C. N. Boehler

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13303

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      A novel single-trial EEG analysis was used to directly model the relationship between response time and the EEG data of the go-trials when stopping was either contextually relevant, or not. In this multilevel linear models framework we found a relationship between response time and amplitude of the attention-related N1 component in stop-relevant blocks, a characteristic that was fully absent in stop-irrelevant blocks. Bootstrap mean beta describing the positive relationship between the inferoposterior N1 and response time in the stop-relevant stop signal task is shown.

  2. Special Issue Articles

    1. Sparse pallidal connections shape synchrony in a network model of the basal ganglia

      Bettina C. Schwab, Richard J. A. van Wezel and Stephan A. van Gils

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13324

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      It is still unknown how β synchrony arises in the parkinsonian basal ganglia, and what makes it dependent on dopamine. We show that in a network model, the combination of sparse, high-conductance inhibition and sparse, low-conductance gap junctions in the external globus pallidus could desynchronize the basal ganglia. For stronger gap junctions, activity synchronized. As dopamine decreases gap junction conductance, we suggest that gap junctions contribute to β synchrony in the parkinsonian basal ganglia.

    2. The possible consequences for cognitive functions of external electric fields at power line frequency on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons

      Rosanna Migliore, Giada De Simone, Xavier Leinekugel and Michele Migliore

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13325

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      We investigated how, why and to what extent external perturbations of the intrinsic neuronal activity, such as those caused by generation, transmission and use of electrical energy [external electric fields (EF)] can affect neuronal activity during cognitive processes. Our results suggest that, although EF effects on cognitive processes may be difficult to occur in everyday life, their functional consequences deserve some consideration, especially when EF are present in a living environment.

  3. Research Reports

    1. When neutral turns significant: brain dynamics of rapidly formed associations between neutral stimuli and emotional contexts

      Carlos Ventura-Bort, Andreas Löw, Julia Wendt, Florin Dolcos, Alfons O. Hamm and Mathias Weymar

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13319

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      The capacity to form associations between neutral and affective information is crucial for generating adaptive responses. In this study, we found that after single association, neutral objects previously encoded in the context of emotional compared to neutral scenes evoked a larger P100 (140–184 ms) over occipital electrodes and larger late positive potentials (LPP) over parietal–occipital electrodes (450–750 ms). The data provide direct evidence for fast emotional associative learning, which could assist in understanding binding mechanisms in stress- and addiction-related disorders.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      High post-movement parietal low-beta power during rhythmic tapping facilitates performance in a stop task

      Petra Fischer, Huiling Tan, Alek Pogosyan and Peter Brown

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13328

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      12–20 Hz beta modulation during auditory-paced finger tapping over parietal and contralateral motor cortex was reduced if sudden movement inhibition was required. Negative mean asynchrony was also reduced indicating more hesitant tapping to the sound. Yet if the beta increase following the last regular tap was relatively high, tapping was more successfully interrupted when required. Elevated beta may thus reflect reduced cognitive load and increased confidence in current performance.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Brain-derived neurotrophic factor prevents dendritic retraction of adult mouse retinal ganglion cells

      Kate E. Binley, Wai S. Ng, Yves-Alain Barde, Bing Song and James E. Morgan

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13295

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      Diolistic labelling of retinal ganglion cells reveals a large window between dendritic retraction and cell loss in adult mouse retinal explants. Brain-derived neurotropic factor significantly retards dendritic retraction of retinal ganglion cells when applied either immediately after axotomy or 3 days post-axotomy.

    4. Partial inactivation of GABAA receptors containing the α5 subunit affects the development of adult-born dentate gyrus granule cells

      Francine Deprez, Fabia Vogt, Amalia Floriou-Servou, Carlos Lafourcade, Uwe Rudolph, Shiva K. Tyagarajan and Jean-Marc Fritschy

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13329

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      Partial inactivation of Gabra5, the gene encoding the GABAAR α5 subunit causes severe alterations of migration and dendrite development of adult-born dentate gyrus granule cells in mice. In α5-het mice, the deficit could be reversed by retrovirally-mediated overexpression of Cdk5, suggesting that this signalling pathways cooperates with α5-GABAARs to regulate neuronal development. In conclusion, minor imbalance of α5-GABAAR-mediated transmission may have major consequences for neuronal plasticity; calling for caution upon chronic therapeutic use of negative allosteric modulators acting at these receptors.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A biologically plausible mechanism for neuronal coding organized by the phase of alpha oscillations

