European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 44 Issue 6

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: John Foxe and Paul Bolam

Impact Factor: 2.975

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 114/256 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1460-9568


  1. 1 - 58
  1. Research Reports

    1. Graph coarse-graining reveals differences in the module-level structure of functional brain networks

      Rainer Kujala, Enrico Glerean, Raj Kumar Pan, Iiro P. Jääskeläinen, Mikko Sams and Jari Saramäki

      Version of Record online: 25 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13392

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      Understanding differences in the intermediate-level structure of whole-brain functional networks is a challenging task, for which no standard solution exists. To this end, we present a data-driven graph coarse-graining method, and apply it to functional magnetic resonance imaging data recorded during rest and movie viewing. The method is able to detect statistically verifiable, easy-to-interpret differences between a fixed set of data-driven network modules.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A comparative transcriptomic analysis of astrocytes differentiation from human neural progenitor cells

      Marco Magistri, Nathalie Khoury, Emilia Maria Cristina Mazza, Dmitry Velmeshev, Jae K. Lee, Silvio Bicciato, Pantelis Tsoulfas and Mohammad Ali Faghihi

      Version of Record online: 25 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13382

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      In this study, we isolated and cultured neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from human fetal brain, we differentiated NPCs into astrocyte using different protocols and utilized RNA sequencing to define the characteristics of the differentiated astrocytes. Our datasets is an important resource to study human astrocytes development, identify novel human-specific astrocyte markers and represent valuable tool for future studies of human disorders characterized by impairments in astrocytes.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Acute stress alters individual risk taking in a time-dependent manner and leads to anti-social risk

      S. Bendahan, L. Goette, J. Thoresen, L. Loued-Khenissi, F. Hollis and C. Sandi

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13395

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      Participants take more risks immediately after exposure to social stress. However, over time, they become more risk averse than even unstressed controls. When risks carry a negative financial consequence to another person, all participants adjust their behaviour to take less risk, but stressed participants adjust less.

    4. Congruent representation of visual and acoustic space in the superior colliculus of the echolocating bat Phyllostomus discolor

      Susanne Hoffmann, Tomas Vega-Zuniga, Wolfgang Greiter, Quirin Krabichler, Alexandra Bley, Mariana Matthes, Christiane Zimmer, Uwe Firzlaff and Harald Luksch

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13394

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      Here we demonstrate for the first time the existence of congruent sensory maps for visual and acoustic spatial information in the midbrain of a nocturnal and acoustically dominated mammal, the echolocating bat Phyllostomus discolor. Our novel data contribute to decode what functional role the superior colliculus, a midbrain nucleus primarily concerned with visuomotor transformation, plays in mediating orienting behavior in animals that mainly rely on auditory information for navigation.

  2. Commentary

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  3. Short Communication

    1. Blood oxygenation level dependent signal and neuronal adaptation to optogenetic and sensory stimulation in somatosensory cortex in awake animals

      Daniil P. Aksenov, Limin Li, Michael J. Miller and Alice M. Wyrwicz

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13384

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      The role of thalamic inputs vs. intracortical processing in shaping BOLD adaptation during stimulation in the somatosensory cortex was evaluated. It was found that the sensory feed-forward thalamic inputs are not primarily responsible for shaping BOLD adaptation to stimuli; but the single-unit results point to a role in this behaviour for specific excitatory and inhibitory neuronal sub-populations, which may not correlate with aggregate neuronal activity.

  4. Special Issue Articles

    1. Gonadectomy but not biological sex affects burst-firing in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area and in prefrontal cortical neurons projecting to the ventral tegmentum in adult rats

      Mallory N. Locklear, Michalis Michealos, William F. Collins and Mary F. Kritzer

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13380

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      Single unit recordings made in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and in ventral tegmentally projecting prefrontal cortex cells were compared among urethane-anaesthetized male, female and gonadectomized male rats. A survey of firing properties showed that gonadectomy selectively increased burst firing in both areas in a testosterone-sensitive, estradiol-insensitive manner. A working model is proposed for androgen impact originating in cortex and feeding forward to the ventral midbrain.

  5. Research Reports

    1. Postnatal light alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and induces a depressive-like phenotype in adult mice

      Georgia Coleman, John Gigg and Maria Mercè Canal

      Version of Record online: 18 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13388

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      Postnatal light experience has imprinting effects on clock genes and circadian behaviour. In addition to these, here we demonstrate that early light environment can also shape the development of the HPA axis, which can lead to altered stress responses and a depressive phenotype in adulthood.

