European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 40 Issue 12

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Jean-Marc Fritschy and Martin Sarter

Online ISSN: 1460-9568

VIEW

  1. 1 - 47
  1. Research Reports

    1. Interests shape how adolescents pay attention: the interaction of motivation and top-down attentional processes in biasing sensory activations to anticipated events

      Snigdha Banerjee, Hans-Peter Frey, Sophie Molholm and John J. Foxe

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12810

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      This work examined the influence of level of interest in anticipated stimuli on established ERP indices of spatial attention in adolescents. Results showed significantly greater accuracy in target detection for high versus low interest stimuli, as well as enhanced amplitude in parieto-occipital processes related to anticipatory spatial attention. This provides a foundation for future work with developmentally disabled populations using level of interest in stimuli as incentive to potentially regulate atypical attentional processes.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Stimulus intensity determines experience-dependent modifications in neocortical neuron firing rates

      Stanislaw Glazewski and Alison L. Barth

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12805

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      Experience-dependent plasticity in primary somatosensory cortex, induced by removal of all but one whisker, is most pronounced in layer 2/3 neurons for responses to very small whisker deflections, a finding that was not anticipated by prior studies that focused only on relatively high-intensity stimuli. At low stimulus intensities, there was an overall increase in the proportion of neurons that responded to the whisker deflection, indicating a reduction in sparseness.

    3. Chronic alcohol intake abolishes the relationship between dopamine synthesis capacity and learning signals in the ventral striatum

      Lorenz Deserno, Anne Beck, Quentin J. M. Huys, Robert C. Lorenz, Ralph Buchert, Hans-Georg Buchholz, Michail Plotkin, Yoshitaka Kumakara, Paul Cumming, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Anthony A. Grace, Michael A. Rapp, Florian Schlagenhauf and Andreas Heinz

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12802

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      In alcohol dependence, ‘hijacked’ dopamine signals may impair flexible learning from non-drug rewards. Using fMRI during reversal learning and FDOPA PET, this study suggests that dopaminergic modulation of ventral striatal learning signals is disrupted in alcohol dependence in proportion to long-term alcohol intake of patients. Alcohol intake may perpetuate itself by interfering with dopaminergic modulation of neural learning signals, thus increasing craving for habitual drug intake.

    4. Selective processing of buildings and faces during working memory: the role of the ventral striatum

      Alexa Haeger, Hweeling Lee, Juergen Fell and Nikolai Axmacher

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12808

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      While being in a 3T MRI scanner, eighteen healthy human subjects performed a modified Sternberg working memory task consisting of faces and buildings which either had to be maintained as low or high memory load or maintained in the context of distraction. Striatum is activated when irrelevant information needs to be suppressed while relevant information needs to be maintained. Striatum reduces gating to category-specific regions (fusiform face area, FFA, and parahippocampal place area, PPA) via attenuation of interregional connectivity.

    5. Intracortical modulation, and not spinal inhibition, mediates placebo analgesia

      M. Martini, M. C. H. Lee, E. Valentini and G. D. Iannetti

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12807

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      After successful conditioning the placebo analgesia group was associated with a significant reduction of the amplitude of the late laser evoked potentials (LEPs). In contrast, the early component (N1), was only affected by stimulus energy. This selective suppression of late LEPs indicates that placebo analgesia is mediated by direct intracortical modulation and not by an inhibition of the nociceptive input at spinal level, which would have led to a modulation of all LEPs.

    6. Placebo-induced decrease in fatigue: evidence for a central action on the preparatory phase of movement

      Alessandro Piedimonte, Fabrizio Benedetti and Elisa Carlino

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12806

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      The study of the placebo effect has moved from the clinical to the physical performance setting, whereby placebos boost performance. In the present study we investigated the correlation between the placebo-induced decrease in fatigue and the motor preparation phase, measured through the readiness potential. Our results suggest that placebos reduce fatigue by acting during the anticipatory phase of movement, thus emphasizing the key role of the central nervous system in the generation of fatigue.

