European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 41 Issue 12

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: John Foxe and Paul Bolam

Impact Factor: 3.181

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 107/252 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1460-9568

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  1. 1 - 48
  1. Research Reports

    1. LRIT3 is essential to localize TRPM1 to the dendritic tips of depolarizing bipolar cells and may play a role in cone synapse formation

      Marion Neuillé, Catherine W. Morgans, Yan Cao, Elise Orhan, Christelle Michiels, José-Alain Sahel, Isabelle Audo, Robert M. Duvoisin, Kirill A. Martemyanov and Christina Zeitz

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12959

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      The focus of this work was to elucidate the role of LRIT3, a protein implicated in complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB), by using the no b-wave 6 cCSNB mouse model (Lrit3nob6/nob6), lacking Lrit3. We showed that LRIT3 is localized at the dendritic tips of ON-bipolar cells in mouse retina, that LRIT3 is essential for the correct localization of TRPM1 at the dendritic tips of ON-bipolar cells and that other components of the cascade reveal disrupted localization at the dendritic tips of cone, but not rod, ON-bipolar cells, suggesting an additional role of LRIT3 in cone synapse formation.

    2. Environmental enrichment rescues the degraded auditory temporal resolution of cortical neurons induced by early noise exposure

      Cuiping Jiang, Xiaoxiao Xu, Liping Yu, Jinghong Xu and Jiping Zhang

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12975

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      Moderate-level noise exposure to juvenile rats induced higher neural gap detection thresholds in the auditory cortex in adulthood than the same noise exposure to adult rats. Environment enrichment (EE) promoted recovery from this noise-induced degraded neural temporal resolution. The tonal stimuli in the EE contributed to only a portion of the recovery. These results suggest a therapeutic potential for EE as a non-invasive approach to rescue developmentally degraded auditory temporal processing.

    3. Topological organization of CA3-to-CA1 excitation

      Yoshie Hongo, Koichi Ogawa, Yuji Takahara, Keiko Takasu, Sebastien Royer, Minoru Hasegawa, Gaku Sakaguchi and Yuji Ikegaya

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12969

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      Using functional multi-neuron calcium imaging of rat hippocampal slices, we monitored the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous CA3 and CA1 burst activity under pharmacological GABAergic blockade. We found that spatially clustered CA3 activity patterns were transformed into layered CA1 activity sequences. The order of these sequential activations was maintained across the bursts, but the sequence velocity varied depending on the inter-burst intervals.

    4. Transient visual responses reset the phase of low-frequency oscillations in the skeletomotor periphery

      Daniel K. Wood, Chao Gu, Brian D. Corneil, Paul L. Gribble and Melvyn A. Goodale

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12976

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      We recorded chest muscle activity while subjects reached toward a peripheral target. Stimulus-locked muscle responses appeared ~100 ms after stimulus onset, regardless of voluntary reaction time. These visual transients reset the phase of intrinsic 10–14 Hz oscillations in muscle activity.

    5. Plasticity in striatopallidal projection neurons mediates the acquisition of habitual actions

      Qiang Shan, MacDonald J. Christie and Bernard W. Balleine

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12971

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      When over trained, actions become habits. We found evidence that such overtraining induced postsynaptic depression in dorsolateral striatopallidal projecting neurons in the indirect pathway associated with habit learning in mice. Training-induced depression occluded postsynaptic depression produced by coactivation of D2 receptors and TRPV1 channels implying this interaction mediates habit-related plasticity at D2 neurons and providing a potential drug target to influence habitual control.

    6. Tumor necrosis factor enhances the sleep-like state and electrical stimulation induces a wake-like state in co-cultures of neurons and glia

      Kathryn A. Jewett, Ping Taishi, Parijat Sengupta, Sandip Roy, Christopher J. Davis and James M. Krueger

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12968

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      In vitro electrical network emergent properties, also used to define sleep in vivo, define sleep and wake states in co-cultures of neurons and glia. TNF enhances the in vitro sleep state; electrical stimulation promotes the wake state, which is followed by a rebound in the sleep state suggesting in vitro sleep homeostasis. In vitro optogenetic stimulation promotes fos, TNF and IL1 expression and ATP release suggesting activity-dependent state change mechanisms in small networks.

