Pediatric Anesthesia

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 6

Edited By: A. Davidson

Impact Factor: 1.85

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 18/30 (Anesthesiology); 45/120 (Pediatrics)

Online ISSN: 1460-9592

Author Guidelines

Pediatric Anesthesia's mission is to advance the science and clinical practice of paediatric anaesthesia, pain management and peri-operative medicine through dissemination of research, education and quality improvement.

Priority is given to high-quality original research that advances knowledge, safety, organisation or methodology applicable to other settings and countries. We would particularly like to encourage the reporting of randomised controlled trials.

We will support our authors by posting the accepted version of articles by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance by the journal. Authors must ensure that manuscripts are clearly indicated as NIH-funded using the guidelines below.

We accept articles with audio and video files (Podcasts). The published article links to the corresponding Podcast hosted on YouTube or iTunes. See our special feature page and submission policy below for more details.


The journal's ethical policies are outlined in the separate document, Ethics Policy of Pediatric Anesthesia. These guidelines must be followed in full.

Consent for publication
Published article:
If individuals might be identified from a publication (e.g. from images or description) authors must obtain explicit informed consent from the individual, or parent or guardian for children. Please do not confuse this with consent for the procedure. Consent, or IRB approved waiver of consent is required for studies involving human subjects.

A patient consent form is available in English: Patient Consent Form and in Chinese: Patient Consent Form - Chinese.

Audio/Video content: Authors are required to obtain the prior written consent of any other persons that are visible in the Video, or parental consent for any minor visible in the video, to use their image in the video clip.

In addition the author must complete an online broadcast release form available here

Plagiarism self-check policy
In line with most journals, Pediatric Anesthesia routinely screens all submissions for evidence of redundant material and plagiarism. We expect authors to have read and understood our originality requirements, specified in the journal’s ethics policy.

The editorial team will contact the corresponding author if we discover significant overlap with published material.

Disclosures/conflicts of interest
Authors are required to disclose competing interests. A competing interest exists when a primary interest (such as patients’ welfare or the validity of research) might be influenced by a secondary interest (such as financial gain or personal rivalry).The corresponding author, on behalf of all co-authors, should ensure the DISCLOSURE section (Submission step 5) is completed at A statement is required in the main document, at the end of the main text before the references.

For papers where there are no competing interests, include the statement ‘Conflicts of interest: No conflicts of interest declared.’

All sources of funding must be disclosed in the Funding section of the paper. List governmental, industrial, charitable, philanthropic and/or personal sources of funding used for the studies described in the manuscript. Attribution of these funding sources is preferred. If in doubt – disclose. For further details, please refer to the Ethics Policy.

For research where no source of funding is declared, include the statement ‘This research was carried out without funding.’

Peer review
All papers published in Pediatric Anesthesia are subject to peer review. Papers that are outside the scope of the journal, that do not comply with the guidelines below or are otherwise judged to be unsuitable by the editor will be rejected without review.

Appropriate papers are
usually sent to at least two independent referees for evaluation.  Authors are encouraged to suggest reviewers of international standing. Referees advise on the originality and scientific merit of the paper; the Editor-in-Chief, with advice from the Section Editor, decides on publication. The Editor-in-Chief’s decision is final.

Before submitting your manuscript, ensure that you refer to the requirements below, which explain the file types, structure and supporting information required for a successful submission.


Writing should be clear and simple, avoiding excessive use of the passive, and written in good clear 'international' English.

Particularly if English is not your first language, before submitting your manuscript you may wish to have it edited for language. This is not a mandatory step, but may help to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. If you would like information about one such service please see The Editor may recommend an English Language Editing Service to an author as a condition of acceptance. There are other specialist language editing companies that offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.