    7. A transcranial magnetic stimulation study on response activation and selection in spatial conflict

      Lara Bardi, Sami Schiff, Demis Basso and Daniela Mapelli

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12803

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      We investigated the role of dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) in response activation and selection during spatial conflict. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the PMd during the execution of a Simon task, at different timing after the onset of the visual stimulus. When TMS was applied in an early timing, we observed a delay of responses in corresponding trials. When TMS was applied in a late timing, we observed a delay of non-corresponding responses. This outcome revealed that PMd is involved both in the activation of the spatially triggered response and in response selection during spatial conflict.

    8. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A modulates vesicular release and calcium channel function at peripheral sympathetic synapses

      Christian Vogl, Shota Tanifuji, Benedicte Danis, Veronique Daniels, Patrik Foerch, Christian Wolff, Benjamin J. Whalley, Sumiko Mochida and Gary J. Stephens

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12799

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      Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein-2A (SV2A) has a controversial role in neurotransmitter release and function is yet to described in peripheral synapses. SV2A knockdown is shown to affect synaptic vesicle release, refilling kinetics and, for the first time, voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel current density. SV2A is an important regulator of presynaptic function in peripheral synapses with a secretory and calcium channel phenotype.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Parallel pathways from motor and somatosensory cortex for controlling whisker movements in mice

      Varun Sreenivasan, Kajari Karmakar, Filippo M. Rijli and Carl C. H. Petersen

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12800

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      Neurons in whisker motor cortex (wM1) project to the reticular formation (Rt) in the brain stem innervating premotor neurons for intrinsic muscles, which drive whisker protraction through motor neurons in the facial nucleus (FN). Neurons in whisker somatosensory cortex (wS1) project to spinal trigeminal (Sp5) brain stem nuclei innervating premotor neurons for extrinsic muscles, which drive whisker retraction through motor neurons in the facial nucleus (FN).

    10. Neurosteroids differentially modulate fast and slow interictal discharges in the hippocampal CA3 area

      Rochelle Herrington, Maxime Lévesque and Massimo Avoli

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12797

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      Application of 0.1, 1 or 5 μm THDOC to 4AP-treated slices caused a dose-dependent decrease in the duration of the fast events and increase in the occurrence of ripples but not fast ripples; in contrast, the duration of slow interictal events increased. THDOC potentiated the slow events that were recorded during pharmacological blockade of glutamatergic transmission, but had no effect on interictal discharges occurring during GABAA receptor antagonism. The potentiation of GABAA receptor mediated signalling by THDOC differentially affects slow and fast interictal discharges.

  2. Technical Spotlight

    1. Caged compounds for multichromic optical interrogation of neural systems

      Joseph M. Amatrudo, Jeremy P. Olson, Hitesh K. Agarwal and Graham C. R. Ellis-Davies

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12785

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      Irradiation of a mixture of nitroaromatic- and DEAC450-caged compounds with short and long wavelengths produces chromatically-selective uncaging of either caged compound, no matter which wavelength of light is used first. Thus multiple wavelengths can be applied in an arbitrary order such that photolysis at single synapses of two caged compounds is possible.

  3. Research Reports

    1. Encoding of point of view during action observation in the local field potentials of macaque area F5

      Vittorio Caggiano, Martin Giese, Peter Thier and Antonino Casile

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12793

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      We analysed the Local Field Potentials (LFPs) in monkey area F5 during the obsevation of actions from two different points of view – the subjective and the frontal view. We found that LFPs were strongly modulated by the point of view. The subjective point of view produced LFPs more similar to those produced by action execution compared to the frontal view. These results suggest that, depending on the point of view, action observation might activate different processes in monkey area F5.

    2. RAGE mediates the inactivation of nAChRs in sympathetic neurons under high glucose conditions

      Andrew R. Chandna, Manoj Nair, Christine Chang, Paul R. Pennington, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Darrell D. Mousseau and Verónica A. Campanucci

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12795

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      Our article demonstrates that RAGE signaling is required to induce oxidative stress and autonomic malfunction during high glucose conditions in cultured sympathetic neurons. This work strongly suggest a pivotal role of RAGE in triggering autonomic complications in diabetes, and proposes RAGE as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    3. Corticosterone analgesia is mediated by the spinal production of neuroactive metabolites that enhance GABAergic inhibitory transmission on dorsal horn rat neurons

      Vivien Zell, Pierre-Éric Juif, Ulrike Hanesch, Pierrick Poisbeau, Fernand Anton and Pascal Darbon

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12796

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      Corticosterone is spinally reduced in the neuroactive metabolite THDOC that enhances spinal GABAergic synaptic transmission. In turn, we observed a reduction of dorsal spinal network excitability reflecting a selective decrease in processing of C-fibers nociceptive inputs. The depressed neuronal activity at the spinal level leads to a weaker nociceptive message transmission to supraspinal structures and hence to an alleviation of pain.

