European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 43 Issue 10

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: John Foxe and Paul Bolam

Impact Factor: 3.181

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 108/252 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1460-9568


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  1. Research Reports

    1. Impact of neural cell adhesion molecule deletion on regeneration after mouse spinal cord injury

      Vedangana Saini, Gabriele Loers, Gurcharan Kaur, Melitta Schachner and Igor Jakovcevski

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13271

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      Transgenic mice lacking neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM−/−) were subjected to severe compression injury of the lower thoracic spinal cord. NCAM−/− mice showed reduced motor recovery in comparison to control mice at 6 weeks after injury, associated with decreased monoaminergic (TH+) and cholinergic (ChAT+) innervation and decreased axonal regrowth/sprouting (NF200+ axons). Astrocytic scar formation at the injury site, assessed by the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in NCAM−/− mice.

  2. Short Communications

    1. State dependency of inhibitory control performance: an electrical neuroimaging study

      Michael De Pretto, Etienne Sallard and Lucas Spierer

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13265

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      During an inhibitory control task, pre-stimulus brain states differed before NoGo stimuli depending on whether the response to these stimuli was correctly inhibited or not. Right frontoparietal activity was higher before false alarms 40 ms before the NoGo stimuli. Uncontrolled quantitative variations in pre-stimulus activity within attentional and control brain networks influence inhibition performance, suggesting a state dependency of cognitive processes up to high-order executive levels.

  3. Research Reports

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Thalamic amplification of sensory input in experimental diabetes

      Oliver J. Freeman, Mathew H. Evans, Garth J. S. Cooper, Rasmus S. Petersen and Natalie J. Gardiner

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13267

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      We investigate whether the accurate coding and relay of tactile stimulation through the CNS is altered in experimental diabetic neuropathy. We show that neurons in the thalamic VPM nucleus of rats with experimental diabetes show increased firing to precisely graded, multidirectional whisker deflection compared to control rats, while their primary afferents in the trigeminal ganglion do not. We suggest that central amplification can substantially transform ascending sensory input in diabetes.

  4. Reviews

    1. Molecular mechanisms in the initiation phase of Wallerian degeneration

      Biao Chang, Qi Quan, Shibi Lu, Yu Wang and Jiang Peng

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13250

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      The review showed the relationships of many important molecules in wallerian degeneration. (NMNAT2 is upstream of SARM1, which is upstream of MAPK. NMN is thought to be upstream of SARM1 and calcium influx is the downstream of SARM1. Although the relationship between NAD and SARM1 is debatable, we believe that SARM1 triggers axonal degeneration via NAD destruction. ATP depletion is the upstream of Ca2+.) The review discussed two apparently conflicting roles of NMN in Wallerian degeneration. The review was intended to draw attention to the closely links between wallerian degeneration with glycolysis.

  5. Research Reports

    1. Toll-Interleukin 1 Receptor domain-containing adaptor protein positively regulates BV2 cell M1 polarization

      Leilei Gong, Hanxiang Wang, Xiaolei Sun, Chun Liu, Chengwei Duan, Rixin Cai, Xingxing Gu and Shunxing Zhu

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13257

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      In this study, we found that TIRAP expression is elevated by LPS/IFN- γ in microglia cells. It was observed that TIRAP could increase the protein and mRNA level of M1-related markers, which were decreased by silencing of TIRAP. We also demonstrated that TIRAP promotes the microglia M1 polarization through the TLR4 signaling pathway.

    2. Protection of cultured dopamine neurons from MPP+ requires a combination of neurotrophic factors

      Juliann D. Jaumotte, Stephanie L. Wyrostek and Michael J. Zigmond

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13252

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      Multiple trophic factors are needed to protect dissociated dopaminer neurons from damage by MPP+.

  6. Molecular and Synaptic Mechanisms

    1. Satellite microglia show spontaneous electrical activity that is uncorrelated with activity of the attached neuron

      Emile Wogram, Stefan Wendt, Marina Matyash, Tatyana Pivneva, Andreas Draguhn and Helmut Kettenmann

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13256

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      Microglia are innate immune cells of the brain. We have studied a subpopulation of microglia, called satellite microglia that make close physical soma-to-soma contact with neurons, indicative of direct functional interaction. While recording simultaneously from neurons and their associated satellite microglia we identified a novel form of intrinsic, spontaneous microglial electrical activity uncorrelated with neuronal activity.