    7. Cocaine self-administration disrupts mesolimbic dopamine circuit function and attenuates dopaminergic responsiveness to cocaine

      Cody A. Siciliano, Mark J. Ferris and Sara R. Jones

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12970

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      Here we shown that cocaine self-administration effectively models the dopaminergic profile of cocaine addicts as it results in decreased responsiveness of the dopamine reward circuit and tolerance to cocaine effects on synaptic dopamine transmission.

    8. Concentration-dependent activation of dopamine receptors differentially modulates GABA release onto orexin neurons

      Victoria Linehan, Robert B. Trask, Chantalle Briggs, Todd M. Rowe and Michiru Hirasawa

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12967

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      Dopamine (DA) and orexin neurons interact and regulate reward and food intake. To understand the mechanism underlying this interaction, the effect of DA on inhibitory transmission to orexin neurons was investigated in rat brain slices using whole cell patch clamp. We found that low (1 μm) and high concentrations (100 μm) of DA decreased and increased miniature IPSC frequency, respectively. The decrease was mediated by D2 receptors, whereas the increase required co-activation of D1 and D2 receptors and subsequent activation of phospholipase C. These mechanisms may have implications for consummatory and motivated behaviours.

    9. Three-dimensional morphometric analysis of microglial changes in a mouse model of virus encephalitis: age and environmental influences

      Aline A. de Sousa, Renata R. dos Reis, Camila M. de Lima, Marcus A. de Oliveira, Taiany N. Fernandes, Giovanni F. Gomes, Daniel G. Diniz, Nara M. Magalhães, Cristovam G. Diniz, Marcia C. K. Sosthenes, João Bento-Torres, José Antonio P. Diniz Jr, Pedro F. da C. Vasconcelos and Cristovam Wanderley P. Diniz

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12951

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      We measured the influences of aging and environment on behavioral and microglial changes in a mice model of virus sublethal encephalitis. We found that aged infected mice, showed permanent behavioral impairments and this was associated with smaller morphological changes in CA3 microglia. Young infected mice showed significant CA3 microglial changes with transitory or absent behavioral impairments. Reduced inflammatory response in immunosenescent individuals may aggravate encephalitis outcomes.

    10. Cooperative processing in primary somatosensory cortex and posterior parietal cortex during tactile working memory

      Yixuan Ku, Di Zhao, Mark Bodner and Yong-Di Zhou

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12950

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      Single pulse TMS applied over either the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI) or the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) resulted in a significant decline in behavioral performance of human participants in a tactile-tactile working memory (WM) task. In addition, no temporal difference was observed between these two TMS-induced effects on WM. The results suggest cooperative processing in SI and PPC starting at early stage during tactile unimodal WM. Furthermore, comparisons between our current results and our previous results from a tactile-visual crossmodal WM study indicate that the tactile-visual crossmodal information transfer likely occurs during the period between 300-600ms after the onset of the tactile stimulus.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Calorie seeking, but not hedonic response, contributes to hyperphagia in a mouse model for Prader–Willi syndrome

      Jennifer R. Davies, Trevor Humby, Dominic M. Dwyer, Alastair S. Garfield, Hannah Furby, Lawrence S. Wilkinson, Timothy Wells and Anthony R. Isles

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12972

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      Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, the most recognised feature of which is hyperphagia. Here we show that hyperphagia in a mouse model for PWS is driven by primarily by calorie-content and is unlikely to involve hedonic processes. This has important implications for our understanding of the neural systems underlying the feeding phenotype of PWS.