  6. Short Communication

    1. Synesthesia strengthens sound-symbolic cross-modal correspondences

      Simon Lacey, Margaret Martinez, Kelly McCormick and K. Sathian

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13381

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      We tested the idea that there is a continuum between synesthesia and cross-modal correspondences using the Implicit Association Test. We show that synesthetes experience stronger sound-symbolic, but not low-level sensory, cross-modal correspondences compared to non-synesthetes. This is consistent with the view of synesthesia as a high-level post-perceptual phenomenon distinct from cross-modal correspondences, but only partially consistent with the continuum hypothesis.

  7. Research Reports

    1. Orientation selectivity in rat primary visual cortex emerges earlier with low-contrast and high-luminance stimuli

      Masoud Ghodrati, Dasuni S. Alwis and Nicholas S. C. Price

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13379

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      The visual system must robustly extract information from scenes with continually changing luminance and contrast. Here, we demonstrate that orientation tuning bandwidths in rat V1 neurons are both luminance- and contrast-invariant. Surprisingly, orientation selectivity develops mostly rapidly with high-luminance and low-contrast stimuli, which our models suggest reflect adaptive changes in resting membrane potential that help maintain sensitivity to weak, low-contrast stimuli.

    2. Feeding during the resting phase causes profound changes in physiology and desynchronization between liver and muscle rhythms of rats

      Anne-Loes Opperhuizen, Dawei Wang, Ewout Foppen, Remi Jansen, Olga Boudzovitch-Surovtseva, Janneke de Vries, Eric Fliers and Andries Kalsbeek

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13377

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      Food intake at the wrong time of day resulted in different response of rat metabolic organs. Liver clock and metabolic gene rhythms shifted with the timing of feeding, but muscle rhythms were lost, suggesting they are controlled mainly by the timing of locomotor activity. On the other hand, the hypothalamic orexin system was not affected, suggesting it is under strong SCN control. Desynchronization between organs may play an important role in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders.

  8. Short Communication

    1. Modulation of physiological mirror activity with transcranial direct current stimulation over dorsal premotor cortex

      Vincent Beaulé, Sara Tremblay, Louis-Philippe Lafleur, Marie C. Ferland, Jean-François Lepage and Hugo Théoret

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13385

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      Transcranial direct current stimulation was applied over dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC) to modulate physiological mirror movements (PMM) in healthy participants. Unilateral stimulation (anode or cathode over dPMC, return electrode over supraorbital area) failed to modulate PMM. Bilateral stimulation (anode and cathode over bilateral dPMC) increased PMM in the hand ipsilateral to cathodal stimulation only.

  9. Research Reports

    1. Prenatal testosterone exposure decreases colocalization of insulin receptors in kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin and agouti-related peptide neurons of the adult ewe

      Maria Cernea, Rebecca Phillips, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Lique M. Coolen and Michael N. Lehman

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13373

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      Long-term consequences of prenatal T treatment on insulin receptor beta (IRβ) colocalization within AgRP, POMC and KNDy neurons of the female sheep hypothalamus. Decreased IRβ colocalization within AgRP and KNDy neurons may result in decreased insulin sensitivity in these neurons and altered steroid feedback control of GnRH secretion, thereby contributing to the metabolic and reproductive disruptions seen in the PCOS-like phenotype of this animal model.

    2. Relative contribution of the dorsal raphe nucleus and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray to morphine antinociception and tolerance in the rat

      Kyle N. Campion, Kimber A. Saville and Michael M. Morgan

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13378

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      Microinjection of morphine produced greater antinociception and greater tolerance to this antinociception following injections into the ventrolateral periqueductal gray (PAG) compared to the lateral or medial aspects of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). These data indicate that the ventrolateral PAG and adjacent DRN are distinct pain modulatory systems.

    3. An electrophysiological marker of the desire to quit in smokers

      Sarah E. Donohue, Joseph A. Harris, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Marty G. Woldorff and Mircea A. Schoenfeld

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13386

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      Event-related potential data were obtained from 24 smokers who performed a rare-target detection task in a craving and non-craving session. We observed a dissociation in the pattern of frontal activity in smokers who wished to quit vs. smokers who did not wish to quit, as a function of craving. These data suggest the presence of an electrophysiological marker in addiction, which is sensitive to the reported desire to quit using a substance.

