European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 43 Issue 3

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: John Foxe and Paul Bolam

Impact Factor: 3.181

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 108/252 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1460-9568


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  1. Research Reports

    1. Amylin receptor components and the leptin receptor are co-expressed in single rat area postrema neurons

      Claudia G. Liberini, Christina N. Boyle, Carlo Cifani, Marco Venniro, Bruce T. Hope and Thomas A. Lutz

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13163

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      Single amylin-activated AP neurons co-express all necessary components of functional amylin receptors, i.e. CTRa and RAMP1, RAMP2, RAMP3, or a combination of RAMPs. The graph shows the co-expression in CTR-positive cells of amylin injected rats. A high percentage of these cells also co-express the leptin receptor (LepRb). Thus, single AP-cells form a population of first-order neurons that presumably can be directly activated by amylin and at least in part also by leptin.

    2. Grey matter changes of the pain matrix in patients with burning mouth syndrome

      Charlotte Sinding, Anne Mari Gransjøen, Gina Schlumberger, Miriam Grushka, Johannes Frasnelli and Preet Bano Singh

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13156

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      We used a voxel based morphomety to identify gray matter concentration changes between Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS), Dysgeusic, and Control group. We identified, for the first time, gray matter changes in the major part of the ‘pain matrix’ in BMS. In comparison, Dysgeusia presented fewer changes, located in areas linked to emotion, motor anticipation and somesthesia. Our findings may explain a central pain condition in BMS.

    3. Orexin gene transfer into the amygdala suppresses both spontaneous and emotion-induced cataplexy in orexin-knockout mice

      Meng Liu, Carlos Blanco-Centurion, Roda Rani Konadhode, Liju Luan and Priyattam J. Shiromani

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13158

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      Cataplexy is an important distinguishing symptom of narcolepsy and it is often triggered by strong emotions. Here we transferred orexin gene into amygdala neurons of orexin knockout mice. Three weeks later, mice were exposed to predator odor coyote urine and the animal's sleep and behavior were recorded. Results demonstrated that orexin gene transfer into amygdala neurons can suppress both spontaneous and emotion-induced cataplexy attacks in narcoleptic mice. It suggests that manipulating amygdala pathways is a potential strategy for treating cataplexy in narcolepsy.

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      The extremely broad odorant response profile of mouse olfactory sensory neurons expressing the odorant receptor MOR256-17 includes trace amine-associated receptor ligands

      Bassim Tazir, Mona Khan, Peter Mombaerts and Xavier Grosmaitre

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13153

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      Mouse olfactory sensory neurons that express the odorant receptor SR1 or MOR256-17 are broadly responsive to odorants. All odorants that stimulate SR1-expressing neurons also stimulate MOR256-17-expressing neurons but not vice versa.

    5. Familiarity modulates motor activation while other species' actions are observed: a magnetic stimulation study

      Lucia Amoruso and Cosimo Urgesi

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13154

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      Participants with different levels of familiarity with dogs, observed video clips displaying actions performed either by humans or dogs. While individuals with long lasting familiarity showed similar levels of motor activation for human and canine actions, individuals who had no familiarity showed higher motor activation for human than for canine actions, suggesting that the human motor system is flexible enough to resonate with other species and that familiarity modulates this ability.

    6. Characterization of physiological phenotypes of dentate gyrus synapses of PDZ1/2 domain-deficient PSD-95-knockin mice

      Hitoshi Nagura, Tomoko Doi and Yoshinori Fujiyoshi

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13155

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      We characterized the properties of the DG synapses in our genetically modified mice whose PDZ1/2 domains of PSD-95 are functionally deficient, and showed global changes in PSD-MAGUK expression, robust LTP with unchanged NMDAR dependence, and heterogeneously reduced AMPAR-mediated transmission. Minimal stimulation experiments also suggested that biased reduction of AMPAR accumulation resulted in silencing of large proportion of synapses at DG of our mutant mice.

