European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 43 Issue 9

Edited By: John Foxe and Paul Bolam

Impact Factor: 3.181

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 108/252 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1460-9568

Cover Gallery Legends

Volume 35, Issue 1 and 2

Specificity test for Kv4.2 subunit labelling on the axo-somato-dendritic surface of CA1 PCs using SDS-FRL. (A) Electron micrograph illustrating the P-face of a spiny CA1 PC dendrite of wild-type mouse immunolabelled for the Kv4.2 subunit. Note that the density and distribution pattern of the immunogold labelling for the Kv4.2 subunit in mouse is similar to that seen in rat. (B) The lack of immunogold labelling for the Kv4.2 subunit in a spiny dendrite of a Kv4.2) ⁄ ) mouse demonstrates the specificity of the labelling using SDS-FRL. (C) Axon terminals in rat identified by immunolabelling for SNAP-25 (15-nm gold) contain a low number of immunogold particles (arrows) for the Kv4.2 subunit (10-nm gold). (D and E) Immunogold particles for the Kv4.2 subunit were present in both Kv4.2+ ⁄ + (D) and Kv4.2) ⁄ ) mice (E) at approximately the same density. dendr, dendrite; sp, spine. Scale bars: 250 nm (A–E).

Volume 35, Issue 3 and 4

Confocal images of RCS rat retinas stained with various immunohistochemical markers at P90. DAPI (blue) was used as a nuclear counterstain in all images. Human nuclear marker (green in D and H) and SC121 (green in G, red in I) were used to label all human cells. Donor cells expressed the glial marker SC123, a human-specific pan-GFAP (arrows in A, green, E and F, red). Co-expression of Nestin (B, red) and SC123 is shown in C (merged image of A and B). Donor cells (arrow in F) did not express the mature astrocytic marker glutamine synthetase (F; GS in green) but expressed vimentin (D, red; note that vimentin also labels host cells). GFAPdelta (E, green) is also expressed by the donor cells, where it labels a subpopulation of panGFAP cells. Neuronal markers of varying developmental stages were also expressed such as doublecortin (G, red) and NeuN (red, arrow in H), the latter at much lower frequency than doublecortin. Similarly, the proliferation marker Ki-67 (arrows in I, green) was only expressed in a few cells. Scale bar = 40 lm.

Volume 35, Issue 5 and 6

Spatial extent of the spontaneous activity. (A) Pseudocolor images of the spontaneous activity in an E13 whole brain–whole spinal cord preparation. The images were obtained from the forebrain (position 1) and the brainstem ⁄ spinal cord (position 2) indicated with squares in the right inset. The frame interval was 200 ms. The recordings were obtained in a solution containing 3.0 mm [K+]o. (B) Color-coded representation of maximum signal amplitudes (right) and the waveform of the optical signals in the cerebrum (left). The preparation was the same as that shown in (A). (C) Color-coded representation of the maximum signal amplitude in the cerebellum. Data were obtained in an E12 preparation.

Volume 35, Issue 7 and 8

As rats come to difficult choices, they sometimes pause and look back and forth, a phenomenon termed "vicarious trial and error" (VTE) behavior. During VTE behavior, hippocampal neurons represent the potential paths ahead of the animal.

Volume 35, Issue 9 and 10

Brain areas in which activity correlates with aesthetic judgments made by humans (shown in white, yellow and orange in horizontal sections of the brain). The areas were revealed in a comparison of brain activity when subjects judged the beauty and the brightness of identical visual stimuli. The areas involved include the medial and lateral orbitofrontral cortex, the amygdala and the globus pallidus/putamen complex. For details see the article of Ishizu & Zeki. (The brain’s specialized systems for aesthetic and perceptual judgment. Eur. J. Neurosci., 37, 1413–1420).

Volume 35, Issue 11 and 12

Reelin accumulates in myelinated axons in aged PolyI:C mice. (A–C) Representative confocal images of double-immunofluorescence staining of brain sections obtained from 15-month-old NaCl and PolyI:C subjects using mouse anti-Reelin (red) and rabbit anti-MBP (myelin basic protein, green) antibodies. (A) No Reelin immunoractivity was observed in axonal projections in saline (NaCl)-treated mice. (B) In contrast, Reelin immunoreactivity was strongly enriched in myelinated axons in aged immune challenged PolyI:C animals. Note the appearance of granular structures at the terminals of the axonal projections (C), pointing to their intracellular accumulations. (C′) Higher magnification of the boxed area outlined in C containing also the xz- and yz-views shown at the bottom and right side (also included in A′ and B′). Scale bars: A–C = 10 μm, A′, B′ = 5 μm, C′ = 3 μm