    4. Preferential assembly of heteromeric small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels

      Timothy W. Church, Kate L. Weatherall, Sonia A. L. Corrêa, David L. Prole, Jon T. Brown and Neil V. Marrion

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12789

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      Co-expression of a combination of rat and human SK1 and SK2 channel subunits shows that heteromeric channel formation is preferred, but only if species are identical. Viral-mediated expression of a mutant rat SK1 subunit in organotypic hippocampal slices shows that a preference to form heteromeric channels in neurons.

    5. Inhibition in the lateral septum increases sucrose intake and decreases anorectic effects of stress

      Arojit Mitra, Christophe Lenglos and Elena Timofeeva

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12798

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      The development of sucrose overeating by repeated weekly cycles of food restriction was accompanied by (1) a decrease in the anorectic effects of stress and stress-induced c-fos expression in the lateral septum (LS), (2) an increase in expression of GAD67 in the LS, and (3) an increase in the percentage of LS neurons inhibited at the start of sucrose licking. Direct inhibition of the LS by baclofen decreased the anorectic effects of stress and increased sucrose intake.

    6. A role for solute carrier family 10 member 4, or vesicular aminergic-associated transporter, in structural remodelling and transmitter release at the mouse neuromuscular junction

      Kalicharan Patra, David J. Lyons, Pavol Bauer, Markus M. Hilscher, Swati Sharma, Richardson N. Leão and Klas Kullander

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12790

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      Here, we demonstrate a novel and potentially important role for SLC10A4 (or VAAT) in maintaining the structural integrity and transmission efficiency at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). VaatKO NMJs display fragmented endplates and reduced synaptic plasticity but elevated levels of cholinergic receptor transcripts. Further studies on VAAT may provide a better understanding of synaptic physiology and treatment of neuromuscular diseases.

    7. Perineuronal nets affect parvalbumin expression in GABAergic neurons of the mouse hippocampus

      J. Yamada, T. Ohgomori and S. Jinno

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12792

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      High-PV GABAergic neurons in the hippocampus are enwrapped with PNNs, while low-PV neurons lack PNNs. Digestion of PNNs by chondroitinase ABC causes reduction in expression level of PV.

    8. The glycoprotein Ten-m3 mediates topography and patterning of thalamostriatal projections from the parafascicular nucleus in mice

      Heidi Tran, Atomu Sawatari and Catherine A. Leamey

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12767

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      Using a combination of in situ hybridisation and anterograde tracing, the authors show that dense clusters of thalamostriatal terminations originating from the parafascicular thalamic nucleus (PF) target patches of Ten-m3-positive cells in the striatum. This clustering, along with gross topography, is altered in the absence of Ten-m3, and results in disrupted procedural learning.

    9. Synapse formation changes the rules for desensitization of PKC translocation in Aplysia

      Carole A. Farah, Faisal Naqib, Daniel B. Weatherill, Christopher C. Pack and Wayne S. Sossin

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12794

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      We had previously shown that PKC translocation desensitizes differently during spaced and massed applications of serotonin in the cell body of isolated sensory neurons. In this study, we show that synapse formation changes desensitization dynamics of PKC translocation. Using mathematical modeling, we show that these changes could be explained by changes in the targets of translational control and differential PKA targets at the synapse and the cell body.

    10. Neural correlates of object size and object location during grasping actions

      Simona Monaco, Anna Sedda, Cristiana Cavina-Pratesi and Jody C. Culham

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12786

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      We found coding of object size for grasping movements in the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), while coding of both object size and location was observed in the superior parietal occipital sulcus (SPOC), primary somatosensory and motor area (S1/M1), Precuneus, dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), and supplementary motor area (SMA). We suggest that area aIPS processes intrinsic object attributes for the execution of an efficient grasp. On the other hand, SPOC, S1/M1, Precuneus, PMd, and SMA integrate object size and location in order to process the digit positioning of the fingers on the object to allow a stable grasp.