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      Stable encoding of sounds over a broad range of statistical parameters in the auditory cortex

      Jennifer M. Blackwell, Thibaud O. Taillefumier, Ryan G. Natan, Isaac M. Carruthers, Marcelo O. Magnasco and Maria N. Geffen

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13144

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      Natural environmental sounds span a broad range of frequencies, and possess characteristic spectro-temporal statistical regularities in their structure. Here, we found that the responses of the majority of individual neurons in the auditory cortex were selective for a subset of stimuli with specific statistics, yet, as a neuronal population, the responses were remarkably stable over large changes in stimulus statistics. This pattern of neuronal responses suggests a potentially general principle for cortical encoding of complex acoustic scenes: while individual cortical neurons exhibit selectivity for specific statistical features, a neuronal population preserves a constant response structure across a broad range of statistical parameters.

    8. Neocortical 40 Hz oscillations during carbachol-induced rapid eye movement sleep and cataplexy

      Pablo Torterolo, Santiago Castro-Zaballa, Matías Cavelli, Michael H. Chase and Atilio Falconi

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13151

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      Profile of the EEG gamma (30-45 Hz) coherence during REM sleep (REMc) and cataplexy induced by carbachol (CA). Gamma coherence is high during CA and absent during REMc.

    9. Long-lasting deficits in hedonic and nucleus accumbens reactivity to sweet rewards by sugar overconsumption during adolescence

      Fabien Naneix, Florence Darlot, Etienne Coutureau and Martine Cador

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13149

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      Adolescence is an important period of vulnerability to psychiatric diseases. Here we report that the overconsumption of sucrose during adolescence induces a decrease in the intake of sweet solutions and in orofacial hedonic reactions to sweet tastes at adulthood. This hedonic deficit is associated with lower c-Fos levels in the nucleus accumbens demonstrating that sugar overconsmption during adolescence leads to long-lasting alterations of reward-related circuits.

    10. Perinatal citalopram does not prevent the effect of prenatal stress on anxiety, depressive-like behaviour and serotonergic transmission in adult rat offspring

      Inbar Zohar, Shai Shoham and Marta Weinstock

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13150

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      Administration of citalopram to stressed pregnant rats reduces their anxiety without adversely affecting the behaviour of unstressed controls, but does not prevent anxiety and depressive-like behaviour in offspring of either sex. Maternal citalopram treatment also fails to prevent the alterations in 5HT1A receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex and on GABAergic interneurons and CRF type 2 receptors in the dorsal raphe nuclei induced by prenatal stress.

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  3. Research Reports

    1. Retinal lesions induce fast intrinsic cortical plasticity in adult mouse visual system

      Katrien Smolders, Samme Vreysen, Marie-Eve Laramée, Annemie Cuyvers, Tjing-Tjing Hu, Leen Van Brussel, Ulf T. Eysel, Julie Nys and Lutgarde Arckens

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13143

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      Induction of a monocular retinal lesion immediately influences neuronal activity in different lesion projection zones throughout adult mouse visual cortex. The speed of recovery of neuronal activity post injury mirrors retinotopic organization, cortical magnification factor and receptive field size. This vision impairment model can lead to a better understanding of brain region-, cell type-, and microcircuit-specific contributions to different forms of cortical neuronal plasticity in mammals.

    2. Combined transcranial alternating current stimulation and continuous theta burst stimulation: a novel approach for neuroplasticity induction

      Mitchell R. Goldsworthy, Ann-Maree Vallence, Ruiting Yang, Julia B. Pitcher and Michael C. Ridding

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13142

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      We investigated whether the neuroplastic response to cTBS was enhanced by timing the bursts of stimuli to different phases of a tACS-imposed alpha oscillation. We show that the response to cTBS was enhanced when stimulus bursts were delivered in-phase with the trough, but not the peak, of the applied current. This enhancement of the cTBS response was dependent on the individual peak frequency of the endogenous alpha rhythm, and was strongest in non-responders to standard cTBS.

    3. Individual variation in incentive salience attribution and accumbens dopamine transporter expression and function

      Bryan F. Singer, Bipasha Guptaroy, Curtis J. Austin, Isabella Wohl, Vedran Lovic, Jillian L. Seiler, Roxanne A. Vaughan, Margaret E. Gnegy, Terry E. Robinson and Brandon J. Aragona

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13134

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      Individual variation in dopamine transporter (DAT) expression has been identified as a regulator of incentive motivational processes. This finding has strong translational potential; strikingly similar to our animal model, human research indicates that DAT gene polymorphisms alter brain DAT expression, ventral striatal activation, and bias attention toward drug cues.