    4. Virally delivered, constitutively active NFκB improves survival of injured retinal ganglion cells

      Galina Dvoriantchikova, Steve Pappas, Xueting Luo, Marcio Ribeiro, Dagmara Danek, Daniel Pelaez, Kevin K. Park and Dmitry Ivanov

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13383

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      We used a phosphomimetic approach to generate DNA coding for an activated (phosphorylated) NFκB subunit p65 (p65mut), then employed an adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) to deliver the DNA into RGCs. We found that increased activity of the NFκB in RGCs (using AAV2-p65mut) attenuates retinal damage in animal models of neurodegeneration. However, NFκB activity in RGCs has a limited impact on axon regeneration.

  10. Special Issue Articles

    1. On the properties of identified dopaminergic neurons in the mouse substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area

      Paraskevi Krashia, Alessandro Martini, Annalisa Nobili, Daniela Aversa, Marcello D'Amelio, Nicola Berretta, Ezia Guatteo and Nicola Biagio Mercuri

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13364

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      We studied the properties of identified DAergic neurons in midbrain slices from TH-GFP mice. We saw that the firing rate, membrane properties, cell size and Ih magnitude of TH-GFP+ cells varied with a mediolateral gradient across distinct SNpc and VTA subregions. TH-GFP+ cells were inhibited by DA and excited by Met-Enk, whereas Zd7288 inhibited firing only in the most lateral regions. Our work provides new insights into the variability in midbrain DAergic neurons along the mediolateral axis.

    2. The unique psychostimulant profile of (±)-modafinil: investigation of behavioral and neurochemical effects in mice

      Maddalena Mereu, Lauren E. Chun, Thomas E. Prisinzano, Amy H. Newman, Jonathan L. Katz and Gianluigi Tanda

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13376

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      Modafinil, like cocaine, increased nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) levels, produced cocaine-like discriminative-stimulus (subjective) effects and enhanced those effects when administered with cocaine. Nonetheless, modafinil is unique. Its lower dopaminergic potency and efficacy than cocaine, with subjective effects obtained at lower doses and earlier onset times than expected from effects on DA, suggest that non-dopaminergic effects may be critical in modafinil's unique pharmacologic profile.

  11. Research Reports

    1. Switching between two targets with non-constant velocity profiles reveals shared internal model of target motion

      E. Hainque, E. Apartis and P. M. Daye

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13370

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      This study uses a new paradigm in which a target switches unexpectedly from a non-constant periodic velocity profile to a non-constant aperiodic velocity profile. The analyses confirm that the central nervous system uses an internal model of target motion to correct catch-up saccade amplitude. They also demonstrate that a common internal model of target motion is shared within the central nervous system to control smooth pursuit and to correct catch-up saccade amplitude.

    2. Modulation of sensitivity to alcohol by cortical and thalamic brain regions

      Anel A. Jaramillo, Patrick A. Randall, Suzanne Frisbee and Joyce Besheer

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13374

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      This study investigated cortical and thalamic circuitry modulating sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol. The medial prefrontal cortex, insular cortex and rhomboid thalamic nucleus, all with projections to the nucleus accumbens core, showed reduced neuronal activity in response to alcohol in rats trained to discriminate the interoceptive effects of alcohol. Functional involvement was confirmed as pharmacological inactivation of these regions produced alcohol-like interoceptive effects.

  12. Special Issue Articles

    1. Dopaminergic neurotransmission in ventral and dorsal striatum differentially modulates alcohol reinforcement

      Marcia Spoelder, Peter Hesseling, Matthew Styles, Annemarie M. Baars, José G. Lozeman-van ‘t Klooster, Heidi M. B. Lesscher and Louk J. M. J. Vanderschuren

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13358

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      We assessed how dopamine within striatal sub-regions modulates alcohol reinforcement, using bilateral infusions of the dopamine receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol. Our results suggest that dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell is involved in the incentive motivation for alcohol, while NAcc core dopamine plays a more general role in alcohol reinforcement. Dorsolateral striatal dopamine comes into play when obtaining alcohol requires high levels of effort.

