European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 40 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Jean-Marc Fritschy and Martin Sarter

Online ISSN: 1460-9568

VIEW

  1. 1 - 60
  1. Research Reports

    1. Spontaneous local alpha oscillations predict motion-induced blindness

      Barbara F. Händel and Ole Jensen

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12701

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      ‘Motion induced blindness’ denotes the illusory disappearance of salient stimuli and was compared to real disappearances. Only the illusion showed an early alpha-lateralization with higher contra- than ipsilateral alpha activity (~10 Hz) which coincided with the estimated onset of the illusion. This alpha modulation further predicted the duration of the illusory disappearance and demonstrates that spontaneous changes of visual alpha activity can have perceptual consequences.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates activation of NF-κB and JNK signaling cascades in retinal ganglion cells and astrocytes in opposite ways

      Galina Dvoriantchikova and Dmitry Ivanov

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12710

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      We found that TNF activated NF-κB in astrocytes, but it did not activate NF-κB in RGCs. We also demonstrated that TNF mediated sustained activation of JNK in RGCs, while it initiated transient activation of JNK in astrocytes. These changes in activation of the signaling cascades were associated with an increased level of RGC death, while glial cells demonstrated significant survival after TNF treatment (t-JNK: transient JNK activation; s-JNK: sustained JNK activation).

    3. Anodal motor cortex stimulation paired with movement repetition increases anterograde interference but not savings

      Li-Ann Leow, Geoff Hammond and Aymar de Rugy

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12699

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      Anterograde interference but not savings was increased by pairing repetition of the adapted movement with anodal M1 tDCS. This effect only occurred when movement repetition was enforced (both with abrupt and gradual perturbation schedules). Movement repetition, and not the perturbation schedule, appears to be the critical variable in increasing anterograde interference with anodal M1 tDCS. Use-dependent plasticity resulting from movement repetition might therefore contribute to anterograde interference, but not to savings.

    4. Predominant endothelial vasomotor activity during human sleep: a near-infrared spectroscopy study

      Zhongxing Zhang and Ramin Khatami

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12702

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      We found endothelial vasomotion is predominant in every sleep stage in brain and muscle using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The powers of endothelial and neurogenic vasomotion decrease in slow wave sleep (SWS), suggesting reduced cerebral oxygenation and a protective role of SWS for vascular function. Our study suggests a novel approach to study cerebral vascular regulation in sleep non-invasively, which can gain insights into neurovascular coupling and sleep related vascular disorders.

    5. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediates recovery from chronic stress-induced spatial reference memory deficits

      J. Bryce Ortiz, Coy M. Mathewson, Ann N. Hoffman, Paul D. Hanavan, Ernest F. Terwilliger and Cheryl D. Conrad

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12703

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      Chronic restraint stress-induced deficits in spatial learning and memory can improve following a post-stress recovery period. Here we investigated BDNF as a potential mediator of the recovery process. It was found that down-regulating hippocampal BDNF disrupted the recovery of spatial reference memory demonstrating that hippocampal BDNF is necessary for the recovery from stress-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial memory deficits.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Emotions and motivated behavior converge on an amygdala-like structure in the zebrafish

      Jakob William von Trotha, Philippe Vernier and Laure Bally-Cuif

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12692

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      The study characterizes the neuronal response following acute amphetamine administration and during drug-seeking behavior in the adult zebrafish telencephalon. The results suggest an evolutionarily conserved function of amygdala-like structures in positive emotions and motivated behavior in zebrafish and mammals. The work may thus serve as a basis for a molecular genetic dissection of the neural networks underlying emotional and motivational behaviors in fish.

    7. The presence of an audience modulates responses to familiar call stimuli in the male zebra finch forebrain

      F. Menardy, N. Giret and C. Del Negro

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12696

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      In the presence of an audience, NCM neurons showed greater responses (based on the Z-score) to familiar female calls, including the mate's call and the call of a familiar female, than to unfamiliar ones. Neurons were also more selective (based on the d' index) for familiar than for unfamiliar calls. In contrast, no such preference for familiar calls was observed when males were isolated.

    8. Stage-dependent C-reflex, pain-like behavior and opioid analgesia during the induction of chronic arthritis in rats

      Pedro Alvarez, Alejandro Hernández, Luis Constandil, Claudio Infante and Teresa Pelissier

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12685

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      A limited response to opioid analgesic therapy is common in chronic arthritis and it is unknown whether these features change depending on its stage of evolution. Rats were studied at 2, 4 or 6 weeks of monoarthritis in C-reflex response and paw pressure test. Morphine was a reduced effect during 2-week of monoarthritis and enhanced at 4 and 6-week of monoarthritis. These results may contribute to explain the variable analgesic efficacy of opioids that characterizes arthritic pain in humans.