      Bart Gips, Jan P. J. M. van der Eerden and Ole Jensen

      Version of Record online: 18 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13318

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      By way of a biologically inspired neural network model, we show that inhibitory modulation in the alpha range (~ 10 Hz) can serve to temporally segment information in visual cortex, to prevent information overload. Coupled excitatory and inhibitory neurons generate a gamma rhythm in which information is segmented and temporally sorted according to excitability in each alpha cycle. The network model produces coupling between alpha phase and gamma (40–100 Hz) amplitude in the simulated local field potential similar to that observed experimentally in human and animal recordings.

    6. Atorvastatin enhances kainate-induced gamma oscillations in rat hippocampal slices

      Chengzhang Li, Jiangang Wang, Jianhua Zhao, Yali Wang, Zhihua Liu, Fang Li Guo, Xiao Fang Wang, Martin Vreugdenhil and Cheng Biao Lu

      Version of Record online: 17 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13322

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      Atorvastatin (AT) increased γ power in a dose-dependent manner. The enhancing effect of AT is associated with the increased interneuron firing and frequency of sIPSCs as well as the activation of PKA, ERK and PI3 kinases.

    7. Brain BDNF levels are dependent on cerebrovascular endothelium-derived nitric oxide

      Hayat Banoujaafar, Alice Monnier, Nicolas Pernet, Aurore Quirié, Philippe Garnier, Anne Prigent-Tessier and Christine Marie

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13301

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      The changes in cerebrovascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity induced by physical exercise and bilateral common carotid occlusion translated into parallel changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in both the cortex and hippocampus. When induced after vascular occlusion, physical exercise failed to increase eNOS activity and BDNF levels, whereas the exposure of brain slices to a NO donor induces elevation in BDNF and proBDNF levels.

    8. Orexin-A increases the activity of globus pallidus neurons in both normal and parkinsonian rats

      Yan Xue, Yu-Ting Yang, Hong-Yun Liu, Wen-Fang Chen, An-Qi Chen, Qing Sheng, Xin-Yi Chen, Ying Wang, Hua Chen, Hong-Xia Liu, Ya-Yan Pang and Lei Chen

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13323

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      Exogenous orexin-A increases the firing rate of globus pallidus neurons through both OX1 and OX2 receptors. Endogenously released orexins from lateral hypothalamus increase firing rate of pallidal neurons.

  4. Short Communication

    1. Systematic assessment of duration and intensity of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on primary motor cortex excitability

      Sara Tremblay, Félix Larochelle-Brunet, Louis-Philippe Lafleur, Sofia El Mouderrib, Jean-François Lepage and Hugo Théoret

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13321

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      This study suggests that none of the most frequently used anodal tDCS parameters effectively modify cortical excitability at a group level. Based on an objective classification of response rates, low levels of responders were obtained, with response rates ranging from 20 to 35%. Although none of the baseline measures were related to the magnitude of MEP changes, our result suggest that inter-trial MEP amplitude variability may contribute to variability to response to anodal tDCS.

  5. Research Reports

    1. Parallel inputs from the mediodorsal thalamus to the prefrontal cortex in the rat

      Fabien Alcaraz, Alain R. Marchand, Gilles Courtand, Etienne Coutureau and Mathieu Wolff

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13316

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      In this study, we examined the architecture of the thalamocortical projections arising from the mediodorsal thalamus by mean of retrograde tracers injected in the dorsomedial, ventromedial (dm- and vmPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). A critical feature of the resulting thalamic labelling was that essentially separated neuronal populations are the source of three parallel pathways (B and C), which calls for a more specific focus on each of these pathways for future functional studies.

    2. Inhibitory effect of intensity and interstimulus interval of conditioning stimuli on somatosensory evoked magnetic fields

      Hideaki Onishi, Kazuhiro Sugawara, Koya Yamashiro, Daisuke Sato, Hikari Kirimoto, Hiroyuki Tamaki, Hiroshi Shirozu and Shigeki Kameyama

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13317

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      We investigate the inhibitory effects conditioning stimuli (CON) on somatosensory response using magnetoencephalography. The P35m and P60m significantly attenuated, and these attenuations were differently affected by interstimulus interval of CON-CON or CON-Test stimulus. P35m are very sensitive to CONs, and the attenuation of P60m lasts for a longer period than that of P35m. Our results provide important clues about the nature of short-latency somatosensory responses in human studies.