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      Facilitative effect of repetitive presentation of one stimulus on cortical responses to other stimuli in macaque monkeys – a possible neural mechanism for mismatch negativity

      Kana Takaura and Naotaka Fujii

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13136

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      Repetitive presentation of one stimulus attenuates the cortical response to the repeated stimulus, which is called stimulus-specific adaptation. Using multi-channel subdural electrodes in macaque monkeys, we found that repetitive presentation of an auditory stimulus also facilitated the cortical response to subsequent other stimuli (oddball) that involved a wide range of cortical regions such as the temporal, prefrontal, and parietal cortices.

    5. Experience-dependent escalation of glucose drinking and the development of glucose preference over fructose – association with glucose entry into the brain

      Ken T. Wakabayashi, Laurence Spekterman and Eugene A. Kiyatkin

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13137

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      Although glucose and fructose are calorically equal and fructose is sweeter than glucose, rats exhibit escalating glucose consumption and develop preference of glucose over fructose during repeated sessions of free drinking. These behavioural phenomena appear to be related to glucose entry to the brain and its action on glucose-sensitive central neurons. This neural effect of glucose could be critical in regulating consummatory behaviours with both sugary product and possibly different foods.

  4. Commentary

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  5. Research Reports

    1. Functional dissociation between regularity encoding and deviance detection along the auditory hierarchy

      Maryam Aghamolaei, Katarzyna Zarnowiec, Sabine Grimm and Carles Escera

      Article first published online: 31 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13138

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      Using a spatial oddball paradigm that manipulated the difference between the standard and deviant stimuli, this study provides evidence for a functional dissociation between two levels of the auditory hierarchy in deviance processing. While higher levels of the hierarchy, associated to MMN, are able to detect the deviants and track the degree of deviance, lower levels associated to middle-latency response (MLR) generation, can only encode for regularities and detect deviance, but are unable to encode for the magnitude of change.

    2. Motion-induced disturbance of auditory–motor synchronization and its modulation by transcranial direct current stimulation

      Kentaro Ono, Yusuke Mikami, Hidenao Fukuyama and Tatsuya Mima

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13135

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      Using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we investigated whether auditory motion affects auditory-motor synchronization and whether the right IPL/SPL is associated with synchronized tapping with moving sounds. The accuracy of tapping with moving sounds was less precise than with stationary sounds but the application of cathodal tDCS to the right IPL/SPL improved the accuracy significantly, suggesting the contribution of these areas to the auditory motion processing.

    3. A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of motor control in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome during imagined and executed movements

      Laura Zapparoli, Mauro Porta, Martina Gandola, Paola Invernizzi, Valeria Colajanni, Domenico Servello, Alberto Zerbi, Giuseppe Banfi and Eraldo Paulesu

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13130

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      • We used fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of voluntary motor control in adult GTS patients, with two different finger opposition tasks, one explicit and one imagined.
      • We found task-dependent cortical hyperactivations in GTS, broader for motor imagery, proportional to the severity of the disease.
      • The presence of an explicit motor outflow in GTS mitigated the manifestation of tics and the need for compensatory brain activity in the brain regions showing task dependent hyperactivations.
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      Phenotype-dependent Ca2+ dynamics in single boutons of various anatomically identified GABAergic interneurons in the rat hippocampus

      Tibor Lőrincz, Máté Kisfali, Balázs Lendvai and Elek Sylvester Vizi

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13131

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      Using single stimulation the Δ[Ca2+]i measured in botons show phenotype-dependent differences (A). At train stimulation (5APs at 60 Hz) the differences are much larger (B). Note that the kinetics of the firs component in FS cells are markedly faster (C).

    5. Areas V1 and V2 show microsaccade-related 3–4-Hz covariation in gamma power and frequency

      E. Lowet, M. J. Roberts, C. A. Bosman, P. Fries and P. De Weerd

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13126

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      Visual cortical V1 and V2 gamma-band oscillations undergo moment-by-moment variations in power and frequency. However, they are structured and shaped by a microsaccade-related 3-4-Hz theta rhythm coordinated between V1 and V2. This supports the suggestion that cross-frequency coupling might structure and coordinate neural activity within and between brain regions.