    11. Analog modulation of spike-evoked transmission in CA3 circuits is determined by axonal Kv1.1 channels in a time-dependent manner

      Andrzej Bialowas, Sylvain Rama, Mickaël Zbili, Vincenzo Marra, Laure Fronzaroli-Molinieres, Norbert Ankri, Edmond Carlier and Dominique Debanne

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12787

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      The context in which the presynaptic action potential is elicited determines the neuronal output. We show here that spike-evoked transmission at CA3-CA3 synapses can be modulated by analog subthreshold depolarization of the presynaptic neuron. Using a combination of electrophysiological, computational and imaging techniques, we show that axonal Kv1.1 channels determine glutamate release in CA3 neurons in a time-dependent manner through the control of presynaptic spike waveform.

    12. Segregated labeling of olfactory bulb projection neurons based on their birthdates

      Fumiaki Imamura and Charles A. Greer

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12784

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      Using in utero electroporation performed at different embryonic days, authors established a method for segregated labeling of mouse olfactory bulb projection neurons based on their birthdates. Authors also found mitral cells projecting secondary dendrites into the superficial external plexiform layer especially in E12 electroporated olfactory bulb.

    13. Dopamine D2 receptors preferentially regulate the development of light responses of the inner retina

      Ning Tian, Hong-ping Xu and Ping Wang

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12783

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      We investigated whether dopamine D2 receptor regulates the activity-dependent functional development of the retina using ERG recordings. Our results demonstrate that mutation of the dopamine D2 receptors increases the amplitudes of ERG OPs in adults and reduces the developmental increase of ERG b-waves. In addition, light deprivation from birth completely diminishes the increased amplitude of OPs in D2−/− mice, demonstrating that the dopamine D2 receptor plays an important role in the activity-dependent functional development of the mouse retina.

    14. Increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis is not necessary for wheel running to abolish conditioned place preference for cocaine in mice

      M. L. Mustroph, J. R. Merritt, A. L. Holloway, H. Pinardo, D. S. Miller, C. N. Kilby, P. Bucko, A. Wyer and J. S. Rhodes

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12782

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      Our results demonstrate that elevated adult hippocampal neurogenesis from running is not necessary for running to abolish conditioned place preference for cocaine in mice. Results make strong headway determining the functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the interaction between physical activity and cocaine reward and have important implications for considering aerobic exercise in the treatment of cocaine abuse.

    15. Age-related changes in neural gap detection thresholds in the rat auditory cortex

      Yin Zhao, Xiaoxiao Xu, Juan He, Jinghong Xu and Jiping Zhang

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12791

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      We measured the neural gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in the primary auditory cortex of juvenile rats (P20-30) and adult rats (Adult I: 8–10 weeks; Adult II: 28–30 weeks), and found that the neural GDTs of juvenile rats were higher than that of adult rats. In addition, auditory cortex neurons generally showed lower GDTs at higher sound levels than at lower sound levels. These results provided evidences for neural correlates of age-related changes in behavioral gap detection ability.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Distinct subsynaptic localization of type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors at glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses in the rodent cerebellar cortex

      Mahnaz Mansouri, Yu Kasugai, Yugo Fukazawa, Federica Bertaso, Fabrice Raynaud, Julie Perroy, Laurent Fagni, Walter A. Kaufmann, Masahiko Watanabe, Ryuichi Shigemoto and Francesco Ferraguti

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12779

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      Taking advantage of the freeze fracture replica immunogold labeling (FRIL) method, this study confirms the peri-synaptic enrichment of mGlu1 receptors at glutamatergic synapses and demonstrates intrasynaptic localization of the receptors in the GABAergic synapses of the rodent cerebellar cortex. Disruption of the interaction between long Homer proteins and mGlu1 receptors did not influence the subsynaptic arrangement of the receptor in glutamatergic synapses.