  13. Research Reports

    1. Lesions of the dorsal striatum impair orienting behaviour of salamanders without affecting visual processing in the tectum

      Tim Ruhl, Sabrina Hanslian and Ursula Dicke

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13375

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      In the amphibian tectum, visual processing is assumed to be modulated by a tectum-thalamus-striatum-tectum feedback loop. Lesions of the dorsal striatum (Str/Pall) impair orienting responses to visual stimuli but not visual processing in the optic tectum (Tect), while both the orienting responses and visual processing were found to be disturbed after lesion of the dorsal thalamus (Thal). The striatum is likely to contribute to the selection of orienting responses by modulating premotor circuits in the tegmentum (Teg).

  14. Special Issue Reviews

    1. Brain dopamine neurone ‘damage’: methamphetamine users vs. Parkinson's disease – a critical assessment of the evidence

      Stephen J. Kish, Isabelle Boileau, Russell C. Callaghan and Junchao Tong

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13363

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      Striatal dopamine (DA) marker changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) vs. methamphetamine (MA) users. In autopsied brain of persons with PD, striatal levels of all DA markers (DA and metabolites DOPAC, HVA and 3-MT, synthesizing enzymes TH and AADC, and transporters VMAT2 and DAT) are low, whereas in MA users, only two markers (DA and DAT) are below normal. This suggests that any loss of brain dopamine neurones in at least a subgroup of recreational MA users, if at all present, might not be substantial.

  15. Research Reports

    1. Contribution of color signals to ocular following responses

      Kiyoto Matsuura, Kenji Kawano, Naoko Inaba and Kenichiro Miura

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13361

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      Color signals mainly contribute to the generation of OFRs at higher spatial frequency compared with luminance signals.

    2. Differences in spatial and temporal frequency interactions between central and peripheral parts of the feline area 18

      Chunzhen Zhao, Ryosuke Hata, Jun-ya Okamura and Gang Wang

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13372

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      The central cortical area in cat visual cortex tuned to higher spatial frequency and lower temporal frequency than the peripheral cortical area. Simultaneous change in both spatial and temporal frequency of grating stimuli evoked responses which were significantly different from those estimated with an assumption of independence between the frequencies in the peripheral cortical area. In the central cortical area, spatial frequency showed significant independence from temporal frequency.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ryanodine-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ channels are involved in the output from the SCN circadian clock

      Raúl Aguilar-Roblero, Daniel Quinto, Adrian Báez-Ruíz, José Luis Chávez, Andrea Carmine Belin, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz, Stephan Michel and Gabriella Lundkvist

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13368

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      To test if Ca2+ mobilization via ryanodine receptors channels (RyR) is an output from the circadian clock, we studied the effects of RyR activation and inhibition on real time expression of PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE, intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i and spontaneous firing rate (SFR) in mouse SCN neurons. Manipulation of RyR alters the free [Ca2+]i and the SFR without affecting the molecular clock mechanism, which confirm that RyR is a key part of the circadian clock output from SCN neurons.

  16. Special Issue Articles

    1. A Caenorhabditis elegans model to study dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome

      Placido Illiano, Ambra Lanzo, Damiana Leo, Maria Paglione, Giuseppina Zampi, Raul R. Gainetdinov and Elia Di Schiavi

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13366

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      Caenorhabditis elegans dopamine transporter (DAT) orthologue, cedat-1, maintains homeostasis in dopamine (DA) signalling. cedat-1 knockout (KO) causes accumulation of extracellular DA-inducing swimming-induced paralysis (SWIP). Expression of human DAT (hDATwt) in cedat-1 KO rescues SWIP defects, whereas dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome-related mutations in hDAT (hDATmut) do not, or only partially, rescue the SWIP defects. We provide a new in vivo tool for investigating mutations in hDAT gene found in DTDS patients.

  17. Special Issue Reviews

    1. Membrane transporters as mediators of synaptic dopamine dynamics: implications for disease

      Kelly M. Lohr, Shababa T. Masoud, Ali Salahpour and Gary W. Miller

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13357

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      This review describes the importance of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) on dopamine compartmentalization and neuronal health (A–C). While theoretical, this schematic highlights emerging evidence from mouse models of varying transporter levels. We predict that the continuum of transporter function in these animal models will allow for new discoveries concerning endogenous dopamine handling, pharmacological manipulation of the transporters, and dopamine-dependent behaviors (D).