  7. Research Reports

    1. Effects of intraplantar botulinum toxin-B on carrageenan-induced changes in nociception and spinal phosphorylation of GluA1 and Akt

      Shafaq Sikandar, Ynette Gustavsson, Marc J. Marino, Anthony H. Dickenson, Tony L. Yaksh, Linda S. Sorkin and Roshni Ramachandran

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13261

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      Intraplantar BoNT-B reduced intraplantar carrageenan evoked allodynia, but not edema, phosphorylation of GluA1 and Akt, and c-Fos expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Intraplantar BoNT-B also inhibited intrathecal NMDA, but not substance P, evoked phosphorylation of GluA1 and Akt.

    2. Subjective visual awareness emerges prior to P3

      Mika Koivisto, Niina Salminen-Vaparanta, Simone Grassini and Antti Revonsuo

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13264

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      We measured event-related potentials to aware and unaware visual stimuli when report of awareness was required (GO) and when not (NOGO). The N200 amplitude (180–280 ms) was enhanced in aware trials but was not influenced by responding. The amplitude of P3 (350–450 ms) also was enhanced in aware trials and it was modulated by reporting, suggesting that it may reflect post-perceptual processing after awareness has emerged.

  8. Reviews

    1. The role of neurogenesis during development and in the adult brain

      Xing Jin

      Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13251

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      The manuscript introduces the lineage of neural stem cells (NSCs) from embryonic to adult stages, describes the maturation and integration of adult-born neurons, and discusses the regulation and potential functions of adult neurogenesis in physiological and pathological conditions.

  9. Research Reports

    1. Echo-level compensation and delay tuning in the auditory cortex of the mustached bat

      Silvio Macías, Emanuel C. Mora, Julio C. Hechavarría and Manfred Kössl

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13244

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      Cortical auditory neurons that encode target distance have receptive fields that are optimized for dealing with echo-level compensation. Neurons tuned to short target distances are maximally responsive to low pulse amplitudes while neurons tuned to long target distances respond maximally to high pulse amplitudes. Bats might dynamically adjust biosonar pulse amplitude to match the encoding of target range and to keep the amplitude of the returning echo within the bounds of the cortical map of echo delays.

    2. Neurovestibular analysis and falls in Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism

      J. Venhovens, J. Meulstee, B. R. Bloem and W. I. M. Verhagen

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13253

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      Ninety per cent of PD patients (27 of 30) and all 14 AP patients (100%) had signs of vestibular dysfunction on laboratory examinations. The evoked potential (VEMPs and BAEPs) test results of PD patients showed significant prolongation of the cervical VEMP p13, ocular VEMP n1, and BAEP interpeak III-V latencies on the symptomatic brainstem side (0.003 ≤ P ≤ 0.019) compared to healthy subjects. Vestibular testing abnormalities were correlated with an increased risk for falling when fallers among PD and AP patients were compared to the non-fallers (P ≤ 0.001).

    3. Amphetamine elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine via an action potential-dependent mechanism that is modulated by endocannabinoids

      Dan P. Covey, Kendra D. Bunner, Douglas R. Schuweiler, Joseph F. Cheer and Paul A. Garris

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13248

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      We found that amphetamine elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine in awake rats by eliciting phasic release events via a mechanism that requires dopamine cell firing and is modulated by endocannabinoids. These findings contradict amphetamine's canonical mechanism but are consistent with a common action in drug reinforcement.

    4. Rostrocaudal functional gradient among the pre-dorsal premotor cortex, dorsal premotor cortex and primary motor cortex in goal-directed motor behaviour

      Yoshihisa Nakayama, Tomoko Yamagata and Eiji Hoshi

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13254

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      We recorded neurons in the pre-dorsal premotor cortex (pre-PMd), dorsal premotor cortex proper (PMd), and primary motor cortex (M1) while monkeys performed a conditional visuo-goal task. We found that the multiple processing stages necessary for the realization of an action to accomplish a goal were implemented in an area-specific manner across a functional gradient from the pre-PMd to M1 that included the PMd as an intermediary.

    5. Lack of mGluR6-related cascade elements leads to retrograde trans-synaptic effects on rod photoreceptor synapses via matrix-associated proteins

      Shanti R. Tummala, Anuradha Dhingra, Marie E. Fina, Jian J. Li, Hariharasubramanian Ramakrishnan and Noga Vardi

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13243

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      We investigated the effect of deleting Gαo1 on the chemical architecture of the rod to rod bipolar synapse. The absence of Gαo1 reduced the staining of its partners and its GAPs in rod bipolar dendritic tips, decreased the number of invaginating rod bipolar dendrites and decreased staining of certain matrix-associated proteins that are expressed by rods. We hypothesize that these matrix-associated proteins link to proteins that reside on the rod bipolar membrane.