    12. Inhibitory short-term plasticity modulates neuronal activity in the rat entopeduncular nucleus in vitro

      Hagar Lavian and Alon Korngreen

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12965

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      We recorded from neurons in the entopeduncular nucleus in rat brain slices during stimulation of the striatum and the globus pallidus. We show that synapses from the striatum display short-term facilitation and those from the globus pallidus show short-term depression. The data suggests that striatal output may be encoded as progressive phase shifts while high frequency pallidal output may continuously modulate entopeduncular nucleus firing.

    13. Individual differences in perceptual abilities predict target visibility during masking

      Silvia Pagano and Veronica Mazza

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12948

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      What happens when we attend to multiple masked objects? Are all the people equally sensitive to masked information? We found that the neural marker of object individuation, an ERP component named N2pc, can still track multiple objects even when masked. However, ERSP analyses demonstrated that participants that were not sensitive to masking were associated to higher evoked gamma contralateral to target side. These participants were also associated to a larger modulation of the N2pc component, suggesting that more efficient segmentation and individuation mechanisms, indexed by gamma and N2pc respectively, reduce the effects of masking.

    14. A variable number of tandem repeats in the 3′-untranslated region of the dopamine transporter modulates striatal function during working memory updating across the adult age span

      Fabio Sambataro, Jamie E. Podell, Vishnu P. Murty, Saumitra Das, Bhaskar Kolachana, Terry E. Goldberg, Daniel R. Weinberger and Venkata S. Mattay

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12956

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      DAT1-3′-UTR-VNTR polymorphism and age modulate caudate activation during working memory updating. Caudate activation during working memory updating declines with aging in both DAT1-3′-UTR-VNTR genotype groups.

    15. Sex-dependent modulation of age-related cognitive decline by the L-type calcium channel gene Cacna1c (Cav1.2)

      Panos Zanos, Shambhu Bhat, Chantelle E. Terrillion, Robert J. Smith, Leonardo H. Tonelli and Todd D. Gould

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12952

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      The L-type calcium channel Cav1.2, coded for by Cacna1c, may have a role in aging-related cognitive decline. To test the association between Cacna1c expression levels and aging-induced memory impairment, wild-type (WT) and Cacna1c haploinsufficient (HET), young and aged mice were behaviorally assessed in the Y-maze, novel-object recognition and passive avoidance tasks. Aging was associated with object recognition and contextual/emotional memory deficits, as well as a significant increase in hippocampal Cacna1c mRNA expression, which correlated with such behavioral deficits. Cacna1c haploinsufficiency prevented aging-associated object-recognition memory loss and Cacna1c expression increases in both males and females, and contextual/emotional memory specifically in males.

    16. Differential influence of propofol and isoflurane anesthesia in a non-human primate on the brain kinetics and binding of [18F]DPA-714, a positron emission tomography imaging marker of glial activation

      Wadad Saba, Sébastien Goutal, Bertrand Kuhnast, Frédéric Dollé, Sylvain Auvity, Yoan Fontyn, Jérôme Cayla, Marie-Anne Peyronneau, Héric Valette and Nicolas Tournier

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12946

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      [18F]DPA-714 is a TSPO (translocator protein 18 kDa) radioligand used as a PET imaging marker of glial activation. [18F]DPA-714 brain kinetics were measured in baboons anesthetized using either intravenous propofol or inhaled isoflurane. Displacement experiments were performed using PK11195, a reference ligand of TSPO. [18F]DPA-714 brain kinetics were not different after 30 min scan. Displacement unveiled [18F]DPA-714 specific binding to the brain under propofol but had no effect under isoflurane.