  18. Research Reports

    1. Imaging population dynamics of surround suppression in the superior colliculus

      Masatoshi Kasai and Tadashi Isa

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13371

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      In vivo two photon calcium imaging from mouse superficial superior colliculus (SC) revealed how the neuronal population represent lateral interaction and surround suppression. Both excitatory and inhibitory neuronal populations showed quite similar spatial response pattern of surround suppression. This results suggests that long-range inhibitory network rather than the local inhibition within the superficial layer mediates lateral inhibition and surround suppression in the superficial layer of the SC.

    2. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in genetically defined fear-induced aggression

      Tatiana V. Ilchibaeva, Anton S. Tsybko, Rimma V. Kozhemyakina, Nina K. Popova and Vladimir S. Naumenko

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13365

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      Specific pattern for GDNF expression in genetically defined aggressiveness was revealed. GDNF mRNA, GDNF precursor proGDNF, GDNF monomer and dimer levels were changed in the brain structures of rats selectively bred for high level of aggressiveness toward human comparing to nonaggressive rats. The data suggested the implication of GDNF encoding gene, proGDNF as well as mature GDNF monomer and dimer in the mechanism underlying genetically defined aggressiveness.

  19. Short Communication

    1. Threshold tracking primary motor cortex inhibition: the influence of current direction

      John Cirillo and Winston D. Byblow

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13369

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      Intracortical inhibition was assessed using a transcranial magnetic stimulation threshold tracking technique which induced current in the brain in the anterior-posterior (AP) or posterior-anterior (PA) direction. Inhibition was always greater with AP current (left panels: triangles vs. circles) because AP preferentially recruits late indirect waves in motor cortex. AP threshold tracking provides a robust and sensitive measure of intracortical inhibition in motor cortex (linear regression; right panels).

  20. Research Reports

    1. Reducing the time interval between concussion and voluntary exercise restores motor impairment, short-term memory, and alterations to gene expression

      Richelle Mychasiuk, Harleen Hehar, Irene Ma, Sydney Candy and Michael J. Esser

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13360

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      This study was designed to examine concussion outcomes following different ‘return-to-exercise’ time intervals, in order to elucidate optimal times to resume physical activity. Using behavioural, molecular, and genomic measures, we found that implementation of exercise within 1–3 days post-injuy was beneficial, and actually ameliorated some of the negative consequences associated with mTBI.

    2. Effortful control as a dimension of temperament is negatively associated with prefrontal serotonin transporter availability in obese and non-obese individuals

      Franziska Zientek, Karsten Winter, Astrid Müller, Michael Rullmann, Julia Luthardt, Georg-Alexander Becker, Anke Bresch, Marianne Patt, Osama Sabri, Anja Hilbert and Swen Hesse

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13362

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      We aimed to investigate a possible association between serotonin transmission and regulative temperament in obese and non-obese individuals by using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of serotonin transporters (SERT). Our analysis indicates that regulative temperament – particularly the capacity to mitigate negatively toned impulses and to resist inappropriate avoidance behavior – might be associated with the prefrontal serotonergic system.

  21. Short Communication

    1. Relationship between impulsivity traits and awareness of motor intention

      F. Giovannelli, B. Mastrolorenzo, A. Rossi, G. Gavazzi, S. Righi, G. Zaccara, M. P. Viggiano and M. Cincotta

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13359

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      Our goal was to test the hypothesis that impulsivity could be related to a delayed awareness of voluntary action. Our main finding was that in healthy participants the time between the conscious intention to move and the execution of a self-initiated movement is related to impulsive personality traits. These data may have potential clinical implications, e.g. in Parkinson's disease, in order to identify patients at risk to develop impulse control disorders.

  22. Research Reports

    1. Do wholes become more than the sum of their parts in the rodent (Rattus Norvegicus) visual system? A test case with the configural superiority effect

      John C. Talpos, Lee de-Wit, Joseph Olley, Jack Riordan and Thomas Steckler

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13350

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      Unlike humans, rats do not show evidence of seeing shapes as ‘more than the sum of their parts’. Despite the similarities between the rodent and human visual systems, rats do not display a configural superiority effect and are heavily biased towards the use of ‘local’, as opposed to ‘global’ cue when solving a visual discrimination. These data highlight important differences in the processing of visual stimuli between rats and humans.