    9. Neurons in the pigeon nidopallium caudolaterale signal the selection and execution of perceptual decisions

      Daniel Lengersdorf, Roland Pusch, Onur Güntürkün and Maik C. Stüttgen

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12698

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      We recorded single-neuron activity in the pigeon nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), a non-laminated associative avian forebrain structure, while subjects performed a visual categorisation task. We found that NCL neurons exhibited response patterns similar to those found in monkey prefrontal and lateral intraparietal cortices in saccadic choice tasks, suggesting that, despite differing neural architectures, mechanisms for perceptual decision making are highly similar across classes of vertebrates.

    10. Frequency matters: beta-band subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation induces Parkinsonian-like blink abnormalities in normal rats

      Jaime Kaminer, Pratibha Thakur and Craig Evinger

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12697

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      In Parkinson's disease, basal ganglia circuits exhibit exaggerated beta frequency oscillations that may contribute to voluntary and reflex movement impairment. In normal rats, we show that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus at 16 Hz creates the same reflex blink abnormalities that occur in Parkinson's disease, blink hyperexcitability, reduced blink amplitude, and impaired blink plasticity. Deep brain stimulation at 7 Hz, however, creates dystonic-like blink disturbances, but 130 Hz stimulation does not affect blinking. Thus, stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus at different frequencies can create Parkinsonian- or dystonic-like reflex blink abnormalities in the same normal rat.

    11. Dynamic connectivity among cortical layers in local and large-scale sensory processing

      Gijs Plomp, Charles Quairiaux, Jozsef Z. Kiss, Laura Astolfi and Christoph M. Michel

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12687

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      Dynamic Granger-causal modeling of LFPs recorded from all layers in S1 contra- and ipsilateral to stimulation showed predominant upward driving within columns toward supragranular layers. The communication between contra- and ipsilateral S1, however, specifically targeted the deeper layers (L4–L6), including a fast relay (< 10 ms). We hypothesise that upward information flows within columns serve to integrate information from other cortical areas into local processing.

    12. Effects of the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane on tonic GABA currents in the mouse striatum during postnatal development

      Nozomi Ando, Yusuke Sugasawa, Ritsuko Inoue, Toshihiko Aosaki, Masami Miura and Kinya Nishimura

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12691

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      Volatile anesthetic sevoflurane, which is widely used in pediatric surgery, has proposed effects on GABAA receptor-mediated extrasynaptic tonic inhibition. Sevoflurane strongly increased GABAA receptor-mediated tonic conductance in the developing striatum. Both GABA and THIP, δ-subunit-containing GABAA receptor agonist, induced tonic GABA currents in medium spiny neurons but not in cholinergic neurons. However, sevoflurane additively potentiated the tonic GABA currents in both cells.

    13. The basolateral amygdala is necessary for negative prediction errors to enhance cue salience, but not to produce conditioned inhibition

      Guillem R. Esber and Peter C. Holland

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12695

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      Negative reward prediction errors produced by downshifts in either number or concentration of a sucrose reward enhanced FOS expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) compared to a blocking control treatment. Only downshifts in reinforcer number produced excitatory conditioning to an added cue (unblocking); that unblocking was absent in rats with BLA lesions. Downshifts in reinforcer number instead yielded conditioned inhibition, which was not affected by BLA lesions.

    14. Cannabinoid modulation of alpha2 adrenergic receptor function in rodent medial prefrontal cortex

      Alessandra M. Cathel, Beverly A. S. Reyes, Qin Wang, Jonathan Palma, Kenneth Mackie, Elisabeth J. Van Bockstaele and Lynn G. Kirby

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12690

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      Endocannabinoid effects on attention, cognition and mood may be mediated by functional interactions between cannabinoid 1 and adrenergic receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex. Electrophysiology data demonstrated that stimulation of cannabinoid 1 receptors desensitised α2-adrenergic responses in cortical pyramidal neurons. Anatomical data demonstrated multiple sites of interaction between cortical cannabinoid-adrenergic systems.

    15. Architecture and morphology of the human ventromedial prefrontal cortex

      Scott Mackey and Michael Petrides

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12654

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      Quantitative architectonic analysis was performed on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in eight human brains using a recently developed laminar sampling method. The locations of architectonic areas are described: (i) in terms of Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) proportional stereotactic space and (ii) in relation to sulcal landmarks. This report will facilitate the anatomical identification and comparison of experimental data involving the human ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    16. Lesions to the CA2 region of the hippocampus impair social memory in mice

      Erica L. Stevenson and Heather K. Caldwell

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12689

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      It has been previously suggested that CA2 region of the hippocampus may play a role in the formation and or recall of olfactory-based memories needed for normal social behavior. To test this hypothesis we performed excitotoxic lesions of the CA2 region in mice to determine the effects on social recognition memory. We found that lesions of the CA2 region result in impaired social recognition memory.