    17. Long non-coding RNA uc.217 regulates neurite outgrowth in dorsal root ganglion neurons following peripheral nerve injury

      Chun Yao, Jing Wang, Honghong Zhang, Songlin Zhou, Tianmei Qian, Fei Ding, Xiaosong Gu and Bin Yu

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12966

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      We analysed the expression changes of lncRNAs in L4-6 DRGs following rat sciatic nerve injury and identified a new lncRNA uc.217 down-regulated during nerve regeneration. We confirmed the down-expression of uc.217 in DRG neurons and found that silencing of uc.217 could significantly promote neurite outgrowth. Mechanism explorations shown that uc.217 might execute its role by regulating genes involved in neurite outgrowth, thus providing a new molecular target for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    18. Altered lysosomal positioning affects lysosomal functions in a cellular model of Huntington's disease

      Christine Erie, Matthew Sacino, Lauren Houle, Michael L. Lu and Jianning Wei

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12957

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      In the present work, we demonstrated that (i) the perinuclear accumulation of lysosomes is increased in a cellular model of HD derived from HD knock-in mice and primary fibroblasts from a HD patient, (ii) the perinuclear lysosomal accumulation can be reversed when normal huntingtin is overexpressed in HD cells, and (iii) the perinuclear accumulation of lysosomes can be related to increased basal mTORC1 activity and starvation-induced autophagic influx observed in HD cells.

    19. Impairments in musical abilities reflected in the auditory brainstem: evidence from congenital amusia

      Alexandre Lehmann, Erika Skoe, Patricia Moreau, Isabelle Peretz and Nina Kraus

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12931

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      We examined subcortical auditory processing in congenital amusia. We report a selective impairment that negatively mirrors the enhancements previously found in musicians: slower processing and less robust harmonic encoding of the auditory brainstem response of amusics compared to non-musician matched controls. This work has implications for current models of amusia, as well as theories of auditory plasticity more generally.

    20. Layer-specific endocannabinoid-mediated long-term depression of GABAergic neurotransmission onto principal neurons in mouse visual cortex

      Wenjuan Sun, Laijian Wang, Shuo Li, Xiaoxiu Tie and Bin Jiang

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12958

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      We found that endocannabinoid-mediated iLTD can be induced in pyramidal cells in layer 2/3 and layer 5 during a critical period, but not in star pyramidal cells in layer 4. The GABAergic synapses in layer 2/3 and layer 5 were not normally matured in the type 1 cannabinoid receptor knock-out mice, whereas those in layer 4 were not so. Our study suggests that the maturation of GABAergic inhibition in layer 2/3 and layer 5 but not in layer 4 of mouse visual cortex requires endocannabinoids.

    21. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex modulates arithmetic learning

      Roland H. Grabner, Bruno Rütsche, Christian C. Ruff and Tobias U. Hauser

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12947

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      This study reveals that a single-session application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can modulate arithmetic learning success, suggesting that the left PPC is causally involved in arithmetic skill acquisition. Cathodal tDCS impaired learning during a 45 min. training session (of multiplications and subtractions) and resulted in poorer performance 24 h after stimulation. Anodal tDCS improved learning of subtraction problems.

    22. Early adenosine release contributes to hypoxia-induced disruption of stimulus-induced sharp wave-ripple complexes in rat hippocampal area CA3

      Marlene S. Jarosch, Christine Gebhardt, Silvia Fano, Christine Huchzermeyer, Rizwan ul Haq, Christoph J. Behrens and Uwe Heinemann

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12941

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      Using simultaneous extracellular (fp) and whole cell (Im) recordings we found that during short hypoxic episodes sharp wave-ripple complex (SPW-R) activity and recurrent epileptiform discharges (RED) in rat hippocampal slices were reversibly blocked and frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in CA3 pyramidal cells was decreased. The adenosine receptor antagonist DPCPX delayed the onset of hypoxia-mediated block of SPW-Rs and caused a hypoxia-induced increase in mEPSC frequency suggesting that early adenosine release during hypoxia induces a decrease in presynaptic glutamate release and that both might contribute to transient block of SPW-Rs during hypoxia in area CA3.