    6. Characterization of neuromuscular synapse function abnormalities in multiple Duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse models

      Elizabeth M. van der Pijl, Maaike van Putten, Erik H. Niks, Jan J. G. M. Verschuuren, Annemieke Aartsma-Rus and Jaap J. Plomp

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13249

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      Neuromuscular synaptic transmission deficits in Duchenne muscular dystrophy model mice. Decrement of compound muscle action potentials in repetitive nerve stimulation electromyography and increased sensitivity of muscle contraction for the acetylcholine receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine. Micro-electrode recordings revealed reductions of postsynaptic neurotransmitter sensitivity as well as extra rundown of endplate potentials during high-rate activity. While muscle fibre degeneration is the main cause of weakness in DMD patients and model mice, neuromuscular synapse deficits may have additional negative influences.

    7. Ginsenoside Rg1 reverses stress-induced depression-like behaviours and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression within the prefrontal cortex

      Xiuzhi Zhu, Rui Gao, Zhuxi Liu, Ziyi Cheng, Yihang Qi, Cuiqin Fan and Shu Yan Yu

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13255

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      We showed that chronic administration of ginsenoside Rg1 significantly ameliorated depression-like behaviors in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-treated rats, and also dramatically ameliorated the reduction of mature BDNF protein expression as well as the phosphorlyation levels of ERK and CREB in the PFC of these rats. These data indicate that the antidepressant-like effects of ginsenoside Rg1 might be mediated, at least in part, by activating the CREB-BDNF system within the PFC.

    8. Intrathecal administration of low-dose nociceptin/orphanin FQ induces allodynia via c-Jun N-terminal kinase and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

      Kenta Kawabata, Isamu Nishimura, Takeshi Fujiwara, Shoko Terauchi, Toshiaki Minami, Seiji Ito and Emiko Okuda-Ashitaka

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13247

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      Intrathecal administration of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), an endogenous ligand for the orphan opioid receptor-like receptor, at fmol range induces touch-evoked allodynia. The present study demonstrates that N/OFQ induces allodynia through the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase via the phospholipase C-inositol trisphosphate pathway in spinal dorsal horn, followed by the release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from astrocytes.

    9. Changes in orexinergic immunoreactivity of the piglet hypothalamus and pons after exposure to chronic postnatal nicotine and intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia

      Nicholas J. Hunt, Benjamin Russell, Man K. Du, Karen A. Waters and Rita Machaalani

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13246

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      Percentage change of orexin immunoreactivity in air control (AC), nicotine (Nic), intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH) and combined treatment (N + IHH) groups as compared with the saline control group in the in the central tubular hypothalamus of piglets; the decreased orexin immunoreactivity in SIDS was observed by Hunt et al. (2015b). Data represent the mean percentage change.

    10. Alcohol preference and consumption are controlled by the caudal linear nucleus in alcohol-preferring rats

      Mateusz Dudek and Petri Hyytiä

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13245

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      Compared to Wistar rats, naïve alcohol-preferring AA rats displayed lowered brain activity in the caudal linear nucleus (CLi) (Panels A and B). Alcohol drinking by AAs restored CLi activity (Panel B), and intra-CLi muscimol increased alcohol drinking (Panel C). These findings suggest that the mediocaudal region of the ventral tegmental area, particularly the CLi, plays an important role in mediating the propensity for high alcohol drinking and alcohol reward, possibly via GABAergic transmission.

    11. The ventromedial hypothalamus mediates predator fear memory

      Bianca A. Silva, Camilla Mattucci, Piotr Krzywkowski, Rachel Cuozzo, Laura Carbonari and Cornelius T. Gross

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13239

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      In the present study we show that the VMHdm mediates encoding and recall of predator fear memory, while the dPAG, its main downstream effector, mediates expression but not encoding of predator fear. These findings indicate a functional position of the VMH in the predator defense network as lying midway between inputs carrying sensory information and outputs to motor pattern initiators, and are consistent with the VMH encoding an internal emotional state of fear.

