European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 42 Issue 10

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: John Foxe and Paul Bolam

Impact Factor: 3.181

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 108/252 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1460-9568


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  1. Research Reports

    1. Movement-related activity during goal-directed hand actions in the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

      Luciano Simone, Stefano Rozzi, Marco Bimbi and Leonardo Fogassi

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13040

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      The findings of this study indicate that a population of ventral prefrontal (movement-related) neurons plays a role in controlling goal-directed grasping actions in several contexts. The role of these neurons would be that of activating, based on contextual information, the representation of the motor goal (taking possession of an object) of the intended action during action planning and execution. This role is likely exerted within a wider network, involving parietal and premotor regions.

  2. Special Issue Articles

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Human Schwann-like cells derived from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells rapidly de-differentiate in the absence of stimulating medium

      Alessandro Faroni, Richard J. P. Smith, Li Lu and Adam J. Reid

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13055

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      Adipose derived stem cells (uASC) can be differentiated into a Schwann cell-like morphological and molecular phenotype (dASC). These cells represent a promising source of transplantable cells for nerve regeneration. However, the efficiency and the stability of the differentiation protocol are poorly understood. In this study, we show that the withdrawal of the differentiation media for 72 h reverts most of the changes that are obtained with the 18 days differentiation protocol. The data presented suggests that further refinement of cell protocols may be required to maximise efficiency and stability of this potential cell therapy.

  3. Commentary

    1. You have free access to this content
  4. Special Issue Review

    1. Functional evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration and target reinnervation in animal models: a critical overview

      Xavier Navarro

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13033

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      An overview of the most useful methods to assess nerve regeneration, target reinnervation and recovery of sensory and motor functions in experimental models is provided. The methods have to be selected depending on the main objectives of the research study. For a multimodal approach, it is recommended to combine electrophysiological, locomotion and algesimetry tests that can be repeated along follow-up, and add also morphological studies of the nerve and reinnervated targets.

  5. Special Issue Reviews

    1. Membrane turnover and receptor trafficking in regenerating axons

      Barbara Hausott and Lars Klimaschewski

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13025

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      Peripheral axon regeneration requires surface-expanding membrane addition. The continuous incorporation of new membranes into the axolemma allows the pushing force of elongating microtubules to drive axonal growth cones forward. While endo- and exocytosis of membrane vesicles are balanced in intact axons, membrane incorporation exceeds membrane retrieval during regeneration to compensate for the loss of membranes distal to the lesion site. In this review, the current knowledge on membrane traffic in axon outgrowth is summarised with a focus on endosomal vesicles as the provider of membranes and carrier of growth factor receptors required for initiating signalling pathways to promote the elongation and branching of regenerating axons in lesioned peripheral nerves.

  6. Special Issue Articles

    1. Characterisation of cell–substrate interactions between Schwann cells and three-dimensional fibrin hydrogels containing orientated nanofibre topographical cues

      Dorothee Hodde, José Gerardo-Nava, Vanessa Wöhlk, Stefan Weinandy, Stefan Jockenhövel, Andreas Kriebel, Haktan Altinova, Harry W. M. Steinbusch, Martin Möller, Joachim Weis, Jörg Mey and Gary A. Brook

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13026

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      Schwann cells that were embedded in a matrix of a three-dimensional fibrin hydrogel with multiple layers of highly orientated electrospun nanofibres showed a strong tendency to migrate away from the fibrin hydrogel to align closely with the orientation of the nanofibres. The ability of this three-dimensional scaffold to support Schwann cell survival and direct process extension suggest it as an appropriate device design for the bridging of experimental lesions of the peripheral nervous system.

  7. Special Issue Reviews

    1. Releasing ‘brakes’ to nerve regeneration: intrinsic molecular targets

      Anand Krishnan, Arul Duraikannu and Douglas W. Zochodne

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13018

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      Tumor suppressors, with multiple modes of action, modify critical growth signaling cascades and have the potential to modulate peripheral nerve regeneration. However, molecular requirements of regrowing nerves are complex and vary depending upon specific stages of regeneration. This review discusses the stage specific changes in expression and roles of selected tumor suppressors during peripheral nerve regeneration. The potential therapeutic benefits of targeting individual tumor suppressors are summarised.

  8. Special Issue Articles

    1. Strategies to promote peripheral nerve regeneration: electrical stimulation and/or exercise

      Tessa Gordon and Arthur W. English

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13005

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      Enhancing the regeneration of axons is often considered a therapeutic target for improving functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. In this review, the evidence for the efficacy of electrical stimulation (ES), daily exercise, and their combination in promoting nerve regeneration after peripheral nerve injuries in both animal models and in human patients, is explored. The rationale, effectiveness, and molecular basis of ES and exercise in accelerating axon outgrowth are reviewed, concluding that both ES and exercise are promising experimental treatments for peripheral nerve injury that are ready for translation to clinical use.

    2. The immunomodulatory properties of adult skin-derived precursor Schwann cells: implications for peripheral nerve injury therapy

      Jo Anne Stratton, Prajay T. Shah, Ranjan Kumar, Morgan G. Stykel, Yuval Shapira, Joey Grochmal, Gui Fang Guo, Jeff Biernaskie and Rajiv Midha

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13006

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      Transplantation of skin-derived precursor Schwann Cells (SKPSCs) into injured peripheral nerves has been shown to improve functional recovery. We have shown that an increase in macrophages and enhanced clearance of myelin debris correlates with this recovery. Additionally, we found that IL-6 is particularly elevated in SKPSCs. Surprisingly, however, IL-6 appears to be detrimental in this context, since neutralisation of IL-6 in combination with SKPSC transplant resulted in improved muscle reinnervation after nerve injury.

    3. The Neuregulin1/ErbB system is selectively regulated during peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration

      Giulia Ronchi, Kirsten Haastert-Talini, Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Isabelle Perroteau, Stefano Geuna and Giovanna Gambarotta

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12974

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      The expression of different neuregulin1 (NRG1) isoforms and of their ErbB receptors was investigated at mRNA and protein level in the peripheral nerve under regenerating and degenerating conditions and related to nerve ultrastructure changes. Our results show that the NRG1/ErbB system is selectively regulated after injury, thus suggesting that each molecule of the system plays a specific role that could be clinically exploited to improve nerve regeneration.

  9. Research Reports

    1. Inhibitory short-term plasticity modulates neuronal activity in the rat entopeduncular nucleus in vitro

      Hagar Lavian and Alon Korngreen

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12965

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      We recorded from neurons in the entopeduncular nucleus in rat brain slices during stimulation of the striatum and the globus pallidus. We show that synapses from the striatum display short-term facilitation and those from the globus pallidus show short-term depression. The data suggests that striatal output may be encoded as progressive phase shifts while high frequency pallidal output may continuously modulate entopeduncular nucleus firing.

    2. Individual differences in perceptual abilities predict target visibility during masking

      Silvia Pagano and Veronica Mazza

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12948

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      What happens when we attend to multiple masked objects? Are all the people equally sensitive to masked information? We found that the neural marker of object individuation, an ERP component named N2pc, can still track multiple objects even when masked. However, ERSP analyses demonstrated that participants that were not sensitive to masking were associated to higher evoked gamma contralateral to target side. These participants were also associated to a larger modulation of the N2pc component, suggesting that more efficient segmentation and individuation mechanisms, indexed by gamma and N2pc respectively, reduce the effects of masking.


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