    23. Graded hypoxia acts through a network of distributed peripheral oxygen chemoreceptors to produce changes in respiratory behaviour and plasticity

      Tara A. Janes, Fenglian Xu and Naweed I. Syed

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12940

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      The essential act of breathing is produced by complex central and peripheral mechanisms – perturbation of which result in respiratory dysfunction and diseases like SIDS or sleep apnoea. By combining behaviour with electrophysiology, we identify a distributed peripheral O2 chemoreceptor network in Lymnaea stagnalis which provides specific modulation of neural networks underlying acute and chronic hypoxic responses. Deciphering the integrated functions of evolutionarily conserved, chemoreceptive networks is significant for decoding fundamental mechanisms that underlie modulation and adaptation in respiratory systems.

  2. Commentary

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  3. Research Reports

    1. A quantification of the relationship between neuronal responses in the rat rostral ventromedial medulla and noxious stimulation-evoked withdrawal reflexes

      I. M. Devonshire, C. H. T. Kwok, A. Suvik, A. R. Haywood, A. H. Cooper and G. J. Hathway

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12942

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      The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) regulates involuntary behaviours, especially triggered by noxious events, but the temporal relationship between RVM activity and muscle responses is poorly understood. Here we used two different age groups of rats that exhibit different profiles of muscle responsiveness (measured using electromyography, EMG) to noxious stimulation to characterise which RVM cell parameters are related to changes in EMG activity. RVM cell activity tracks the EMG activity but only during the early stages of the withdrawal response at which point RVM and muscle activity diverge.

    2. Heterogeneous effects of antiepileptic drugs in an in vitro epilepsy model – a functional multineuron calcium imaging study

      Yoshie Hongo, Keiko Takasu, Yuji Ikegaya, Minoru Hasegawa, Gaku Sakaguchi and Koichi Ogawa

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12945

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      Using functional multineuron Ca2+ imaging, we monitored the activities of multiple neurons in the rat hippocampal CA1 region on treatment with the proconvulsant bicuculline under Mg2+-free conditions. We found that the antiepileptic drugs phenytoin, flupirtine, and ethosuximide, which have different mechanisms of action, exerted heterogeneous effects on the bicuculline-induced synchronous Ca2+ influx.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Right parietal cortex mediates recognition memory for melodies

      Nora K. Schaal, Amir-Homayoun Javadi, Andrea R. Halpern, Bettina Pollok and Michael J. Banissy

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12943

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      The study investigated the involvement of bilateral posterior parietal cortices (PPC) for recognition memory of melodies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The results revealed that anodal tDCS over the right PPC leads to a deterioration of overall memory performance compared to sham stimulation or stimulation over the left PPC. Furthermore, the decline in performance can be traced back to interference on the recollection process rather than to familiarity judgements.

    4. Effect of a single and repeated stress exposure on gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in brainstem catecholaminergic cell groups in rats

      Boris Mravec, Peter Vargovic, Peter Filipcik, Michal Novak and Richard Kvetnansky

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12955

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      Characterization of basal and stress-induced changes in gene expression and protein levels of catecholaminergic biosynthetic enzymes support the assumption that brainstem catecholaminergic cell groups represent functionally differentiated system, which is highly (but specifically) activated in rats exposed to stress. Potential interventions for the treatment of stress-related diseases need to modulate the activity of these cell groups not uniformly but with some degree of selectivity.

    5. Direct current stimulation over the human sensorimotor cortex modulates the brain's hemodynamic response to tactile stimulation

      Ye Wang, Ying Hao, Junhong Zhou, Peter J. Fried, Xiaoying Wang, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang, Alvaro Pascual-Leone and Brad Manor

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12953

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      Real tDCS, relative to sham, modulates the cortical response to peripheral stimulation in regions linked to somatosensory integration and interpretation. We suggest that enhanced cortical excitability might be the neural substrate for previously-report effects of tDCS on somatosensory perception. As foot-sole somatosensation is critical to gait and balance, we further contend that tDCS may be a valuable new method of improving gait and balance.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Imaging learned fear circuitry in awake mice using fMRI