    3. Neural activity of orbitofrontal cortex contributes to control of waiting

      Xiong Xiao, Hanfei Deng, Lei Wei, Yanwang Huang and Zuoren Wang

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13320

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      We trained rats to perform a waiting task, and recorded neural activities of the orbitofrontal cortex during the task. The orbitofrontal activity during the waiting period reflected the differential states of control of waiting. Lesion or inactivation of orbitofrontal cortex impaired the waiting control, whereas optogenetic activation during the waiting period increased the waiting performance.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Identification of biological pathways regulated by PGRN and GRN peptide treatments using transcriptome analysis

      Sara Rollinson, Kate Young, Janis Bennion-Callister and Stuart M. Pickering-Brown

      Version of Record online: 9 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13297

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      Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that treating neural differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with PGRN and the granulins that the majority of genes were down-regulated, with a role in spliceosome, proteasome and lysosomal function implicated for PGRN.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Adult microbiota-deficient mice have distinct dendritic morphological changes: differential effects in the amygdala and hippocampus

      Pauline Luczynski, Seán O. Whelan, Colette O'Sullivan, Gerard Clarke, Fergus Shanahan, Timothy G. Dinan and John F. Cryan

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13291

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      Germ-free mice (GF; microbiota deficient from birth) exhibit alterations in stress responsivity, anxiety-like behaviour, and sociability, effects influenced by the amygdala and hippocampus. Here, we show that there are alterations in the gross morphology and ultrastructure of the amygdala and hippocampus of GF mice. These findings indicate that the microbiota is required for normal brain structure and that these neuronal changes may contribute to the maladaptive behavioural profile of GF mice.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evidence for genetic regulation of the human parieto-occipital 10-Hz rhythmic activity

      Elina Salmela, Hanna Renvall, Jan Kujala, Osmo Hakosalo, Mia Illman, Minna Vihla, Eira Leinonen, Riitta Salmelin and Juha Kere

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13300

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      We addressed the genetic determinants of the parieto-occipital 10-Hz rhythm measured with MEG in 210 healthy siblings. The rhythm was found to be in part genetically regulated, supported by significant linkage for the width of the spectral peak. The strongest linkage was detected on chromosome 10 with functionally plausible genes including ‘GRID1’ and ‘ATAD1’ mediating synaptic transmission, ‘NRG3’ functioning in brain development and ‘HRT7’ involved in the circadian rhythm.

    7. Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on central processing of CT-targeted and discriminatory touch in humans

      Paula Diane Trotter, Francis McGlone, Shane McKie, Martyn McFarquhar, Rebecca Elliott, Susannah Claire Walker and John Francis William Deakin

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13298

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      C-tactile afferents (CTs) are present in hairy skin, responding to caress-like touch and hypothesized to provide the neural substrate for affective touch. Acute tryptophan depletion (TRP-) and fMRI were used to investigate the role of serotonin in central responses to CT vs. non-CT touch. Findings implicate a role for serotonin in differentiating between CT/non-CT touch, providing a potential mechanism underlying altered touch responses in psychiatric disorders such as depression and autism.

    8. Effects of aging on peripheral and central auditory processing in rats

      Margarida Costa, Franco Lepore, François Prévost and Jean-Paul Guillemot

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13302

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      Superior colliculus auditory level thresholds increased with aging. The auditory directional receptive fields in the superior colliculus broadened with aging. The auditory directional receptive fields lost their systematic topographical organization within the superior colliculus during aging.

    9. On the domain-specificity of the visual and non-visual face-selective regions

      Vadim Axelrod

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13290

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      This study investigated whether face-selective network processes only faces or rather is involved in a more domain-general cognitive processing. We found that face-selective regions outside visual cortex, but not visual-cortex face-regions responded stronger to meaningful sentences than to meaningless non-words. We explain and illustrate how the knowledge about domain-general processing in face-regions can help to advance our general understanding of face processing mechanisms.