    6. Individual and sex-related differences in pain and relief responsiveness are associated with differences in resting-state functional networks in healthy volunteers

      Giulia Galli, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Matteo Feurra, Marco Bonifazi, Simone Rossi, Martin P. Paulus and Alessandro Rossi

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13125

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      Functional connectivity at rest predicts individual and sex-related differences in pain ratings collected outside the scanner. Across the whole group, pain ratings are associated with decreased connectivity between brain regions belonging to the default mode and the visual resting-state network. Pain sensitivity is associated with increased functional connectivity within the visual resting state network in men, and decreased connectivity between this network and prefrontal brain regions in women.

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      A robust and representative lower bound on object processing speed in humans

      Magdalena M. Bieniek, Patrick J. Bennett, Allison B. Sekuler and Guillaume A. Rousselet

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13100

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      Using event-related potentials in a sample of 120 human participants aged 18–81, we found evidence for onsets of neuronal activity to images of objects within 100 ms. The results are reliable across testing days, independent of age, and not due to filtering distortions or lack of control for multiple comparisons. The results provide a new lower benchmark for the earliest neuronal responses to complex objects in the human visual system.

    8. Depression-like behaviour in mice is associated with disrupted circadian rhythms in nucleus accumbens and periaqueductal grey

      Dominic Landgraf, Jaimie E. Long and David K. Welsh

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13085

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      An association between circadian rhythms and mood regulation is well established, and disturbed circadian clocks are believed to contribute to the development of mood disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Lacking the tight neuronal network that couples single-cell oscillators in the SCN, circadian clocks outside the SCN may be less stable and more susceptible to disturbances, for example by clock gene mutations or uncontrollable stress. We found that helplessness in mice is associated with absence of circadian rhythms in the nucleus accumbens and the periaqueductal gray, two of the most critical brain regions within the reward circuit. Our study provides evidence that susceptibility of mice to depression-like behavior is associated with disturbed local circadian clocks in a subset of mood-regulating brain areas, but the direction of causality remains to be determined.

  6. Commentary

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  7. Research Reports

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Optogenetic stimulation of astrocytes in the posterior hypothalamus increases sleep at night in C57BL/6J mice

      Dheeraj Pelluru, Roda Rani Konadhode, Narayan R. Bhat and Priyattam J. Shiromani

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13074

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      Astrocytes in posterior hypothalamus of C57BL/6J mice (n = 7) were transduced with rAAV-GFAP-ChR2 (H134R)-EYFP to express ChR2. When optogenetically stimulated at 10 Hz with blue light (473 nm) during the dark phase (active period), the mice had significant increase in NREM and REM sleep. This underscores the importance of astrocytes in sleep.

    2. The postcentral sulcal complex and the transverse postcentral sulcus and their relation to sensorimotor functional organization

      Veronika Zlatkina, Céline Amiez and Michael Petrides

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13049

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      The postcentral sulcus of each subject may be divided into five segments and there is a tight relationship between sensorimotor representations of different body parts and specific segments of the postcentral sulcus. When the transverse postcentral sulcus is present on the inferior postcentral gyrus, it is functionally related to the oral (mouth and tongue) sensorimotor representation. When this sulcus is not present, the inferior postcentral sulcus which is also related to the oral representation is longer.

    3. Inhibitory short-term plasticity modulates neuronal activity in the rat entopeduncular nucleus in vitro

      Hagar Lavian and Alon Korngreen

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12965

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      We recorded from neurons in the entopeduncular nucleus in rat brain slices during stimulation of the striatum and the globus pallidus. We show that synapses from the striatum display short-term facilitation and those from the globus pallidus show short-term depression. The data suggests that striatal output may be encoded as progressive phase shifts while high frequency pallidal output may continuously modulate entopeduncular nucleus firing.

    4. Individual differences in perceptual abilities predict target visibility during masking

      Silvia Pagano and Veronica Mazza

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12948

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      What happens when we attend to multiple masked objects? Are all the people equally sensitive to masked information? We found that the neural marker of object individuation, an ERP component named N2pc, can still track multiple objects even when masked. However, ERSP analyses demonstrated that participants that were not sensitive to masking were associated to higher evoked gamma contralateral to target side. These participants were also associated to a larger modulation of the N2pc component, suggesting that more efficient segmentation and individuation mechanisms, indexed by gamma and N2pc respectively, reduce the effects of masking.


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