      Anjanette P. Harris, Ross J. Lennen, Ian Marshall, Maurits A. Jansen, Cyril R. Pernet, Nichola M. Brydges, Ian C. Duguid and Megan C. Holmes

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12939

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      We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of using functional (f)MRI to visualize brain activation in awake mice that are completing a learned emotional task. Mice were conditioned to associate a flashing light with foot shock and retrieval of the conditioned response during fMRI revealed activation of fear circuitry (e.g. amygdala). This work paves the way for future preclinical fMRI studies to investigate genetic and environmental influences on activity of brain networks in transgenic mouse models of disease and aging.

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  5. Research Reports

    1. Selective and divided attention modulates auditory–vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors

      Ying Liu, Huijing Hu, Jeffery A. Jones, Zhiqiang Guo, Weifeng Li, Xi Chen, Peng Liu and Hanjun Liu

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12949

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      This event-related potential study examined the influence of selective and divided attention on the vocal and cortical responses to pitch feedback perturbations during vocal production. Attending to the pitch perturbations elicited larger vocal compensations and P2 responses than attending to the visual stimuli. Dividing attention caused suppressed P2 responses relative to selective attention and the control condition, and enhanced N1 responses relative to the control condition. These findings provide strong evidence for the attention-dependent modulation of auditory-motor integration in voice control, suggesting that selective attention and divided attention appear to modulate the neurobehavioral processing of feedback errors during vocal pitch regulation in different ways.

    2. Modulation of neuronal activity by reward identity in the monkey subthalamic nucleus

      Juan-Francisco Espinosa-Parrilla, Christelle Baunez and Paul Apicella

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12938

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      We examined how neurons in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of monkeys process information about different rewards delivered in an instrumental task. Animals had to make arm movements leading to more or less preferred liquid rewards. Although we found little evidence that a signal related to the identity of expected reward was expressed in task-related changes in STN activity, an enhanced sensitivity of individual neurons to the reward type was noted when monkeys had to choose between the reward options. Also, an outcome-related increase in activity was present over the population of STN neurons when monkeys occasionally chose the less preferred reward. This differential sensitivity under choice may indicate STN contributions to reward-guided decision making.

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      Neural underpinnings of the ‘agent brain’: new evidence from transcranial direct current stimulation

      Annachiara Cavazzana, Barbara Penolazzi, Chiara Begliomini and Patrizia Silvia Bisiacchi

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12937

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      tDCS was used in order to investigate the role of pre-SMA in Intentional Binding (IB), which is considered a valid implicit measure of SoA, i.e., the awareness of action control. Only the real stimulation over pre-SMA had modulatory effects on IB. This result has a direct clinical relevance for rehabilitation of patients who present an altered SoA (e.g., schizophrenia, Parkinson). tDCS can be successfully used in this domain in virtue of the promising advantages it offers for the rehabilitation.

    4. The classic P300 encodes a build-to-threshold decision variable

      Deirdre M. Twomey, Peter R. Murphy, Simon P. Kelly and Redmond G. O'Connell

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12936

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      The P300 potential continually draws widespread interest in basic and clinical neuroscience, yet its functional significance has never been established. Through novel analyses of buildup and peak dynamics along with computational simulations, Twomey et al. show that it reflects a decision formation process that accumulates evidence to a threshold.

    5. Role of vasoactive intestinal peptide in the light input to the circadian system

      Andrew Vosko, Hester C. van Diepen, Dika Kuljis, Andrew M. Chiu, Djai Heyer, Huub Terra, Ellen Carpenter, Stephan Michel, Johanna H. Meijer and Christopher S. Colwell

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12919

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      We examined the time course of the photic induction of Per1 in the SCN using in situ hybridization in VIP-mutant mice. We found that the initial induction of Per1 was not reduced by the loss of this signaling peptide. However, the sustained increase in Period1 expression (after 30 min) was significantly reduced. These findings suggest that VIP is critical for longer term changes within the SCN circuit but does not play a role in the acute light response.