  23. Special Issue Articles

    1. Preserved dopaminergic homeostasis and dopamine-related behaviour in hemizygous TH-Cre mice

      Annika H. Runegaard, Kathrine L. Jensen, Ciarán M. Fitzpatrick, Ditte Dencker, Pia Weikop, Ulrik Gether and Mattias Rickhag

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13347

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      Phenotypic characterization of the TH-Cre mouse strain validates its use to target and study the dopamine system. Hemizygous TH-Cre mice display preserved dopaminergic homeostasis with unaltered levels of TH and dopamine as well as unaffected dopamine turnover in striatum. TH-Cre mice demonstrate normal responses in basic behavioural paradigms related to dopaminergic signalling (Sagittal and coronal brain sections in illustration were modified from Paxinos and Franklin, 2001).

  24. Research Reports

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Temporally stable adaptation is robust, incomplete and specific

      Katinka van der Kooij, Krista E. Overvliet and Jeroen B. J. Smeets

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13355

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      We investigated the effect of repeated sensorimotor adaptation sessions over longer periods of time. A 3D pointing task that was repeated on different days yielded temporally stable but incomplete adaptation that was specific to pointing with the adapted hand and remained incomplete. This saturation of adaptation does not support the idea that slow components in common models of adaptation underlie the seemingly perfect adaptation to natural changes such as body growth.

    2. Blocking transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 channel in astrocytes enhances astrocyte-mediated neuroprotection after oxygen–glucose deprivation and reoxygenation

      Han Zhang, Jun Xiao, Zheng Hu, Minjie Xie, Wei Wang and Dan He

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13352

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      Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) channel expresses functionally in rat cortical astrocytes and oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation treatment enhances the expression. Blocking the TRPV2 channel in astrocytes promotes cell proliferation and the secretion of nerve growth factor via the mitogen-activated protein kinase-c-JunN-terminalkinase pathway. TRPV2 channel may be a candidate target for the astrocyte-mediated therapy in ischemic stroke.

  25. Editorial

    1. You have free access to this content
      History of neuroscience in Greece: from Alkmaion to austerity

      George K. Kostopoulos

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13341

  26. Research Reports

    1. Phosphorylation of NMDA receptor GluN2B subunit at Tyr1472 is important for trigeminal processing of itch

      Akitoshi Inoue, Hitoshi Uchida, Takanobu Nakazawa, Tadashi Yamamoto and Seiji Ito

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13337

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      In this study, we showed that the phosphorylation of GluN2B subunits of the NMDA receptor at its Tyr1472 is important for trigeminal transmission of itch. NMDA receptor activation occurs upstream of the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-GRP receptor pathway.

    2. Age-dependent increase in Kalirin-9 and Kalirin-12 transcripts in human orbitofrontal cortex

      Melanie J. Grubisha, Chien-Wei Lin, George C. Tseng, Peter Penzes, Etienne Sibille and Robert A. Sweet

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13351

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      Global KALRN analysis in BA11 shows no significant age-dependent change. Isoform-specific analyses within this same region, however, demonstrate a modest but statistically significant age-dependent change in the longer isoforms, KAL9 and KAL12. This finding is overlooked in global expression analyses.

    3. Reducing falls in Parkinson's disease: interactions between donepezil and the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist idalopirdine on falls in a rat model of impaired cognitive control of complex movements

      Aaron Kucinski, Inge E. M. de Jong and Martin Sarter

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13354

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      Following short freezes, rats with dual cortical cholinergic and striatal dopaminergic deafferentation resumed forward movement relatively slowly, generally with the tail positioned relatively low and with a slouched posture, yielding slips and falls. When treated with donepezil and idalopirdine (DON + IDL), such rats resumed forward movement, sometimes starting with a hop, they quickly regaining regular traversal speed and fluid forward movement, with high and firm tail position and upright posture, thereby preventing slips and falls.

    4. Neuroprotective effect of propofol against excitotoxic injury to locomotor networks of the rat spinal cord in vitro

      Jaspreet Kaur, Javier Flores Gutiérrez and Andrea Nistri

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13353

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      The general anaesthetic propofol can prevent excitotoxic death of motoneurons (immunostained with a cholineacetyltransferase antibody) evoked by the glutamate agonist kainic acid applied to the isolated spinal cord of the rat. This effect is manifested even when propofol is administered after washout of the toxic agent and is indicative of a potential neuroprotective action to be explored in future experiments in vivo.