    10. Individual neurons in the caudal fastigial oculomotor region convey information on both macro- and microsaccades

      Zongpeng Sun, Marc Junker, Peter W. Dicke and Peter Thier

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13289

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      The cerebellar control of saccades is achieved through the fastigial oculomotor region (FOR). Lesions of the FOR compromise saccades, independent of their size, as well as fixation. Although the properties of the FOR control signals for macrosaccades are well known, it has remained unclear how the FOR contributes to the control of microsaccades and fixation. Our work shows that FOR neurons, both at an individual and population level, process control signals for saccades that are continuous across micro- and macrosaccades. Furthermore, by analyzing the baseline firing rate, our results suggest that FOR might play an important role in precise visual fixation.

    11. Peripheral and central alterations affecting spinal nociceptive processing and pain at adulthood in rats exposed to neonatal maternal deprivation

      Pierre-Eric Juif, Chiara Salio, Vivien Zell, Meggane Melchior, Adrien Lacaud, Nathalie Petit-Demouliere, Francesco Ferrini, Pascal Darbon, Ulrike Hanesch, Fernand Anton, Adalberto Merighi, Vincent Lelièvre and Pierrick Poisbeau

      Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13294

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      Noxious events occurring early after birth are now well recognize to give rise to hyperexcitable circuits in the nociceptive system at later age. Here, we show that neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD) in rats produces a similar consequence: young adult animals exhibit low nociceptive thresholds and hyperexcitable C-type nociceptors displaying high levels of Nav1.8 gene transcripts. Interestingly, NMD-associated hypernociceptive state is preceded an alteration in the establishment of C-type sensorispinal transmission which is characterized by (i) impaired expression of NGF and DGNF, (ii) hypoexcitable C-type sensory neurons due to excessive K2P channel expression, and (iii) increased inhibition in the superficial layers of the spinal cord.

    12. Rizatriptan overuse promotes hyperalgesia induced by dural inflammatory stimulation in rats by modulation of the serotonin system

      Min Su, Ye Ran, Xun Han, Yufei Liu, Xu Zhang, Qingche Tan, Ruisheng Li and Shengyuan Yu

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13296

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      Combination of overuse of rizatriptan and inflammatory stimulation to dura mater induced pain-related behaviour which resembled the clinical feature of medication-overuse headache. Overuse of rizatriptan cannot induce pain directly but may aggravate pain by activating the pain modulation system, in which decreased 5-HT levels and upregulation of 5-HT2Areceptor may play important roles. Both medication-overuse and frequent headache attacks can promote the neural plasticity associated with MOH.

    13. Present-self, past-self and the close-other: neural correlates of assigning trait adjectives to oneself and others

      Ilona Kotlewska and Anna Nowicka

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13293

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      The self vs. other reflection task was used to investigate the relation between past-self and close-other. Both conditions were associated with similar LPC amplitudes. Patterns of LPC findings differed in women and men for trials representing the positivity bias. In the group of women significant differences were found between present-self and other conditions as well as close-other and famous. These differences were non-significant in the group of men.

  6. Special Issue Articles

    1. Emergent spatial synaptic structure from diffusive plasticity

      Yann Sweeney and Claudia Clopath

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13279

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      Diffusive neurotransmitters provide a means for neurons to influence their neighbours regardless of their synaptic coupling. We propose a form of diffusive plasticity which is mediated by these neurotransmitters, and find that it introduces spatial structure in the synaptic connectivity of networks. This emergent spatial structure is reminiscent of stimulus preference structure in sensory cortex and can flexibly interact with other forms of functional synaptic organisation.

  7. Introductory Letter

    1. Introduction to the 2016 Consensus Document on European Brain Research

      Monica Di Luca, Paul Bolam, John Foxe and David Nutt

      Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13292

  8. Research Reports

    1. Mechanisms, pools, and sites of spontaneous vesicle release at synapses of rod and cone photoreceptors

      Karlene M. Cork, Matthew J. Van Hook and Wallace B. Thoreson

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13288

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      Photoreceptors have depolarized resting potentials that stimulate continual Ca2+-dependent release. We found evidence for Ca2+-dependent spontaneous release in strongly hyperpolarized rods when Ca2+ channels should be minimally active and Ca2+-independent spontaneous release that persisted after blocking Ca2+ influx in both rods and cones. Ca2+-independent spontaneous release from rods occurred more often at ectopic sites than evoked release which clusters near ribbon-style active zones.