Volume 36, Issue 1 and 2

Epileptic spikes and fast ripples (FRs). (A) Human (hippocampus), in vivo (mouse, hippocampus) and in vitro (rat organotypic hippocampal slice) interictal spikes recorded with extracellular electrodes. Simulated LFPs generated from microscopic (cellular level) and macroscopic (neuronal population level) computational models of the hippocampus CA1 subfield. (B) Human (hippocampus), in vivo (mouse, hippocampus) and in vitro (rat organotypic hippocampal slice) FRs recorded with extracellular electrodes. Simulated LFPs generated by the macroscopic model. Colour-coded maps are time–frequency representations (spectrograms) of corresponding signals. Hot (respectively, cold) colours correspond to the presence (respectively, absence) of signal energy at a given time (X-axis) and frequency (Y-axis) point in the time–frequency plane.

Volume 36, Issue 3 and 4

Sensory experience modulates expression levels of signaling proteins as revealed by antibody staining. (A) A coronal section from a 4-week-old mouse that underwent neonatal, unilateral naris closure was stained with antibodies against OMP and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). The rectangles indicate the approximate locations where confocal images (z = 1 lm) in B to E were taken. Arrowheads mark the cilia layer. The vertical dashed line separates the closed (left) and open (right) sides. (B–E) Coronal sections were stained with antibodies against ACIII (B), PDE4A (C), calmodulin (D), orGolf (E and E¢). Scale bars – 20 lm. The dotted lines in E and E¢ mark the border between the olfactory epithelium and lamina propria. Note the thicker olfactory epithelium in the open side than in the closed side.

Volume 36, Issue 5 and 6

Subdivision of human area hMT+ into areas MT and MST. Data for subject 1 are shown on the whole inflated brain (remaining subjects are presented in Fig. 3). The activation obtained with the full-field hMT+ localizer is shown in (A) and is delineated by a black line. (B and C) present the activated areas for left and right hemifield stimulation, respectively. (B) Data for a left visual field RDK presentation; (C) activation produced by a right visual field stimulation in the left and right hemispheres. MST (white lines) corresponds to the region activated by ipsilateral hemifield stimulation within the region identified as hMT+, while MT (red lines) corresponds to the region activated by contralateral hemifield stimulation after MST was removed. All conditions were contrasted with a baseline static RDK. The color bar represents statistical t values.

Volume 36, Issue 7

The calyx of Held, a giant glutamatergic nerve terminal in the auditory pathway, labeled with membrane-bound green fluorescent protein (green). Immunohistochemistry reveals the vesicular glutamate transporter type 1 protein (red) and the active zone matrix protein bassoon (blue) within the boundaries of the presynaptic compartment. A reduction of the number and density of synaptic vesicles, yet an unchanged number of active zones is evident in calyces obtained from synapsin triple knockout mice.

Volume 36, Issue 9

Detailed view of the cortical surface (left hemisphere) of a right-handed individual who performed movements of the elbow (green), wrist (blue) and index finger (red). Functional MRI (fMRI) activation corresponding to each type of movement is shown in primary motor cortex along the anterior bank of the central sulcus (transparency scales with the degree of fMRI activation). In addition to the expected elbow(green)-wrist(blue)-finger(red) progression, we observed an additional wrist-elbow representation: wrist(blue)-elbow(green) ventral and medial to the maximal finger fMRI responses. A similar result was observed in supplementary motor cortex. For details see the article of Strother et al. (Double representation of the wrist and elbow in human motor cortex. Eur. J. Neurosci., 36, 3291–3298).

Volume 36, Issue 11

Musical task modulates the change-N1 component of ERP differently between musicians and non-musicians. The early, obligatory cortical response to pitch transitions in music, as indexed by change-N1, was chronically enhanced by training in musicians. In addition, the task-related modulation of this response was also differentiated between musicians and non-musicians (cover image). The change-N1 was augmented, only in non-musicians when the task was easy (upper row), and in both musicians and non-musicians when it was difficult (lower row). For details see the article of Kosuke et al. (Effects of musical training on the early auditory cortical representation of pitch transitions as indexed by change-N1. Eur. J. Neurosci., 36, 3580–3592).