    17. The glutamate receptor GluN2 subunit regulates synaptic trafficking of AMPA receptors in the neonatal mouse brain

      Shun Hamada, Itone Ogawa, Miwako Yamasaki, Yuji Kiyama, Hidetoshi Kassai, Ayako M. Watabe, Kazuki Nakao, Atsu Aiba, Masahiko Watanabe and Toshiya Manabe

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12682

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      In this paper, we examined whether GluN2A could be substituted for GluN2B by analyzing knock-in (KI) mice in which GluN2B was replaced with GluN2A. The KI mutation was neonatally lethal, although GluN2A-containing receptors were transported to the postsynaptic membrane even without GluN2B and functional at synapses of acute hippocampal slices of postnatal day 0. Importantly, the synaptic AMPAR subunit GluA1 was increased in KI mice. Although the regulation of AMPARs by GluN2B has been reported in cultured neurons, we showed here that AMPAR-mediated synaptic responses were increased in acute KI slices. Taken together, our results suggest that GluN2B is essential for the survival of animals and that the GluN2B-GluN2A switching plays a critical role in synaptic integration of AMPARs through regulation of GluA1 in the whole animal.

    18. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 2-expressing primary afferents stimulates synaptic transmission in the deep dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord and elicits mechanical hyperalgesia

      Hugues Petitjean, Sylvain Hugel, Florent Barthas, Yohann Bohren, Michel Barrot, Ipek Yalcin and Rémy Schlichter

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12688

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      We show that probenecid activated TRPV2 channels present in a subpopulation of primary afferent neurons and thereby stimulated excitatory and/or inhibitory transmission in neurons of the deep but not the superficial layers of the dorsal spinal cord. Probenecid also triggered mechanical hyperalgesia/allodynia but did not modify nociceptive heat thresholds indicating that TRPV2-expressing primary afferents are involved in the processing of mechanical but not thermal nociceptive messages.

    19. Increasing small conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channel activity reverses ischemia-induced impairment of long-term potentiation

      J. E. Orfila, K. Shimizu, A. K. Garske, G. Deng, J. Maylie, R. J. Traystman, N. Quillinan, J. P. Adelman and P. S. Herson

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12683

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      Sustained protection of hippocampal plasticity by 1-EBIO.

    20. Downregulation of Centaurin gamma1A increases synaptic transmission at Drosophila larval neuromuscular junctions

      Mizuho Homma, Shun Nagashima, Toshifumi Fukuda, Shigeru Yanagi, Hiroyoshi Miyakawa, Emiko Suzuki and Takako Morimoto

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12681

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      • Enhancement of neurotransmitter release from presynaptic cells was observed by the suppression of centaurin gamma 1A (CenG1A) expression at Drosophila NMJs.
      • CenG1A is likely to have function in both presynaptic neural cells and postsynaptic muscle cells.
      • Present study suggests that CenG1A negatively regulates synaptic transmission through modulating release processes such as synaptic vesicle mobilisation and synaptic membrane fusion.
    21. Prenatal alcohol exposure and adolescent stress – unmasking persistent attentional deficits in rats

      Wendy L. Comeau, Catharine A. Winstanley and Joanne Weinberg

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12671

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      Interactions between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and adolescent chronic mild stress (CMS) produce delays in acquisition of the 5-CSRTT (A) in adulthood. Additionally (B), CMS augments (bottom) PAE-related (top) attentional deficits (increased omissions). PAE and CMS interactions (C) dull later responses to a dopaminergic agonist, amphetamine, at doses that produce attentional deficits in PAE and Control counterparts, elucidating potential underlying mechanisms of developmental insults.

    22. Selective increase of in vivo firing frequencies in DA SN neurons after proteasome inhibition in the ventral midbrain

      Mahalakshmi Subramaniam, Beatrice Kern, Simone Vogel, Verena Klose, Gaby Schneider and Jochen Roeper

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12660

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      Proteasome function is impaired in Parkinson disease. Unilateral infusion of a proteasome inhibitor (PI) into the substantia nigra (SN) of mice results in partial loss of dopamine (DA) SN neurons. Surviving DA SN neurons show increased firing frequencies in vivo. PI-infused mice display an increased contralateral turning preference in the open field. This hyperactivity of DA SN neurons in response to proteasome inhibition might contribute to the pathophysiology of selective neurodegeneration.

    23. The role of the area postrema in the anorectic effects of amylin and salmon calcitonin: behavioral and neuronal phenotyping

      Fiona E. Braegger, Lori Asarian, Kirsten Dahl, Thomas A. Lutz and Christina N. Boyle

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12672

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      In this study we show that lesions of the area postrema (AP) block feedback signals controlling meal size and affect the ability to compensate for an energy deficit following a fast. The AP is also required for both amylin and it's analogue salmon calcitonin to produce the full inhibitory effect on food intake and to induce Fos in the NTS. Like amylin, approximately 50% of sCT-activated neurons in the AP are noradrenergic, and VGLUT2 boutons abut roughly 95% of these cells.