  9. Reviews

    1. Multiple asynchronous stimulus- and task-dependent hierarchies (STDH) within the visual brain's parallel processing systems

      Semir Zeki

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13270

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      Three parallel ‘feed-forward’ hierarchical systems feed the visual areas of the brain. The speed with which signals arrive in the different visual areas and the speed at which these areas process the signals reaching them depend both on the characteristics of the stimulus and the task. Hence the temporal order of the parallel hierarchies is variable.

  10. Special Issue Articles

    1. Calcium dynamics predict direction of synaptic plasticity in striatal spiny projection neurons

      Joanna Jędrzejewska-Szmek, Sriraman Damodaran, Daniel B. Dorman and Kim T. Blackwell

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13287

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      We created a model spiny projection neuron with dendrites, spines and realistic calcium dynamics to investigate synaptic plasticity. Synaptic strength increases when calcium exceeds an upper threshold for a specified duration, and decreases when calcium is between the upper and lower threshold for a specified duration. This learning rule accurately predicts the timing- and NMDA-dependence of STDP, and further predicts that L-type calcium channels are required for LTD.

  11. Research Reports

    1. Whisker experience-dependent mGluR signaling maintains synaptic strength in the mouse adolescent cortex

      Jun Kubota, Yoshinori Mikami, Kazunori Kanemaru, Hiroshi Sekiya, Yohei Okubo and Masamitsu Iino

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13285

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      We studied the mechanism underlying sensory experience-dependent plasticity at layer 4 to layer 2/3 synapses of the barrel cortex in adolescent mice using a whisker deprivation model. Our findings suggest that postsynaptic mGluR5-IP3 signaling, which is activated in an ongoing manner by whisker inputs, is responsible for maintaining presynaptic function in the adolescent barrel cortex.

  12. Short Communication

    1. Chronic pain disrupts the reward circuitry in multiple sclerosis

      Daniela Seixas, Jacqueline Palace and Irene Tracey

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13272

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      Comparing MS patients with and without chronic neuropathic pain we found default-mode network differences with a decreased coactivation in the caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens. The dysfunction of the reward system, particularly in brain areas involved in its motivational aspects, possibly reflects the maladaptive physiology of chronic pain, and potentially a signature of pain in MS, in a disease where reward impairment seems to be already one of its features.

    2. Differential expression of axon-sorting molecules in mouse olfactory sensory neurons

      Naoki Ihara, Ai Nakashima, Naosuke Hoshina, Yuji Ikegaya and Haruki Takeuchi

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13282

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      In the mouse olfactory system, glomerular segregation is regulated by combinatorial expression of axon-sorting molecules. In this study, we characterized relationships between the expressions of axon-sorting molecules. We also found that neural activity generated through cyclic nucleotide-gated channel is a major component in the generation of a wide variety of expressions of axon-sorting molecules.

  13. Research Reports

    1. Laminar analysis of the slow wave activity in the somatosensory cortex of anesthetized rats

      Richárd Fiáth, Bálint Péter Kerekes, Lucia Wittner, Kinga Tóth, Patrícia Beregszászi, Domonkos Horváth and István Ulbert

      Version of Record online: 9 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13274

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      Using electrophysiological recordings combined with precise anatomical localization, we investigated the laminar profile of the cortical slow wave activity in anesthetized rats. We found that up-state related CSD is largest in the superficial layers, whereas MUA is maximal in layer V. Spontaneously occurring up-states could start in virtually any layer of the cortex, but most frequently in layer V. A large fraction of up-states with a layer IV firing onset observed in a subset of experiments suggests a thalamic contribution in the initiation of these slow waves.