    12. Unmasking the linear behaviour of slow motor adaptation to prolonged convergence

      Ian M. Erkelens, Benjamin Thompson and William R. Bobier

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13240

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      Using the adaptation of tonic vergence innervation as a model, the slow mechanism within motor adaptation is isolated for study. Linear effects are shown to exist in the rate and amplitude of adaptation over a large range of non-congruent convergence perturbations. The linearity within this mechanism highlight the fundamental nature of this early neural process.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Loss of the calcium channel β4 subunit impairs parallel fibre volley and Purkinje cell firing in cerebellum of adult ataxic mice

      Bruno Benedetti, Ariane Benedetti and Bernhard E. Flucher

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13241

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      Loss of the auxiliary calcium channel subunit β4 causes lethargic ataxia. Here we show that the late-maturation of cerebellar cortical networks is impaired in lethargic mice. The Purkinje cell dendritic arbor and the postsynaptic processing of Parallel fiber input are reduced. Accordingly, the Purkinje cell input is unbalanced and the cerebellar cortical tonic output is reduced upon loss of β4. These pathophysiological dysfunctions may significantly contribute to the lethargic ataxia.

    14. Muscarinic control of rostromedial tegmental nucleus GABA neurons and morphine-induced locomotion

      David I. Wasserman, Joel M. J. Tan, Jun Chul Kim and John S. Yeomans

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13237

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      To inhibit or excite RMTg GABA neurons, M4D or M3D DREADDs were utilized in GAD2::Cre mice. While no effect was observed with vehicle-induced locomotion (top panels), M4D inhibition of RMTg GABA neurons increased, and M3D excitation blocked, morphine-induced locomotion (bottom panels). M4 muscarinic receptors were found colocalized with 84% of μ-OR-positive RMTg GABA neurons. This suggests that muscarinic input to RMTg facilitates morphine-induced locomotion due to inhibition.

  10. Editorial

    1. You have free access to this content
      Consensus Statement on European Brain Research: the need to expand brain research in Europe – 2015

      R. G. M. Morris, W. Oertel, W. Gaebel, G. M. Goodwin, A. Little, P. Montellano, M. Westphal, D. J. Nutt and M. Di Luca

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13236

  11. Research Reports

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Behavioural evidence for separate mechanisms of audiovisual temporal binding as a function of leading sensory modality

      Roberto Cecere, Joachim Gross and Gregor Thut

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13242

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      We tested whether temporal binding of auditory-visual (AV) vs. visual-auditory (VA) stimulus pairs rely on a single or dual mechanism. Three groups of healthy participants performed a simultaneity judgment task with feedback including AV + VA pairs, VA pairs only or AV pairs only. Selective training with one stimulus pair (e.g. AV) had no effect on non-trained pairs (e.g. VA). The absence of cross-over suggests separate temporal binding mechanisms for AV and VA according to the leading sense.

  12. Editorial

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  13. Research Reports

    1. Targeted activation of primitive neural stem cells in the mouse brain

      Rachel L. Reeve, Samantha Z. Yammine, Brian DeVeale and Derek van der Kooy

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13228

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      Primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) are subependymal zone (SEZ) derived and are GFAP, nestinmid, Oct4+ and give rise to definitive (d)NSCs, which are GFAP+, nestinhigh, and Oct4. We validate post-natal day (P)7 pNSCs as an efficient model for studying adult pNSCs and to test pharmacological compounds. Inhibitors of C-kit and ErbB2 signaling increased the number of pNSC neurospheres. We demonstrate a mechanism of endogenous activation of a rare quiescent pNSC population in the adult brain.

    2. Audio-visual multisensory training enhances visual processing of motion stimuli in healthy participants: an electrophysiological study

      Paolo A. Grasso, Mariagrazia Benassi, Elisabetta Làdavas and Caterina Bertini

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13221

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      A training with spatially coincident audio-visual (AV) stimuli increases the N1 component in response to motion stimuli in the trained hemifield, in a task relying on the activity in the colliculo-dorsal MT pathway (Motion discrimination task). No enhancement is found in a task relying on the activity of the striate and early ventral extrastriate cortices (Orientation discrimination task). No post-training effect is found after a training with spatially disparate AV stimuli in both tasks.

    3. Distinct expression patterns of inwardly rectifying potassium currents in developing cerebellar granule cells of the hemispheres and the vermis

      Federico Brandalise, Rafael Lujan, Roberta Leone, Francesco Lodola, Valentina Cesaroni, Chiara Romano, Urs Gerber and Paola Rossi

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13219

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      We have observed that different inwardly rectifying K+ channels are expressed in the cerebellar vermis as compared to the hemispheres during development. Granule cells in the premigratory zone express only G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+ channels in the vermis whereas in the hemispheres they express constitute inwardly rectifying K+ channels. We also found that granule cells in the hemispheres express Na+ channels earlier during development showing more rapidly in the hemispheres.