    17. Differential regulation of AChR clustering in the polar and equatorial region of murine muscle spindles

      Yina Zhang, Shuo Lin, Andromachi Karakatsani, Markus A. Rüegg and Stephan Kröger

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12768

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      In muscle spindles, cholinergic synapse-like specialisations (including aggregates of AChRs) form in the central and polar regions of intrafusal fibers. We analysed the role of agrin and its receptor complex during muscle spindle development. We found that in E18.5 agrin- and MuSK knockout animals cholinergic synapse-like specialisations are present in the central region, whereas they are absent in both polar regions. These results suggest different mechanisms for AChR aggregation within both regions of intrafusal muscle fibers.

    18. Putative spinal interneurons mediating postural limb reflexes provide a basis for postural control in different planes

      Pavel V. Zelenin, Li-Ju Hsu, Vladimir F. Lyalka, Grigori N. Orlovsky and Tatiana G. Deliagina

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12780

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      Responses in individual putative spinal interneurons were studied during postural limb reflexes in the decerebrate rabbit preparation. Distribution across the spinal gray matter of different activity parameters and strengths of the ipsilateral and contralateral sensory inputs, was characterized. A hypothesis about functional roles of individual neurons was proposed: each neuron may be a component of a reflex arc that stabilizes orientation of a standing animal in a particular vertical plane.

    19. Suckling induces a daily rhythm in the preoptic area and lateral septum but not in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in lactating rabbit does

      Enrique Meza, Juan Aguirre, Stefan Waliszewski and Mario Caba

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12776

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      Maternal behavior in the rabbit is restricted to a brief nursing period every day. Here we demonstrated that this event induces daily rhythms of PER1 in the preoptic area and lateral septum, which are important for the control of maternal behavior. This effect was not observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Skipping of nursing bouts eliminates this effect. We propose that preoptic area and lateral septum are part of a circuit that supports maternal behavior in the rabbit.

    20. Cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain mediate biochemical and electrophysiological mechanisms underlying sleep homeostasis

      Anna V. Kalinchuk, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Robert W. McCarley and Radhika Basheer

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12766

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      During sleep deprivation we observed a tight correlation between increases in low frequency theta power, an electroencephalogram (EEG) marker of homeostatic sleep pressure, and biochemical sleep markers, such as adenosine and nitric oxide. Saporin lesioning of basal forebrain cholinergic cells prevented these increased measures and related correlation. Cholinergic basal forebrain neurons are therefore important for homeostatic sleep control and link the biochemical and EEG mechanisms of homeostatic sleep pressure.

    21. Temporal dynamics of the knowledge-mediated visual disambiguation process in humans: a magnetoencephalography study

      Tomokazu Urakawa, Katsuya Ogata, Takahiro Kimura, Yuko Kume and Shozo Tobimatsu

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12778

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      We attempted to determine how quickly the knowledge-mediated disambiguation of a two-tone image began to proceed along visual areas. A significant reduction in activity appeared in the lateral occipital area approximately 120 ms after the onset of an ambiguous image when the image was disambiguated. Our results provide a deeper insight into the temporal profile of the knowledge-mediated visual disambiguation process for a noisy visual scene in the brain.

    22. Effects of context-drug learning on synaptic connectivity in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala in rats

      David J. Rademacher, Nasya Mendoza-Elias and Gloria E. Meredith

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12781

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      Amphetamine conditioned place preference increased excitatory synapses contacting the spines and dendrites of pyramidal neurons and increased excitatory synapses onto dendrites of gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) interneurons. Context-drug learning increased inhibitory or modulatory synapses onto dendrites of these same interneurons. Context-drug learning alters the synaptic connectivity in the basolateral amygdala circuitry, findings that are important for drug-seeking behavior.

    23. Evidence for a role of corrective eye movements during gaze fixation in saccade planning

      Laura Pérez Zapata, María Solé Puig, Jose Antonio Aznar-Casanova and Hans Supèr

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12777

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      Previously we demonstrated that gaze shifts within 3-D space consists of two stages; a target saccade followed by a corrective saccade during gaze fixation. In the current study we used a double saccade experiment to assess the function of corrective saccades. When a corrective saccade was absent a directional error of the second target saccade was observed. These indicate that corrective saccades may have a role in programming target saccades within 3-D space.