Volume 37, Issue 1 and 2

Current source density (CSD) distributions on a single neuron in three phases of action potential generation. Based on the extracellular potential recording by a chronically implanted linear multi-electrode array, CSD distributions were determined by a new spike CSD calculation method (see in the November issue). The spatial CSD distributions are visualized by color coding and projecting to a model neuron. Warm colors correspond to current sinks (inward positive current), green to zero while blueish and purple colors mark the current sources (outward positive current). The left, the central and the right cell shows the CSD distribution at the initialization, at the peak and during the hyperpolarization phase of the action potential respectively. While the soma is dominated by the hyperpolarizating current, warm colors in the dendrites are signs of the back-propagating action potential in the last phase. For details see the Technical Spotlight article of Zoltán et al. (Localization of single-cell current sources based on extracellular potential patterns: the spike CSD method. Eur. J. Neurosci., 36, 3299-3313).

Volume 37, Issue 3 and 4

Photo of juvenile male Syrian hamster (by Kayla De Lorme). Adolescence is a time of major behavioral change, and responses to social cues must mature to promote adult-like behaviors. For example, juvenile hamsters do not show sexual behavior with a receptive female. Sexually-naïve adult male hamsters find female pheromones rewarding, but juvenile hamsters do not. Moreover, neural activation of the mesocorticolimbic pathway in response to female pheromones, is immature in juvenile male hamsters. For details see the article of Bell et al. (Adolescent gain in positive valence of a socially relevant stimulus: engagement of the mesocorticolimbic reward circuitry. Eur. J. Neurosci., 37, 457–468).

Volume 37, Issue 5 and 6

The relative densities of cholinergic synaptic inputs through the nicotinic Dα7 receptor (left) and of GABAergic synaptic inputs through the rdl GABAA receptor (right) are depicted as color codes on dendrite reconstructions of the identified Drosophila motoneuron, MN5. For details see the article of Kuehn & Duch (Putative excitatory and putative inhibitory inputs are localised in different dendritic domains in a Drosophila flight motoneuron. Eur. J. Neurosci., 37,860-875).

Volume 37, Issue 7 and 8

Mosaic expression of multiple transgenes can be attained by intraventricular injection of AAV into neonate mice. In this study, we take advantage of the limited time window after birth when intraventricular injection of AAV results in widespread transduction of neurons throughout the brain. Neonatal viral transduction offers an easy and fast method for manipulating gene expression in the mouse brain. Our experiments optimize the titer and serotype of AAV needed to control the resulting density and pattern of transgene expression in the mouse brain. The cover image shows viral expression in the cerebellum 3 weeks after co-injection with two different AAVs, one expressing YFP in AAV1 and the other expressing tdTomato in AAV8. YFP fluorescence is shown in green, tdTomato in red, and DAPI counterstain in blue. Purkinje neurons are especially amenable to transduction with AAV, making this a simple means of simultaneously labeling and genetically manipulating these cells. For details see the article of Kim et al. (Viral transduction of the neonatal brain delivers controllable genetic mosaicism for visualising and manipulating neuronal circuits in vivo. Eur. J. Neurosci., 37, 1203–1220).

Volume 37, Issue 9 and 10

Brain areas in which activity correlates with aesthetic judgments made by humans (shown in white, yellow and orange in horizontal sections of the brain). The areas were revealed in a comparison of brain activity when subjects judged the beauty and the brightness of identical visual stimuli. The areas involved include the medial and lateral orbitofrontral cortex, the amygdala and the globus pallidus/putamen complex. For details see the article of Ishizu & Zeki. (The brain’s specialized systems for aesthetic and perceptual judgment. Eur. J. Neurosci., 37, 1413–1420).

Volume 37, Issue 11 and 12

Active Caspase-6 (top) and Tau cleaved by Caspase-6 (bottom) immunoreactive pre-tangles (left panels) and mature neurofibrillary tangles (right panels) in Alzheimer's Disease. Eur. J. Neurosci., 37, 2005–2018).

Volume 38, Issue 1 and 2

The cover shows GFP-expressing interneurons at different stages in their migration to the cortex, from their early tangential migration through the subpallium (large neurons in the left) to their final integration into different layers of the neocortex (small neurons in the right). Stuart Ingham prepared this image composition. For details see the article of Marín (Cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling the migration of neocortical interneurons. Eur. J. Neurosci., 38, 2019-2029).

Volume 38, Issue 3 and 4

Brain areas whose connectivity with midbrain (left) and NAcc (right) are modulated by individual differences in Reward sensitivity. For details see the article of Costumero et al. (Reward sensitivity modulates connectivity among reward brain areas during processing of anticipatory reward cues. Eur. J. Neurosci., 38, 2399–2407).