    6. Anxiety-provoked gait changes are selectively dopa-responsive in Parkinson's disease

      Kaylena A. Ehgoetz Martens, Colin G. Ellard and Quincy J. Almeida

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12928

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      Dopaminergic treatment reduces self-reported anxiety levels in PD when walking in threatening and non-threatening environments. Dopaminergic treatment can also improve gait in threatening environments but only in PD patients with high trait levels of anxiety. Notably, those with PD who are highly anxious demonstrate similar gait characteristics to those who have severe gait impairments such as freezing of gait.

  6. Reviews

    1. Methods for studying the zebrafish brain: past, present and future

      Cameron Wyatt, Ewelina M. Bartoszek and Emre Yaksi

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12932

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      The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the most promising new model organisms. The increasing popularity of this amazing small vertebrate is evident from the exponentially growing numbers of research articles, funded projects and new discoveries associated with the use of zebrafish for studying development, brain function, human diseases and screening for new drugs. Thanks to the development of novel technologies, the range of zebrafish research is constantly expanding with new tools synergistically enhancing traditional techniques. In this review we will highlight the past and present techniques which have made, and continue to make, zebrafish an attractive model organism for various fields of biology, with a specific focus on neuroscience.

  7. Research Reports

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      Automatic representation of a visual stimulus relative to a background in the right precuneus

      Motoaki Uchimura, Tamami Nakano, Yusuke Morito, Hiroshi Ando and Shigeru Kitazawa

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12935

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      Recent behavioral studies have shown that a stimulus position is automatically represented allocentrically relative to a large frame in the background. Here, we investigated neural correlates of the ‘background coordinate’ using an f-MRI adaptation technique. We found that the background coordinate is implemented in the right precuneus.

    2. Muscarinic modulation of TREK currents in mouse sympathetic superior cervical ganglion neurons

      P. Rivas-Ramírez, A. Cadaveira-Mosquera, J. A. Lamas and A. Reboreda

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12930

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      Sympathetic neurons receive a strong cholinergic projection from preganglionic neurons. Muscarinic modulation of outward currents has been demonstrated for M-current in SCG neurons. We show here that a TREK-2 current can be modulated by activating M1 muscarinic receptors. This effect is caused by a reduction in the membrane PIP2 levels. DAG and IP3 mediated effects do not play a significant role in this mechanism.

    3. Sox4 participates in the modulation of Schwann cell myelination

      Luca Bartesaghi, Estelle Arnaud Gouttenoire, Andrea Prunotto, Jean-Jacques Médard, Sven Bergmann and Roman Chrast

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12929

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      We show that the expression of transcription factor Sox4 is dynamically regulated in the developing and disease affected peripheral neural system. By generating a transgenic mouse that specifically expresses Sox4 in Schwann cells we demonstrate that Sox4 overexpression induces a temporary delay in PNS myelination and that enforced Sox4 expression aggravates the CMT4C neuropathy phenotype. These data provide an insight into the role of Sox4 in regulation of myelination in the PNS.

    4. Post-transcriptional regulation of dopamine D1 receptor expression in caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized mice

      Krishna E. Tobón, Jennifer E. Catuzzi, Samantha R. Cote, Adenike Sonaike and Eldo V. Kuzhikandathil

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12933

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      In cocaine-addicted mice, an acute dose of cocaine induces a rapid increase in dopamine D1 receptor protein levels that correlates with a decrease in the level of two miRNAs that have been shown to regulate receptor expression. The results suggest that the rapid increase in D1 receptor expression contributes to acute cocaine-induced locomotor behavior in addicted animals. These novel results identify post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms as a therapeutic target for treating drug addiction.