    24. Acute inhibition of a cortical motor area impairs vocal control in singing zebra finches

      Yoko Yazaki-Sugiyama, Shin Yanagihara, Patrick M. Fuller and Michael Lazarus

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12757

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      Chemogenetic tools have been successfully applied to visualize neuronal control of zebra finch singing behavior. Silencing of neuron ensembles in the pre-motor brain area (RA) changed the acoustic structure and temporal pattern of specific elements with or without elimination of some syllables, suggesting that generation of specific song elements is controlled by activities of RA local circuits, whereas temporal codes and syllable sequences within motifs are generated up-stream.

    25. Role of the anterior insular cortex in integrative causal signaling during multisensory auditory–visual attention

      Tianwen Chen, Lars Michels, Kaustubh Supekar, John Kochalka, Srikanth Ryali and Vinod Menon

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12764

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      In this study we investigate dynamic causal mechanisms underlying multisensory auditory-visual attention, focusing on a network of right-hemisphere fronto-cingulo-parietal regions. We found that the right anterior insula (rAI) serves as a major causal control hub during multisensory attention. rAI integrates attention related signals from multiple sensory modalities and generates a common multisensory control signal.

    26. Stuttering as a trait or state – an ALE meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

      Michel Belyk, Shelly Jo Kraft and Steven Brown

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12765

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      When people stutter they over-activate the lip and larynx areas of motor cortex (red) and under-activate auditory cortex (blue). However, even when people who stutter are speaking fluently, they use the speech network differently than people who do not stutter.

    27. α-Synuclein staging in the amygdala of a Parkinson's disease model: cell types involved

      Alicia Flores-Cuadrado, Isabel Ubeda-Bañon, Daniel Saiz-Sanchez, Carlos de la Rosa-Prieto and Alino Martinez-Marcos

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12763

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      Amygdaloid α-synucleinopathy has been associated with early non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The present study shows that α-synuclein-positive cells were mainly concentrated in the basolateral and cortical amygdaloid complexes with a non-significant increase over time from 16 to 30-43 weeks and a significant decrease thereafter in A53T mice. α-synuclein mostly co-localized with calbindin and also co-expressed somatostatin. This data help to understand symptoms such as anhedonia.

    28. Activity-dependent modulation of the axonal conduction of action potentials along rat hippocampal mossy fibers

      Kuniaki Chida, Kenya Kaneko, Satoshi Fujii and Yoshihiko Yamazaki

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12762

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      We examined activity-dependent changes in axonal conduction of mossy fibers in the hippocampus. The conduction latency was increased by a stimulus consisting of 20 pulses at 1 Hz. The increase in conduction latency lasted for approximately 30 s. This suppressive effect was mediated through the activation of kainate receptors. These dynamic changes in axonal conduction may contribute to the fine control of neural activity and to information processing in the brain.

    29. Intracranial electroencephalography power and phase synchronization changes during monaural and binaural beat stimulation

      Ann-Katrin Becher, Marlene Höhne, Nikolai Axmacher, Leila Chaieb, Christian E. Elger and Juergen Fell

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12760

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      Based on intracranial recordings in presurgical epilepsy patients we studied how electroencephalography (EEG) power and phase synchronization are modulated by short (5 s) monaural and binaural beats with frequencies of 5, 10, 40, 80 Hz and control signals. Effects were found at surface, temporo-basal, temporo-lateral and mediotemporal sites. Most prominent power increases were due to monaural 40 Hz beats, whereas pronounced power and synchronization decreases occurred for monaural 5 Hz and binaural 80 Hz beats.

    30. Effects of environmental enrichment on ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the rat prefrontal cortex following nicotine-induced sensitization or nicotine self-administration

      Adrian M. Gomez, Wei-Lun Sun, Narasimha M. Midde, Steven B. Harrod and Jun Zhu

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12758

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      Rats raised in an enriched condition (EC) exhibit alterations in the neurobiological and behavioral response to nicotine compared to rats reared in an impoverished condition (IC) or a standard condition (SC). We found that EC rats self-administered less nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) relative to IC or SC rats on a fixed ratio-1 schedule of reinforcement, which was accompanied by an increase in pERK1/2 in IC rats but not in EC rats. These findings suggest that environmental enrichment differentially alters the nicotine-mediated pERK1/2, which may contribute to enrichment-induced behavioral alterations in response to nicotine.