Volume 38, Issue 5 and 6

Confocal image of a large rostromedial tegmental (RMTg) GABA neuron projecting to the ventral tegmental area (VTA). A cholera-toxin B retrograde tracer was infused into a VTA site where viral induction of the M5 receptor increased morphine-induced locomotion. The outline of the GABA neuron is shown through immunolabelling of GAD-67 (red). Surrounding the DAPI-labelled nucleus (blue), green puncta identify retrograde labelling from the VTA site. For details see the article by Wasserman et al. (Cholinergic control of morphine-induced locomotion in rostromedial tegmental nucleus versus ventral tegmental area sites. Eur. J. Neurosci., 38, 2774–2785).

Volume 38, Issue 7 and 8

GABAA receptors promote formation of active synaptic contacts. Ultrastructural analysis and 3D reconstruction of a contact between an active GABAergic axon terminal and a surface of HEK293 cell expressing GABAA receptors. The presence of dark, diaminobenzidine-positive small synaptic vesicles observed within this contact indicates the activity-dependent incorporation of horse radish peroxidase. For details see the article of Fuchs et al. Eur. J. Neurosci., 38, 3146-3158).

Volume 38, Issue 9 and 10

Linear beam forming results of alpha-band activity from participants viewing the needle or the Q-tip approaching an incorporated hand and expecting electrical stimulation. Viewing a needle compared to viewing a Q-tip approaching the body enhanced pupil dilation responses and reduced anticipatory alpha-band responses in the contralateral posterior cingulate cortex and fusiform gyrus before onset of electrical stimuli. Eur. J. Neurosci., 38, 3089–3098).

Volume 38, Issue 11 and 12

Repeated cocaine self-administration leads to persistent reductions in functional activity in reward-related areas of the brain. Representative autoradiograms of the striatum, and surrounding cortex, of a control (left image) and cocaine-exposed (right image) animal. For details see the article of Höfle et al. (Withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration results in dysregulated functional activity and altered locomotor activity in rats. Eur. J. Neurosci., 38, 3749-3757).

Volume 39, Issues 1 and 2

Human subjects fixated their gaze on a target and performed mental arithmetic while a high-speed video-oculography system tracked their eye movements. Increased task difficulty decreased microsaccade rates and increased microsaccade magnitudes. For details see the article of Siegenthaler et al. (Task difficulty in mental arithmetic affects microsaccadic rates and magnitudes. Eur. J. Neurosci., 39, doi: 10.1111/ejn.12395).

Volume 39, Issues 3 and 4

Dorsal root ganglia contain the cells bodies of sensory neurons and satellite glia cells. Both neurons and glial cells strongly react to nerve injury. Activation transcription factor 3 (ATF3, pseudo-colored in green), a molecular marker of nerve injury, is up-regulated in sensory neurons three days after axotomy. Coincidently, satellite glia express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, pseudo-colored in blue). Propidum iodide was used as nuclear counterstain (color-coded in red). This image was contributed by Mingdong Zhang and Tomas Hökfelt (Keimpema et al., 2014, Eur. J. Neurosci., 39, 334–343).

Volume 39, Issues 5 and 6

Outer hair cell stereocilia in the Mir96 mouse mutant diminuendo showed developmentally immature morphology of hair bundles, with ectopic stereocilia forming an O-shape instead of the usual V-shape in homozygote mutants, as shown by scanning electron microscopy in this image. For details see the article of Chen et al. (A reduction in Ptprq associated with specific features of the deafness phenotype of the miR-96 mutant mouse diminuendo. Eur. J. Neurosci., 39, 744–756).

Volume 39, Issues 7 and 8

An artistic depiction of the hypothesis that amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced synaptic deficits depend upon tau phosphorylation in the initial stages of Alzheimer’s Disease. [Artist: Peter J. Teravskis, image created in Blender, Blender Foundation; for related research report see the article by Miller et al. (Tau phosphorylation and tau mislocalization mediate soluble Aβ oligomer-induced AMPA glutamate receptor signaling deficits. Eur. J. Neurosci., 39, 1214–1224)].

Volume 39, Issues 9 and 10

Frontal view of a whole mount adult Drosophila brain showing the ellipsoid body neurons (yellow, GFP) of the genetic driver 796–Gal4. Synaptic neuropile (red) and cell nuclei (blue) are marked with anti-nc82 and DAPI, respectively. Dorsal is up. For details see the article of Martín-Peña et al. (Cell types and coincident synapses in the ellipsoid body of Drosophila. Eur. J. Neurosci., 39, 1586–1601).

Volume 39, Issue 11 and 12

The images used for this cover were provided by editorial board members who contributed to the Editors’ Special Issue (Jean-Marc Fritschy, John Foxe, László Acsády, Zoltan Nusser, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Scott Thompson and Jeff Dalley).