    24. Testing the role of preBötzinger Complex somatostatin neurons in respiratory and vocal behaviors

      Srinivasan Tupal, Michael A. Rieger, Guang-Yi Ling, Thomas J. Park, Joseph D. Dougherty, Ann K. Goodchild and Paul A. Gray

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12669

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      PreBötzinger Complex somatostatin neurons have been suggested to be essential for the generation of breathing in rodents. We show that the genetic elimination of glutamatergic release from these neurons during late development has no effect on viability in vivo, or on respiratory period or responses to peptide agonists in vitro, but does prolong inspiratory pauses between syllables during vocalisation. This suggests these neurons are only part of a larger respiratory and behavioral network.

    25. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase regulates activity-dependent BDNF expression in post-mitotic cortical neurons

      Vikram S. Ratnu, Wei Wei and Timothy W. Bredy

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12678

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      We demonstrate that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) plays a key role in regulating activity-dependent BDNF exon IV expression in post-mitotic cortical neurons by reducing DNA methylation, and facilitating cAMP response element-binding protein occupancy within the BDNF P4 promoter.

    26. When first language is not first: an functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the neural basis of diglossia in Arabic

      Michael Nevat, Asaid Khateb and Anat Prior

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12673

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      Diglossia in Arabic refers to the existence of Spoken Arabic (SA) for everyday conversation and to Literary Arabic (LA) for formal communication and written language. In this study, performance and brain activity were measured while Arabic-Hebrew bilinguals performed a semantic categorization task on visually presented words in LA, SA, and Hebrew. Results reflected participants' LA dominance in word reading. As for SA, performance appeared adversely affected by the fact that words were presented visually, despite being the participants' first language for oral communication.

  2. Research Report

    1. Leukemia inhibitor factor promotes functional recovery and oligodendrocyte survival in rat models of focal ischemia

      Derrick D. Rowe, Lisa A. Collier, Hilary A. Seifert, Cortney B. Chapman, Christopher C. Leonardo, Alison E. Willing and Keith R. Pennypacker

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12675

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      Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) improved histological and functional outcomes when administered to rats following permanent ischemic stroke. Furthermore, primary oligodendrocyte cultures were protected from oxygen glucose deprivation through LIF-mediated, Akt-dependent induction of the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin 4. These data highlight the therapeutic potential of LIF while identifying a novel cytoprotective signaling pathway that could be targeted for stroke therapy.

  3. Research Reports

    1. Evidence for perceptual neglect of environmental features in hippocampal-lesioned pigeons during homing

      Anna Gagliardo, Enrica Pollonara, Vincent J. Coppola, Carlos D. Santos, Martin Wikelski and Verner P. Bingman

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12680

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      Compared to when intact, homing pigeons when hippocampal lesioned display a more tortuous path when flying over the familiar space near their loft. Unexpectedly, they fly straighter paths home over unfamiliar space away from home. Therefore hippocampal lesions appear to produce a perceptual neglect of environmental features that are attended to by intact pigeons when homing over unfamiliar space.

    2. The dorsal raphe nucleus is integral to negative prediction errors in Pavlovian fear

      Benjamin A. Berg, Geoffrey Schoenbaum and Michael A. McDannald

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12676

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      Despite their potential importance to learning and adaptive behavior, brain regions contributing to aversive predictions remain largely unknown. Using Pavlovian discrimination and extinction procedures we demonstrate an integral role for the dorsal raphe nucleus in the use of negative prediction errors to reduce fear. These results provide a novel brain region that may be important for understanding human disorders of persistent fear, such as post-traumatic stress disorder.

    3. Top-down inputs from the olfactory cortex in the postprandial period promote elimination of granule cells in the olfactory bulb

      Sayaka Komano-Inoue, Hiroyuki Manabe, Mizuho Ota, Ikue Kusumoto-Yoshida, Takeshi K. Yokoyama, Kensaku Mori and Masahiro Yamaguchi

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12679

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      We previously reported that elimination of granule cells in the olfactory bulb is promoted during postprandial period. We here showed that top-down inputs from the olfactory cortex to the olfactory bulb during postprandial period are the crucial signal promoting granule cell elimination. Life and death of granule cells is likely determined by the interplay between bottom-up sensory inputs from the external world and top-down inputs from the olfactory cortex.

    4. The Ephrin receptor EphA4 restricts axonal sprouting and enhances branching in the injured mouse optic nerve

      Sandrine Joly, Noémie Jordi, Martin E. Schwab and Vincent Pernet

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12677

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      In the optic nerve, like in the rest of the CNS, severed axons cannot regenerate after traumatic injury. The role of EphrinAs and their EphA receptors in the inhibition of adult axon regeneration is not clear. The present study shows that EphA4 ablation enhances the outgrowth and reduces the branching of injured axons analysed in three-dimension in the adult mouse optic nerve after tissue clearing.