    31. The thalamic reticular nucleus is activated by cortical spreading depression in freely moving rats: prevention by acute valproate administration

      Nermin Tepe, Aslı Filiz, Ergin Dilekoz, Didem Akcali, Yildirim Sara, Andrew Charles and Hayrunnisa Bolay

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12753

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      The thalamic reticular nucleus was activated by cortical spreading depression (CSD) in only conscious and freely moving rats. The direct propagation of SD into the TRN was detected which might play a role in lateralized headache and seems to be vulnerable to anesthetic agents. Activation of thalamic reticular nucleus was reversed by valproate administration suggesting anti-migraine action of valproate may also include thalamic reticular nucleus among other sites in the brain.

    32. Sparing of orexin-A and orexin-B neurons in the hypothalamus and of orexin fibers in the substantia nigra of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated macaques

      Manale Bensaid, Dominique Tandé, Véronique Fabre, Patrick P. Michel, Etienne C. Hirsch and Chantal François

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12761

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      Numerous orexin-stained fibers were apposed to dopaminergic dendrites of the substantia nigra in macaques, indicating that orexin peptides are in a position to control the activity of nigral dopaminergic neurons. However, contrary to what is observed in patients with Parkinson's disease, no change in the orexin system was found in Parkinsonian macaques. A relatively selective dopaminergic lesion is thus not sufficient to induce a loss of hypothalamic orexin neurons.

    33. Functional connectivity in the resting-state motor networks influences the kinematic processes during motor sequence learning

      Laura Bonzano, Eleonora Palmaro, Roxana Teodorescu, Lazar Fleysher, Matilde Inglese and Marco Bove

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12755

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      Fourteen healthy subjects underwent a resting-state fMRI session, then reproduced a verbally-learned sequence of finger opposition movements as fast and accurate as possible. All subjects increased movement rate with practice, by reducing touch duration and inter tapping interval. The regression analysis between left M1 resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and the kinematic parameters showed that higher motor performance gain was related to stronger rsFC with the cerebellum and thalamus.

    34. Corticosterone and corticotropin-releasing factor acutely facilitate gamma oscillations in the hippocampus in vitro

      Gürsel Çalışkan, Steffen B. Schulz, David Gruber, Joachim Behr, Uwe Heinemann and Zoltan Gerevich

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12750

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      Stress-responsive neuromodulators corticosterone, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and THDOC had differential effects on cholinergic gamma oscillations. Stress-related neuromodulators had rather mild effects on spontaneous SW-R suggesting a more relevant role during attention-requiring situations where the level of ACh is higher. Our findings suggest that alteration of hippocampal gamma oscillation strength in vitro by stress-related agents is an acute process, permitting fast adaptation to new attention-requiring situations in vivo.

    35. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spatial and temporal distribution of visual information coding in lateral prefrontal cortex

      Mikiko Kadohisa, Makoto Kusunoki, Philippe Petrov, Natasha Sigala, Mark J. Buckley, David Gaffan and John Duncan

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12754

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      While monkeys categorised lateralised visual stimuli as targets or nontargets, neural activity was recorded in dorsal and ventral regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex. An early phase of category-selective activity in the contralateral hemisphere was followed by later, bilateral activity. The results suggest increasingly extensive frontal coding of task-relevant stimulus features as a decision progresses.

    36. Suprachiasmatic vasopressin and the circadian regulation of voluntary locomotor behavior

      Holly C. Cormier, Valeria Della-Maggiore, Ilia N. Karatsoreos, Margaret M. Koletar and Martin R. Ralph

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12637

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      Manipulations of vasopressin activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus demonstrate that the ventrolateral core is a target for vasopressin regulation of voluntary locomotor behavior. Inhibitory neurons in the core produce suppression of voluntary behavior which may be driven by rhythmic vasopressinergic interneurons in the dorsomedial shell of the nucleus, the site of circadian pacemaker neurons, thereby sequestering voluntary activities to the subjective night.

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