  27. Commentary

    1. You have free access to this content
      Cerebellar output encodes a corrective saccadic command (Commentary on Sun et al.)

      David J. Herzfeld and Reza Shadmehr

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13345

  28. Research Reports

    1. Hearing, feeling or seeing a beat recruits a supramodal network in the auditory dorsal stream

      Rodrigo Araneda, Laurent Renier, Daniela Ebner-Karestinos, Laurence Dricot and Anne G. De Volder

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13349

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      There is one centralized and multisensory neural network involved in the processing of a beat, whatever detected in audition, in vision or via the vibrotactile modality. Among these regions within the auditory doesal pathway and motor planning areas, which are similarly acitivated in all three modalities, the supplementary motor area and the putamen are the most specific to the beat. See Figure 5 in the article.

  29. Commentary

    1. You have free access to this content
  30. Special Issue Articles

    1. Chronic D2/3 agonist ropinirole treatment increases preference for uncertainty in rats regardless of baseline choice patterns

      Melanie Tremblay, Mason M. Silveira, Sukhbir Kaur, Jay G. Hosking, Wendy K. Adams, Christelle Baunez and Catharine A. Winstanley

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13332

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      Here, we report that chronic administration of the D2/3 receptor agonist ropinirole increased preference for uncertainty on a rat model of gambling-like behaviour, the rodent betting task (rBT), in both healthy rats and in a 6-OHDA lesion model of early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD). This suggests that D2/3 agonist-induced impulse control disorders (ICDs) are caused by drug treatment independent from pre-morbid behaviours or PD itself.

  31. Short Communication

    1. Cocaine abstinence induces emotional impairment and brain region-specific upregulation of the oxytocin receptor binding

      Polymnia Georgiou, Panos Zanos, Susanna Hourani, Ian Kitchen and Alexis Bailey

      Version of Record online: 10 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13348

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      Chronic cocaine administration and withdrawal increased oxytocin receptor binding in lateral septum and amygdala. These biochemical alterations occurred concomitantly with the emergence of an anhedonic and anxiogenic phenotype during withdrawal. Our study established a relationship between cocaine abstinence and emotional impairment in a translationally relevant model and demonstrated neuroadaptations of the oxytocin system, which may contribute to abstinence-induced negative emotional state.

  32. Research Reports

    1. Deep brain stimulation in the central nucleus of the amygdala decreases ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ of food rewards

      Shani E. Ross, Emily Lehmann Levin, Christy A. Itoga, Chelsea B. Schoen, Romeissa Selmane and J. Wayne Aldridge

      Version of Record online: 5 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13342

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      Deep brain stimulation of the central nucleus of the amygdala resulted in decreased working for and consumption of sucrose pellets in rats. This same type of stimulation had no effect on animals implanted in control sites. Furthermore, animals receiving CeA stimulation demonstrated increased ‘disliking’ reactions to hedonic, neutral, and aversive tastes, although given the opportunity, they would nose-poke for short bursts of stimulation.

  33. Special Issue Articles

    1. Spike-timing dependent inhibitory plasticity to learn a selective gating of backpropagating action potentials

      Katharina Anna Wilmes, Jan-Hendrik Schleimer and Susanne Schreiber

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13326

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      Feedforward inhibitory circuits can provide a switch for excitatory synaptic plasticity and BAC firing by temporally precise control of backpropagating action potentials. The precision in the circuit, however, first has to be established. This study demonstrates that an inhibitory learning rule can achieve automatic fine-tuning of such feedforward circuits, a regulatory mechanism that allows to dynamically control learning in the nervous system.

    2. Sparse pallidal connections shape synchrony in a network model of the basal ganglia

      Bettina C. Schwab, Richard J. A. van Wezel and Stephan A. van Gils

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13324

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      It is still unknown how β synchrony arises in the parkinsonian basal ganglia, and what makes it dependent on dopamine. We show that in a network model, the combination of sparse, high-conductance inhibition and sparse, low-conductance gap junctions in the external globus pallidus could desynchronize the basal ganglia. For stronger gap junctions, activity synchronized. As dopamine decreases gap junction conductance, we suggest that gap junctions contribute to β synchrony in the parkinsonian basal ganglia.