    5. Collapsin response-mediator protein 5 (CRMP5) phosphorylation at threonine 516 regulates neurite outgrowth inhibition

      Sébastien Brot, Hinda Smaoune, Mina Youssef-Issa, Céline Malleval, Claire Benetollo, Roger Besançon, Carole Auger, Mahnaz Moradi-Améli and Jérôme Honnorat

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12674

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      During early stages of brain development, CRMP2 binds to tubulin to promote neurite outgrowth but CRMP2 phosphorylation prevents tubulin binding. Little is known about CRMP5 phosphorylation. Using mutational analysis, we show that CRMP5 is phosphorylated by GSK-3β at residue T516. Phosphorylated CRMP5, but not the mutated CRMP5-A516, binds to tubulin and inhibits neurite and dendritic growth, contributing to the correct dendritic growth and the regulation of neuronal polarity.

    6. Induction of interleukin-1β by activated microglia is a prerequisite for immunologically induced fatigue

      Masataka Ifuku, Shamim M. Hossain, Mami Noda and Toshihiko Katafuchi

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12668

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      An i.p. injection of poly I:C produced prolonged fatigue in rats, which was prevented by i.c.v. injection of IL-1β neutralising antibody. IL-1β was produced by activated microglia in the prefrontal cortex at least partly by direct action of poly I:C through TLR3 due to the breakdown of blood-brain barrier. IL-1β induces serotonin transporters in astrocytes, which causes reduction of serotonin levels, thereby resulting in the immunologically induced fatigue.

    7. Increased burst-firing of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons in d-amino acid oxidase knockout mice in vivo

      Judith V. Schweimer, Gaelle S. L. Coullon, Jill F. Betts, Philip W. J. Burnet, Sandra J. Engle, Nicholas J. Brandon, Paul J. Harrison and Trevor Sharp

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12667

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      DAO is implicated in schizophrenia as a risk gene and therapeutic target. We measured the in vivo firing properties of dopamine and non-dopamine neurons in the VTA of DAO knockout, heterozygote and wild-type mice. DAO knockout mice had about twice as many burst-firing dopamine neurons compared to heterozygote and wild-type mice. We hypothesise that the higher incidence of burst-firing of VTA dopamine neurons is due to increased availability of D-serine at VTA NMDA receptors.

    8. The control of complex finger movements by directional information flow between mesial frontocentral areas and the primary motor cortex

      M. Boenstrup, J. Feldheim, K. Heise, C. Gerloff and F. C. Hummel

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12657

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      In this EEG study, directional information flow among sensorimotor brain regions during complex finger movements was assessed using Granger causality derived directed transfer function. A complexity-dependent increase in information flow from mesial frontocentral to the left motor cortex and, less pronounced, also to the right motor cortex specifically in the upper alpha range was found. This finding adds to the understanding of the cortical generation of complex movements.

    9. Endothelin uncouples gap junctions in sustentacular cells and olfactory ensheathing cells of the olfactory mucosa

      Mikaël Le Bourhis, Stéphanie Rimbaud, Denise Grebert, Patrice Congar and Nicolas Meunier

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12665

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      Among the different factors that may modulate the first step of odour detection in the rat olfactory mucosa, we previously characterized endothelin as a strong activator of olfactory mucosa cells from a primary culture. Based on calcium imaging in acute slices and patch clamp studies, we show that endothelin induced both robust calcium signals and gap junction uncoupling in the two types of glial like non-neuronal mucosa cells : the supporting and the olfactory ensheathing cells.

    10. Excitation and inhibition in recurrent networks mediate collision avoidance in Xenopus tadpoles

      Arseny S. Khakhalin, David Koren, Jenny Gu, Heng Xu and Carlos D. Aizenman

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12664

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      We use a collision avoidance behavior in Xenopus tadpoles as a model for stimulus discrimination. We show that the detection of looming stimuli first occurs in the optic tectum, and relies on the properties of distributed recurrent networks. We also show that in this system inhibition is temporally correlated with excitation, and seems to regulate the amount of integration between direct inputs from the retina and recurrent activity within the tectum.

    11. Deficits in motor performance after pedunculopontine lesions in rats – impairment depends on demands of task

      Duncan A. A. MacLaren, Joseph A. Santini, Ashley L. Russell, Tamara Markovic and Stewart D. Clark

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12666

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      In motor tests typically used to assess Parkinson's disease models, rats with either damage to all neuronal types within pedunculopontine or selective depletion of the cholinergic neuronal subpopulation did not have deficits in baseline locomotion or on fixed speed rotarod. Both lesion groups were impaired in performance on the accelerating rotarod, however, only the non-selective lesioned rats had impairment in behavioral sequencing. Results are considered in terms of sensorimotor integration.