    5. Adenosine receptors and muscarinic receptors cooperate in acetylcholine release modulation in the neuromuscular synapse

      M. M. Santafe, M. Priego, T. Obis, N. Garcia, M. Tomàs, M. A. Lanuza and J. Tomàs

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12922

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      In basal conditions, adenosine tonically reduces the efficacy of the unsynchronised ACh release mechanism through A1R. Both A1R and A2AR contribute to reducing synaptic depression. There is an absolute interdependency of AR and mAChR on the modulation of evoked and spontaneous ACh release and in the control of depression. The imbalance of the AR created by using subtype selective and non-selective inhibitory and stimulatory agents uncouples protein kinase C (PKC) from evoked transmitter release.

    6. Sustained activation of GABAA receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus mediates light-induced phase delays of the circadian clock: a novel function of ionotropic receptors

      Daniel L. Hummer, J. Christopher Ehlen, Tony E. Larkin II, John K. McNeill IV, John R. Pamplin II, Colton A. Walker, Phillip V. Walker II, Daryl R. Dhanraj and H. Elliott Albers

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12918

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      Sustained activation of GABAA receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus mediates light-induced phase delays of the circadian clock. Activation of ionotropic receptors over an interval of hours instead of seconds induces a functionally significant response.

    7. Novel fast adapting interneurons mediate cholinergic-induced fast GABAA inhibitory postsynaptic currents in striatal spiny neurons

      Thomas W. Faust, Maxime Assous, Fulva Shah, James M. Tepper and Tibor Koós

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12915

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      Neostriatal cholinergic interneurons (CIN) activate GABAergic circuits in the neostriatum. One circuit provides feedback inhibition to CINs through unidentified interneurons. Another involves neurogliaform neurons (NGF) that elicit slow GABAergic inhibition is projection cells (SPN). We show that a new cell type termed the fast-adapting interneuron (FAI) which also receives strong nicotinic excitation from CINs or the PPN provides fast GABAergic inputs to SPNs through facilitating synapses.

    8. Normalized activation in the somatosensory cortex 30 years following nerve repair in children: an fMRI study

      Anette Chemnitz, Andreas Weibull, Birgitta Rosén, Gert Andersson, Lars B. Dahlin and Anders Björkman

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12917

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      Cortical activation was assessed, using fMRI at 3T, 28 years after a median nerve injury. The cortical activation pattern was compared with clinical outcome and electroneurography. Patients injured before the age of 14 years had an activation pattern similar to healthy controls and an excellent clinical outcome. Those injured at age 14–20 years showed more extended activation of contralateral somatosensory areas, as well as loss of ipsilateral inhibition and poor clinical outcome. Electroneurographical parameters did not differ between the two age groups. Cerebral changes in both hemispheres may explain the superior clinical outcome following a median nerve injury in childhood.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effect of background noise on neuronal coding of interaural level difference cues in rat inferior colliculus

      Yasamin Mokri, Kate Worland, Mark Ford and Ramesh Rajan

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12914

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      The effect of background noise on ILD sensitivity of IC cells of rats seems heterogeneous, with this effect being dependent on the shape of the ILD function, the recorded neuron, and most importantly signal to noise ratio (SNR). Increase in response strength as a result of introducing background noise was more common at higher SNRs, while decrease was more common at lower SNRs. These novel findings shed light on the neural substrates of sound localization in continuous background noise in IC.

    10. A new template to study callosal growth shows specific growth in anterior and posterior regions of the corpus callosum in early childhood

      Jennyfer Ansado, Louis Collins, Vladimir Fonov, Mathieu Garon, Lubomir Alexandrov, Sherif Karama, Alan Evans, Miriam H. Beauchamp and Brain Development Cooperative Group

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12869

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      Corpus Callosum (CC) measurement has typically been limited to a relatively simple assessment of callosal area based on the midsagittal slice, providing only an estimation of the size of the CC in two-dimensions (2D), rather than its actual dimension. Considering horizontal width of the CC, our study provides a new 3D template of the CC, which can be compared to several new scanning technologies and used in the context of various pediatric conditions that may affect the CC.

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