    2. Insulin-like growth factor-I gene therapy increases hippocampal neurogenesis, astrocyte branching and improves spatial memory in female aging rats

      Joaquín Pardo, Maia Uriarte, Gloria M. Cónsole, Paula C. Reggiani, Tiago F. Outeiro, Gustavo R. Morel and Rodolfo G. Goya

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13278

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      Intracerebroventricular (ICV) Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) gene therapy improved spatial memory accuracy in old rats, as measured in the hippocampus-dependent Barnes maze task. Gene therapy increased immature neuron number in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Additionaly, astrocyte number decreased , whereas their proximal branching increased in the hippocampal stratum radiatum. We conclude that ICV IGF-I gene therapy is effective to reverse cognitive dysfunction in the aging rat.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Early glycogen synthase kinase-3β and protein phosphatase 2A independent tau dephosphorylation during global brain ischaemia and reperfusion following cardiac arrest and the role of the adenosine monophosphate kinase pathway

      Shohreh Majd, John H. T. Power, Simon A. Koblar and Hugh J. M. Grantham

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13277

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      This study suggests that AMPK, as the most likely neuronal metabolic sensor plays a major role in altering tau phosphorylation in early stages of ischaemia. Reduction in AMPK activity plays the dominant role in reducing tau phosphorylation as the immediate response to ischaemic stress, with the possible benefit of saving ATP until energy production can be restored. This event suggests the important roles for AMPK in tau phosphorylation, especially in response to changes in brain metabolism.

    4. Exosomes from adipose-derived stem cells ameliorate phenotype of Huntington's disease in vitro model

      Mijung Lee, Tian Liu, Wooseok Im and Manho Kim

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13275

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      We studied the paracrine effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and the mechanism of it in Huntington's disease (HD). Exosomes are small vesicles that transport nucleic acid and protein between cells. Here, we investigated the therapeutic role of exosomes from ASCs (ASC-exo) using in vitro HD model. ASC-exo reduces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis of in vitro HD model. These findings suggest that ASC-exo has a therapeutic potential for treating HD.

  14. Reviews

    1. Molecular mechanisms in the initiation phase of Wallerian degeneration

      Biao Chang, Qi Quan, Shibi Lu, Yu Wang and Jiang Peng

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13250

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      The review showed the relationships of many important molecules in wallerian degeneration. (NMNAT2 is upstream of SARM1, which is upstream of MAPK. NMN is thought to be upstream of SARM1 and calcium influx is the downstream of SARM1. Although the relationship between NAD and SARM1 is debatable, we believe that SARM1 triggers axonal degeneration via NAD destruction. ATP depletion is the upstream of Ca2+.) The review discussed two apparently conflicting roles of NMN in Wallerian degeneration. The review was intended to draw attention to the closely links between wallerian degeneration with glycolysis.

    2. The role of neurogenesis during development and in the adult brain

      Xing Jin

      Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13251

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      The manuscript introduces the lineage of neural stem cells (NSCs) from embryonic to adult stages, describes the maturation and integration of adult-born neurons, and discusses the regulation and potential functions of adult neurogenesis in physiological and pathological conditions.

  15. Editorial

    1. You have free access to this content
      Consensus Statement on European Brain Research: the need to expand brain research in Europe – 2015

      R. G. M. Morris, W. Oertel, W. Gaebel, G. M. Goodwin, A. Little, P. Montellano, M. Westphal, D. J. Nutt and M. Di Luca

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13236

  16. Research Reports

    1. Audio-visual multisensory training enhances visual processing of motion stimuli in healthy participants: an electrophysiological study

      Paolo A. Grasso, Mariagrazia Benassi, Elisabetta Làdavas and Caterina Bertini

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13221

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      A training with spatially coincident audio-visual (AV) stimuli increases the N1 component in response to motion stimuli in the trained hemifield, in a task relying on the activity in the colliculo-dorsal MT pathway (Motion discrimination task). No enhancement is found in a task relying on the activity of the striate and early ventral extrastriate cortices (Orientation discrimination task). No post-training effect is found after a training with spatially disparate AV stimuli in both tasks.

  17. Commentary

    1. You have free access to this content
  18. Research Reports

    1. Retinal lesions induce fast intrinsic cortical plasticity in adult mouse visual system

      Katrien Smolders, Samme Vreysen, Marie-Eve Laramée, Annemie Cuyvers, Tjing-Tjing Hu, Leen Van Brussel, Ulf T. Eysel, Julie Nys and Lutgarde Arckens

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13143

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      Induction of a monocular retinal lesion immediately influences neuronal activity in different lesion projection zones throughout adult mouse visual cortex. The speed of recovery of neuronal activity post injury mirrors retinotopic organization, cortical magnification factor and receptive field size. This vision impairment model can lead to a better understanding of brain region-, cell type-, and microcircuit-specific contributions to different forms of cortical neuronal plasticity in mammals.

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