    12. Gene expression profile during functional maturation of a central mammalian synapse

      Christoph Körber, Anna Dondzillo, Gisela Eisenhardt, Frank Herrmannsdörfer, Oliver Wafzig and Thomas Kuner

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12661

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      We performed cell type-specific gene expression profiling of globular bushy cells during the functional postnatal maturation of the calyx of Held synapse. We found that genes implicated in neuron-specific functions were mostly regulated in the transition from the juvenile to the mature synapse. Out of these, genes encoding calcium binding proteins and voltage-gated ion channels were strongly regulated, consistent with the functional changes known for the calyx of Held.

    13. Dissociation of part-based and integrated neural responses to faces by means of electroencephalographic frequency tagging

      Adriano Boremanse, Anthony M. Norcia and Bruno Rossion

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12663

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      Frequency-tagging the left (5.88 Hz) and right (7.14 Hz) halves of faces with EEG provides objective evidence for dissociation between part-based and holistic representation of faces in the human brain: part-based EEG responses (5.88 and 7.14 Hz) increase when changing face identity at every cycle, while intermodulation frequencies (e.g., 7.14–5.88 Hz = 1.26 Hz) over the right occipito-temporal cortex decrease for different identities, which form a less coherent face.

    14. Recognition memory is associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity in people at genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease

      Silke Matura, David Prvulovic, Marius Butz, Daniel Hartmann, Beate Sepanski, Katja Linnemann, Viola Oertel-Knöchel, Tarik Karakaya, Fabian Fußer, Johannes Pantel and Vincent van de Ven

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12659

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      The impact of the Apolipoprotein E 4 (ApoE4) genotype on intrinsic functional brain network connectivity was assessed with resting state fMRI. A task-derived seed region in the posterior cingulate cortex showed increased connectivity with left middle temporal cortex in carriers of the ApoE ε4 allele compared to non-carriers. Moreover, increased connectivity was positively correlated with recognition memory scores in ε4 carriers. This result can be interpreted as a compensatory mechanism.

    15. Dissociable effects of social context on song and doublecortin immunoreactivity in male canaries

      Beau A. Alward, Wade D. Mayes, Katherine Peng, Tyler J. Stevenson, Jacques Balthazart and Gregory F. Ball

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12658

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      We show here that the presence of a female canary drastically reduces the output, loudness, and complexity of song in male canaries, while enhancing the incorporation of new neurons into the HVC, a sensorimotor nucleus that regulates song, compared to males that were housed alone. These results highlight the significant role of social context in the regulation of neural and behavioral plasticity in songbirds and how the social environment can exert these effects in opposition to what might be expected based on activity-induced neurogenesis.

    16. Astrocyte-like glial cells physiologically regulate olfactory processing through the modification of ORN-PN synaptic strength in Drosophila

      He Liu, Bangyu Zhou, Wenjun Yan, Zhengchang Lei, Xiaoliang Zhao, Ke Zhang and Aike Guo

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12646

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      Astrocyte-like glial cells exhibited spontaneous microdomain calcium elevations. Using simultaneous manipulation of glial activity and monitoring of neuronal function, we found that the astrocyte-like glial activation could inhibit odor-evoked responses of PNs. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that astrocyte-like glial activation decreased the amplitude and slope of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked through the electrical stimulation of the antennal nerve. Overall, our study demonstrates a new function for astrocyte-like glial cells in the physiological modulation of olfactory information transmission, and it might be through regulating ORN-PN synapse strength.

  4. Reviews

    1. Taking advantage of neural development to treat glioblastoma

      Zhiyuan Zhang and Chia-Ching John Lin

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12655

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      In this review, we highlight the striking scientific advances that several signaling pathways involved in normal neural development, including bHLH, Wnt/β-Catenin, BMPs/Smads, EGF/EGFR, and Notch, might play important roles in the GBM tumorigenesis and treatment. Extrapolating knowledge and concepts from neural development will have significant implications for better strategies to treat GBM.

  5. Research Reports

    1. Influence of monkey dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal activity on behavioral choice during attention tasks

      Fumi Katsuki, Mizuki Saito and Christos Constantinidis

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12662

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      Experiments in monkeys performing attention tasks examined the influence of neuronal activity recorded from the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex on behavioral choice and reaction time. We found that posterior parietal activity influenced behavioral choice during the fixation period whereas prefrontal activity predicted choice only after the appearance of the stimulus. Reaction time was also only predicted by posterior parietal activity.

    2. Collateral projections from vestibular nuclear and inferior olivary neurons to lobules I/II and IX/X of the rat cerebellar vermis: a double retrograde labeling study

      Ray X. Lee, Jian-Jia Huang, Chiming Huang, Meng-Li Tsai and Chen-Tung Yen

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12648

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      Through a double retrograde labeling study, lobules I/II and IX/X at the opposite poles of the cerebellar vermis were found to receive axon collaterals from single vestibular and inferior olivary neurons. This result provides an anatomical substrate for coordinated information processing in vestibular control.