Manuscripts and tables
In order to be processed by our production team, all files should be editable and saved as .doc or .rtf.  Please note: PDF (.pdf) is not a .doc or .rtf file format and is therefore not an appropriate file type. Manuscripts should be double line spaced with 2.5cm margins. Use 10pt Helvetica or Arial font. Headings: main (section) headings [A] in bold sentence case; sub-headings [B] in italic sentence case; sub-sub-headings [C] in italic sentence case with the text continued on the same line.

Colour space
Our printers use the CMYK colour space which refers to the four inks used in printing. RGB is a colour space based on the visible light spectrum and cannot be used for print publication. RGB uses red, green, and blue light added together to produce a broad array of colours mostly used on the web - computer monitors are made up of these three colours. The CMYK requirements exist, regardless of whether the image is black and white or greyscale or colour (the K in CMYK stands for Key or black ink).

Naming convention Figures should be prepared in an appropriate graphic package and named according to DOS conventions, e.g. 'figure1.tif'. Space in the print version is limited. Please consider if any of your figures (or tables) could appear online only as Supplementary Data. Additional figures and tables can be made available on the web version of the journal.


Photographs - 300 dpi TIFF files at desired print size. A single column image would need to be 300dpi and 120mm wide. A full page image would need to be 300dpi and 230mm wide.

Line work - EPS is preferred as this is vector based software and allows smaller file sizes. The figure size requirements still apply - 120mm wide for a single column; 230mm wide for a whole page image.

Most graphic software can output to EPS via a 'print to' PS or PDF printer. If this is not possible, then we can accept high resolution tiff files - 600dpi at single column/ whole page widths. Lower resolutions will cause the text / line element to break up.

Lines should not be thinner than 0.25 pt and in-fill patterns and screens should have a density of at least 10%. Use 10pt Helvetica font for labels.

Combination images (figures with both linework or text and photographic elements) - EPS is preferred. The requirements are the same as for line work above.

Audio/ Video recordings
The recording must be continuous and of sufficient quality for us to publish online i.e. no shaking, blurring or interference.
The file must be saved in .mov format for video and MPEG, MP3 or MP4 format for audio.
The recording should last no longer than 10 minutes.
The file must be less than 2GB in size.
The resolution should be 1280 x 720 (16 x 9 HD) or 640 x 480 (4:3 SD), if possible.

Supporting Data
We do not publish appendices. Supporting material that is too lengthy for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader, can be hosted as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Such information might include the study protocols, more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, or additional figures (including colour).

All material to be considered as supporting data must be uploaded separately as such with the manuscript files during submission. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication. Please indicate clearly the material intended as Supplementary Data upon submission. Also ensure that the Supplementary Data is referred to in the main manuscript. Please label these supplementary figures/tables as S1, S2, S3, etc. Full details on how to submit supporting data, can be found at

Permission to include other’s work
Permission to reproduce material within the manuscript must be obtained in advance by the corresponding author. Refer to the organisation responsible for managing the rights of the original author. Expect this to take up to six weeks. Once granted, upload a copy of the approval as a supporting file. Full attribution to the source must be made in the figure caption.

All submissions to Pediatric Anesthesia should conform to the
uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, drawn up by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) see

General requirements
All submissions should include the following:

Main document

  2. Title and running head (short title);
  3. Article category;
  4. First name, middle initial (if any) and family name of all authors – no degree/titles/ positions of responsibility. All those listed as authors must fulfil the ICMJE criteria – see above;
  5. Affiliations should be written after the authors list as follows and linked to authors with corresponding superscript number. Only include: Department, division or unit name in English, (if any), affiliation name, city(without state), country;
  6. Corresponding author details should be written after the affiliations list as follows: title (Mr/Mrs/Ms/Dr/Prof), first name(s) written with initials only, and followed by the last name – e.g. Dr. J. E. Smith; add Department, division or unit name in English, (if any), affiliation name, street address, city, postal code, country. Email address;
  7. For research reports only, add 1-2 sentences answering the following questions in bullet points:
    a. What is already known
    b. What this article adds
  8. A structured abstract for research reports with a clearly stated background, aim, method, results and conclusion;
  9. A summary for educational reviews, systematic reviews special interest articles and case reports
  10. Six MeSH-compliant keywords ( that do not replicate the title
  11. Disclosures: Indicate at the end of the text before references: 1. Any necessary ethical approval(s); 2. The source of funding for the study with grant numbers; and 3. Any conflict of interest. You are required to make a statement, even if the answer is ‘none’.
  12. A reference list in Vancouver style (number/author) endnotes in the order made in the text. Example: confirmed by other studies.23 / 23 Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. BMJ 2009; 339: b2535. For books, names and initials of all authors, the full title, place of publication, publisher, year of publication and page number should be given.
  13. Tables – if any, in tabulate text at the end of the main document, following the references. DO NOT submit tables as separate files. Tables submitted as pictures cannot be used.
  14. Figure captions – if any, in a list following the references/ tables. (Figures must be uploaded additionally as individual graphic files. Please do not embed figures.) Figures embedded in word cannot be used by the publisher. Figures should be submitted as single separate image files: either resolution independent EPS files, or high resolution (600dpi at print size) TIFF files.

Supporting information/additional files if appropriate
1. Figures – prepared and labelled as advised in ‘PRE-SUBMISSION ADVICE AND PREPARATION’ above.
2. Audio/ Video - prepared as advised in ‘PRE-SUBMISSION ADVICE AND PREPARATION’ above. Please use the file designation 'audio/video data'.
3. Supplementary data - prepared and labelled as advised in ‘PRE-SUBMISSION ADVICE AND PREPARATION’ above. Please use the file designation 'supporting data'.
4. Study protocol – the appropriate study protocol (see ‘Guidelines on specific papers’ below)
5. Consent for publication– A completed / signed parental/patient consent form should be uploaded onto S1M as file designation 'Publication consent'. Download the links given in ‘POLICIES’, above.
6. Online video broadcast release – a completed form should be uploaded onto S1M as file designation 'online broadcast release'. Download the links given in ‘POLICIES’, above.
7. Permission – if reproducing others work (see ‘PRE-SUBMISSION ADVICE’ above).

Accepted article types
Research reports – Research reports should follow the "Minimal standards for reporting in Pediatric Anesthesia".
Clinical Implications, please add 1-2 sentences answering the following questions:
a. What is already known about the topic
b. What new information this study adds
A structured abstract of no more than 300 words should include the following: Background; Aims; Methods; Results; Conclusions.
Maximum words – 3500; maximum figures and tables – 6; maximum references – 25. Word counts include all text from the introduction to the end of the text after the disclosures.

Educational Reviews - Educational reviews should have the following structure: Introduction, Main Article, Summary, Reflective questions, References. Present 3-4 reflective questions that the reader should ponder upon when they have assimilated the knowledge within the article.
Summary of no more than 300 words.
Maximum words – 5000-6000; maximum references – 20. Word counts include all text and references.

Systematic reviews – Systematic reviews are encouraged and should include a clear aim and search strategy. If the review is a meta-analysis it should be submitted and structured as a research report with an abstract, background methods, results discussion, and a clearly articulated aim, search strategy etc.
Summary of no more than 300 words giving information on methods of selecting the publications cited.
Maximum words – 4000; maximum figures and tables – 6; maximum references – no limit. Word counts include all text from the introduction to the end of the text after the disclosures.

Special interest articles – Novel papers that are neither research reports nor reviews on specific topics will be considered if they have a great and broad interest to the specialty.
Summary of no more than 300 words.
Maximum words – 4000; maximum figures and tables – 6; maximum references – no limit. Word counts include all text from the introduction to the end of the text after the disclosures.

Case reports – only exceptional reports that have important education or safety messages will be considered. Our current rejection rate is 90%. Conclude with 3 learning points for our readers. All case reports require parental/ patient consent for publication.
Summary of no more than 100 words.
Maximum words – 1000; maximum figures or tables – 1; maximum references – 5 Word counts include all text and references.