    3. The possible consequences for cognitive functions of external electric fields at power line frequency on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons

      Rosanna Migliore, Giada De Simone, Xavier Leinekugel and Michele Migliore

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13325

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      We investigated how, why and to what extent external perturbations of the intrinsic neuronal activity, such as those caused by generation, transmission and use of electrical energy [external electric fields (EF)] can affect neuronal activity during cognitive processes. Our results suggest that, although EF effects on cognitive processes may be difficult to occur in everyday life, their functional consequences deserve some consideration, especially when EF are present in a living environment.

  34. Research Reports

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Adult microbiota-deficient mice have distinct dendritic morphological changes: differential effects in the amygdala and hippocampus

      Pauline Luczynski, Seán O. Whelan, Colette O'Sullivan, Gerard Clarke, Fergus Shanahan, Timothy G. Dinan and John F. Cryan

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13291

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      Germ-free mice (GF; microbiota deficient from birth) exhibit alterations in stress responsivity, anxiety-like behaviour, and sociability, effects influenced by the amygdala and hippocampus. Here, we show that there are alterations in the gross morphology and ultrastructure of the amygdala and hippocampus of GF mice. These findings indicate that the microbiota is required for normal brain structure and that these neuronal changes may contribute to the maladaptive behavioural profile of GF mice.

    2. Individual neurons in the caudal fastigial oculomotor region convey information on both macro- and microsaccades

      Zongpeng Sun, Marc Junker, Peter W. Dicke and Peter Thier

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13289

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      The cerebellar control of saccades is achieved through the fastigial oculomotor region (FOR). Lesions of the FOR compromise saccades, independent of their size, as well as fixation. Although the properties of the FOR control signals for macrosaccades are well known, it has remained unclear how the FOR contributes to the control of microsaccades and fixation. Our work shows that FOR neurons, both at an individual and population level, process control signals for saccades that are continuous across micro- and macrosaccades. Furthermore, by analyzing the baseline firing rate, our results suggest that FOR might play an important role in precise visual fixation.

  35. Special Issue Articles

    1. Emergent spatial synaptic structure from diffusive plasticity

      Yann Sweeney and Claudia Clopath

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13279

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      Diffusive neurotransmitters provide a means for neurons to influence their neighbours regardless of their synaptic coupling. We propose a form of diffusive plasticity which is mediated by these neurotransmitters, and find that it introduces spatial structure in the synaptic connectivity of networks. This emergent spatial structure is reminiscent of stimulus preference structure in sensory cortex and can flexibly interact with other forms of functional synaptic organisation.

  36. Reviews

    1. Multiple asynchronous stimulus- and task-dependent hierarchies (STDH) within the visual brain's parallel processing systems

      Semir Zeki

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13270

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      Three parallel ‘feed-forward’ hierarchical systems feed the visual areas of the brain. The speed with which signals arrive in the different visual areas and the speed at which these areas process the signals reaching them depend both on the characteristics of the stimulus and the task. Hence the temporal order of the parallel hierarchies is variable.

  37. Special Issue Articles

    1. Calcium dynamics predict direction of synaptic plasticity in striatal spiny projection neurons

      Joanna Jędrzejewska-Szmek, Sriraman Damodaran, Daniel B. Dorman and Kim T. Blackwell

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13287

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      We created a model spiny projection neuron with dendrites, spines and realistic calcium dynamics to investigate synaptic plasticity. Synaptic strength increases when calcium exceeds an upper threshold for a specified duration, and decreases when calcium is between the upper and lower threshold for a specified duration. This learning rule accurately predicts the timing- and NMDA-dependence of STDP, and further predicts that L-type calcium channels are required for LTD.

  38. Research Reports

    1. Audio-visual multisensory training enhances visual processing of motion stimuli in healthy participants: an electrophysiological study

      Paolo A. Grasso, Mariagrazia Benassi, Elisabetta Làdavas and Caterina Bertini

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13221

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      A training with spatially coincident audio-visual (AV) stimuli increases the N1 component in response to motion stimuli in the trained hemifield, in a task relying on the activity in the colliculo-dorsal MT pathway (Motion discrimination task). No enhancement is found in a task relying on the activity of the striate and early ventral extrastriate cortices (Orientation discrimination task). No post-training effect is found after a training with spatially disparate AV stimuli in both tasks.


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