    3. An unavoidable modulation? Sensory attention and human primary motor cortex excitability

      Diane Ruge, Neil Muggleton, Damon Hoad, Antonio Caronni and John C. Rothwell

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12651

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      Pure sensory attention without any motor component changes excitability in the motor cortex. Both, internal (attention to one's own body) and external (attention to outside one's own body) increases excitability in the motor cortex, but through mechanisms involving different neurocircuits. This finding has clinical implications for preventive and rehabilitation strategies for disorders of movement as well as pathophysiological characterization of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The cholinergic basal forebrain in the ferret and its inputs to the auditory cortex

      Victoria M. Bajo, Nicholas D. Leach, Patricia M. Cordery, Fernando R. Nodal and Andrew J. King

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12653

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      Using ChAT and p75NTR immunocytochemistry we describe the distribution of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain of the ferret, a species increasingly used in studies of auditory learning and plasticity. Epipial deposits of neural tracers, injections of the immunotoxin ME20.4-SAP in the auditory cortex (AC), and tracer injections in the nucleus basalis (NB) reveal the ipsilateral nature of the NB-AC input and a pattern of terminals that resemble AChE fibre staining in the auditory cortex.

    5. Transcallosal connection patterns of opposite dorsal premotor regions support a lateralized specialization for action and perception

      Anouk van der Hoorn, Adriaan R. E. Potgieser and Bauke M. de Jong

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12656

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      This DTI study shows specific differences between hemisphere connections of the left and right dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). Right PMd connections were dominant with particularly contralateral occipito-parietal regions. Left PMd connections were stronger with the contralateral frontal, ipsilateral ventral premotor and ipsilateral anterior parietal cortex. These two patterns of PMd connections may reflect a hemisphere-specific dominance for perception and action, respectively.

    6. Melanocortin 4 receptor activation inhibits presynaptic N-type calcium channels in amygdaloid complex neurons

      Francina Agosti, Eduardo J. López Soto, Agustina Cabral, Daniel Castrogiovanni, Helgi B. Schioth, Mario Perelló and Jesica Raingo

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12650

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      Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in food intake and energy expenditure regulation. We found that MC4R activation specifically inhibits N-type calcium currents in transfected HEK293 cells. MC4R activation reduces N-type currents and N-type channel-dependent GABAergic neurotransmission in amygdala primary neuronal cultures. Blockade of N-type channels mimics the induction of c-Fos expression by MC4R activation in the central subdivision of the amygdala.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Performance of compulsive behavior in rats is not a unitary phenomenon – validation of separate functional components in compulsive checking behavior

      Mark C. Tucci, Anna Dvorkin-Gheva, Eric Johnson, Paul Cheon, Leena Taji, Arnav Agarwal, Jane Foster and Henry Szechtman

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12652

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      Prior analysis indicated three behavioral components of quinpirole-induced compulsive checking. Here, a lesion of nucleus accumbens core (NAc) was used to activate the vigor and satiety components, and the 5-HT1A agonist, DPAT, to stimulate focus. Alone, each treatment did not induce compulsive checking, but together they synthesised compulsive checking behavior and the associated paths of locomotion, confirming analysis of compulsive checking into indicated components.

    8. Stopping movements: when others slow us down

      Andrea Cavallo, Caroline Catmur, Sophie Sowden, Francesco Ianì and Cristina Becchio

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12645

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      Are joint actions more difficult to stop than solo actions? In two studies, we demonstrate that participants need more time to stop a planned joint action compared to a planned solo action. TMS-induced MEPs suggest that this because joint stopping recruits a more selective suppression mechanism than solo stopping.

    9. Prolonged ampakine exposure prunes dendritic spines and increases presynaptic release probability for enhanced long-term potentiation in the hippocampus

      Philip K.-Y. Chang, George A. Prenosil, David Verbich, Raminder Gill and R. Anne McKinney

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12638

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      Here, we report that chronic treatment with the ampakine, CX546, results in the loss of excitatory synapses and dendritic spines in CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. At the same time, chronic CX546 treatment enhances presynaptic release probability and both structural and functional plasticity following LTP induction. Our findings suggest that neurons are conditioned by ampakine to be more responsive to learning paradigms; thus improving cognitive functions.

    10. Modulation of stimulus contrast on the human pupil orienting response

      Chin-An Wang and Douglas P. Munoz

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12641

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      The sudden appearance of a salient stimulus initiates a series of responses to orient the body for appropriate actions, including not only shifts of gaze and attention, but also transient pupil dilation. To examine pupil orienting responses, we presented visual stimuli while participants fixated on a central visual spot. Consistent with the literature, stimulus contrast modulated saccade behaviors, with faster reaction times observed for saccades to higher contrast stimuli. Importantly, transient pupil dilation was elicited after presentation of a visual stimulus in the periphery. The evoked pupil responses were also modulated systematically by stimulus contrast, with faster and larger pupil responses triggered by higher contrast stimuli. Together, our results demonstrate visual contrast modulation on the orienting pupil response in humans.