  14. Reviews

    1. Neuronal central nervous system syndromes probably mediated by autoantibodies

      Aude Chefdeville, Jérôme Honnorat, Christiane S. Hampe and Virginie Desestret

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13212

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      Recent investigations have studied the pathogenic role of specific autoantibodies associated with autoimmune CNS syndromes. In this review, we present converging and conflicting evidences regarding a pathogenic role of autoantibodies directed against neuronal cell-surface antigens. These experimental arguments have been obtained in in vitro or in vivo models by cell biology, electrophysiology and behavioral studies.

    2. Nerve-racking – apoptotic and non-apoptotic roles of caspases in the nervous system of Drosophila

      Juliane Melzer and Meike Broemer

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13213

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      Caspases are active in the nervous system during all stages of Drosophila development. Often, this caspase activity results in cell death, contributing to shaping of the nervous system. In some cases however, cells survive caspase activity and caspases exert a cell physiological function.

  15. Research Reports

    1. Zinc finger transcription factor Casz1 expression is regulated by homeodomain transcription factor Prrxl1 in embryonic spinal dorsal horn late-born excitatory interneurons

      César B. Monteiro, Luís Midão, Sandra Rebelo, Carlos Reguenga, Deolinda Lima and Filipe A. Monteiro

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13214

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      We found here that zinc finger transcription factor Casz1 is broadly expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, while in the dorsal spinal cord it presents two non-overlapping phases: one in the dorsal progenitors 1 (dP1) and derived neurons (dI1), and the other in late-born dorsal interneurons (dILB). In the latter, Prrxl1 is a positive regulator of Casz1 only at embryonic stage. This study provides the framework for functional analysis of Casz1 in the DRG-dorsal spinal cord circuit.

  16. Commentary

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  17. Research Reports

    1. Cognitive flexibility modulates maturation and music-training-related changes in neural sound discrimination

      Katri Saarikivi, Vesa Putkinen, Mari Tervaniemi and Minna Huotilainen

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13176

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      We explored how individual differences in executive functions are connected to the development of neural sound discrimination in musically trained and non-trained children. Results showed that high performance in a cognitive flexibility task was linked to enhanced maturation of neural sound discrimination in both musically trained and non-trained groups. Individual neurocognitive differences may therefore modulate the effects of training as well as exposure on the developing auditory system.

  18. Commentary

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  19. Research Reports

    1. Retinal lesions induce fast intrinsic cortical plasticity in adult mouse visual system

      Katrien Smolders, Samme Vreysen, Marie-Eve Laramée, Annemie Cuyvers, Tjing-Tjing Hu, Leen Van Brussel, Ulf T. Eysel, Julie Nys and Lutgarde Arckens

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13143

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      Induction of a monocular retinal lesion immediately influences neuronal activity in different lesion projection zones throughout adult mouse visual cortex. The speed of recovery of neuronal activity post injury mirrors retinotopic organization, cortical magnification factor and receptive field size. This vision impairment model can lead to a better understanding of brain region-, cell type-, and microcircuit-specific contributions to different forms of cortical neuronal plasticity in mammals.

    2. Experience-dependent escalation of glucose drinking and the development of glucose preference over fructose – association with glucose entry into the brain

      Ken T. Wakabayashi, Laurence Spekterman and Eugene A. Kiyatkin

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13137

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      Although glucose and fructose are calorically equal and fructose is sweeter than glucose, rats exhibit escalating glucose consumption and develop preference of glucose over fructose during repeated sessions of free drinking. These behavioural phenomena appear to be related to glucose entry to the brain and its action on glucose-sensitive central neurons. This neural effect of glucose could be critical in regulating consummatory behaviours with both sugary product and possibly different foods.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A robust and representative lower bound on object processing speed in humans

      Magdalena M. Bieniek, Patrick J. Bennett, Allison B. Sekuler and Guillaume A. Rousselet

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13100

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      Using event-related potentials in a sample of 120 human participants aged 18–81, we found evidence for onsets of neuronal activity to images of objects within 100 ms. The results are reliable across testing days, independent of age, and not due to filtering distortions or lack of control for multiple comparisons. The results provide a new lower benchmark for the earliest neuronal responses to complex objects in the human visual system.


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