Editorials - Editorials are usually by invitation. They should be less than 1500 words and should refer to a paper in the issue within the first two sentences. They should have less than 6 references and no tables or figures. Usually they should have 3 or fewer authors.

Correspondence – Letters to the editor are encouraged, particularly if they comment, question or criticize research reports that have been published in the journal. Such letters MUST refer to the research reports in the first paragraph, and list that paper as reference 1.
Letters that describe cases are only considered if they have an important safety message and require parental/ patient consent for publication.
Maximum words – 800; maximum figures and tables – 1; maximum references – 5.
Word counts include all text and references.

Guidelines for specific papers
Randomised clinical trials (RCTs)
must conform to the CONSORT statement ( on the reporting of RCTs. A flow diagram of subjects, the trial protocol, and the registration details of the trial must be included in the paper, along with and a numbered checklist provided as supplementary material. Clinical trials MUST be registered prior to the start of the trial.

Diagnostic studies must conform to the STARD statement  A flow diagram of subjects, the trial protocol, and the registration details of the trial must be included in the paper along with and a checklist provided as supplementary material.

Qualitative research – authors should refer to the EQUATOR NETWORK resource guidance on good research reporting (, which has the full suite of reporting guidelines (both quantitative and qualitative).

Observational studies (Epidemiology): Please follow the STROBE guidelines http:// and submit the study protocol as supplementary material.

Systematic reviews/ meta-analysis of randomised trials and other evaluation studies must conform to PRISMA guidelines (these have superseded the QUOROM guidelines) and submit the study protocol as supplementary material.

Submissions must have been read and approved by all authors. Submission of a manuscript implies that it reports unpublished work and that it is not under active consideration for publication elsewhere, nor been accepted for publication, nor been published in full or in part (except in abstract form).

All material to be considered for publication in Pediatric Anesthesia should be submitted via the journal's online submission system at ScholarOne Manuscripts

Full instructions and support are available on the site and a user ID and password can be obtained on the first visit. If you have any queries please contact Lou Whelan, Pediatric Anesthesia Editorial Office:

Once you are ready to submit, check:
Your main document conforms to our requirements;
Figures are uploaded as graphic files;
Supporting documents are uploaded and designated correctly; and
You have completed all submission steps
   ensure the DISCLOSURE section (step 5) is correct.

Failure to do so will result in your files returned to your author centre. You will receive an email detailing corrections required.

Copyright transfe
If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service(WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by certain funders [e.g. The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) or the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)] you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

Journal policy states authors pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour artwork. On acceptance of your paper for publication, if you would like for your figures to appear in colour complete and sign the Colour Work Agreement Form (CWAF). This form is available via or


Once completed, please return the form to Customer Service at the following address:
Customer Services (OPI)
John Wiley & Sons Ltd
European Distribution Centre
New Era Estate
Oldlands Way
Bognor Regis
West Sussex
PO22 9NQ

Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author and should be returned within 48 hours of receipt to avoid delay in publication. Overseas contributors should ensure that a rapid airmail service is used. Authors are encouraged to use E-annotation tools available in Adobe Acrobat Professional or Acrobat Reader (version 7.0 or above) to e-annotate the PDF copy of their proofs, which can be returned electronically.

Open Access Publishing

OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available openly on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is openly available
  upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see

Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at

Prior to acceptance, there is no requirement to inform the Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

arly View
Pediatric Anesthesia has an Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after Early View publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which, if cited with the journal name and year of publication. allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

Author Services
Online production tracking is available for your article through
  Author Services.
Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production so they don’t need to contact the production editor to check on progress. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Free access to the final PDF offprint of your article will be available only via Author Services. Please therefore sign up for Author Services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers.

Additional paper offprints may be ordered online. Please click on the following link, fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields: Offprint.Cosprinters . If you have queries about offprints please email

Back issues
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