    11. Nitric oxide is necessary for labilization of a consolidated context memory during reconsolidation in terrestrial snails

      Pavel M. Balaban, Matvey Roshchin, Alia K. Timoshenko, Khalil L. Gainutdinov, Tatiana K. Bogodvid, Lyudmila N. Muranova, Alena B. Zuzina and Tatiana A. Korshunova

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12642

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      After a 10-day session of electric shocks in one context only, context memory in snails was observed in test sessions as the significant difference of amplitudes of withdrawal responses to tactile stimuli in two different contexts.A session of ‘reminding’, preceded by injection either with vehicle, or combination of a protein synthesis blocker anisomycin (ANI) with one of the NO-synthase inhibitors has shown that the context memory was impaired, while the reminder under combined injection of ANI and each of the NO-synthase inhibitors used or the NO scavenger showed no impairment of long-term context memory. Obtained results demonstrate that NO is necessary for labilization of a consolidated context memory.

    12. Neuron type- and input pathway-dependent expression of Slc4a10 in adult mouse brains

      Xiaohong Song, Miwako Yamasaki, Taisuke Miyazaki, Kohtarou Konno, Motokazu Uchigashima and Masahiko Watanabe

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12636

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      Slc4a10, which functions as a Na+-driven Cl/HCO3 exchanger NCBE or electroneutral Na+/HCO3 cotransporter NBCn2, is enriched in Purkinje cell dendrites and spines, showing superficial-to-basal and distal-to-proximal gradients in this neuron. Interestingly, Scl4a10 expression in the cerebellar cortex exhibits, though overlapping, almost reciprocal distribution to K+-Cl cotransporter KCC2, a major Cl extruder, suggesting functional redundancy and distinction of these transporters.

    13. Effect of amiloride on endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the injured spinal cord of rats

      Masahiro Kuroiwa, Masahiko Watanabe, Hiroyuki Katoh, Kaori Suyama, Daisuke Matsuyama, Takeshi Imai and Joji Mochida

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12647

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      In a rat spinal cord injury model, amiloride administration increased expression of GRP78, which protects cells against ER stress, and decreased levels of the pro-apoptotic factor CHOP. By ameliorating ER stress, amiloride inhibited cell death, improved OPC survival, and enhanced motor function recovery. The present study suggests that amiloride may be an effective treatment to reduce ER stress-induced cell death in the acute phase of SCI.

    14. Spatial ranking strategy and enhanced peripheral vision discrimination optimize performance and efficiency of visual sequential search

      Giacomo Veneri, Elena Pretegiani, Francesco Fargnoli, Francesca Rosini, Claudia Vinciguerra, Pamela Federighi, Antonio Federico and Alessandra Rufa

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12639

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      Visual sequential search of an alpha-numerical sequence is a logical task, in which a peripheral spatial ranking of the scene is used to put in the correct order the next target of the sequence. This strategy, characterized by shorter fixations near the target, depends upon peripheral vision integrity. Other, more costly strategies are adopted when peripheral vision decreases. By comparing the performance during an alpha-numeric sequential task where peripheral vision was differently modulated, we demonstrated that spatial ranking is an efficient strategy adopted by the brain in logical visual sequencing to reduce the neural cost of visual exploration by avoiding unnecessary foveations when peripheral information is already sufficient, and that promotes sequential search by facilitating the onset of a new saccade.

    15. Suprachiasmatic vasopressin and the circadian regulation of voluntary locomotor behavior

      Holly C. Cormier, Valeria Della-Maggiore, Ilia N. Karatsoreos, Margaret M. Koletar and Martin R. Ralph

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12637

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      Manipulations of vasopressin activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus demonstrate that the ventrolateral core is a target for vasopressin regulation of voluntary locomotor behavior. Inhibitory neurons in the core produce suppression of voluntary behavior which may be driven by rhythmic vasopressinergic interneurons in the dorsomedial shell of the nucleus, the site of circadian pacemaker neurons, thereby sequestering voluntary activities to the subjective night.

    16. Functional connectivity in prenatally stressed rats with and without maternal treatment with ladostigil, a brain-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor

      G. Goelman, R. Ilinca, I. Zohar and M. Weinstock

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12621

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      Prenatal stress in rats caused depressive-like behavior in the mothers (A) and in the offspring (B) that was restored to that of controls by maternal treatment with ladostigil (8.5 mg/kg per day), a brain selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor than prevented increased anxiety in stress mothers. Resting state-functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging showed higher right hemispheric connectivity in prenatally-stressed (PS) male offspring that was corrected by maternal treatment with ladostigil (C). Functional connectivity of the right Nac shell with frontal areas, cingulate, septum, motor and sensory cortices was enhanced in PS rats and normalized by maternal drug treatment (D).

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