Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism

Cover image for Vol. 16 Issue 9

Edited By: R. Donnelly and A. Garber

Impact Factor: 5.456

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 17/123 (Endocrinology & Metabolism)

Online ISSN: 1463-1326

Virtual Issue on Review Articles


FREE access to a virtual issue containing pertinent reviews from Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism

Review of Reviews: a virtual issue
Richard IG Holt*

I.Introduction

In January last year Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism launched a new initiative to widen access to its review articles by making a virtual issue of a selection of reviews that had appeared in 2012 freely available on the journal website. This proved to be a popular service and so we have decided to repeat the venture this year.

During 2013 we have accepted articles on classes of drug (1-5) as well as specific drugs (6-10) and therapeutic choices (11). We have also looked at side effects of treatments, such as the risk of fracture (12), hypoglycaemia (13) and the safety of GLP-1 receptor agonists (14). Treatment or prevention of complications of diabetes has also featured (15;16). Reviews have covered specific patient populations such as pregnancy (17), the critically ill (18) and those with severe obesity and insulin resistance (19). We have examined lifestyle and social issues relating to diabetes, both in terms of treatment options (20-22) and how treatments can affect social issues (23). There have been articles on new technologies (24;25) and finally there have been articles on the concepts of treatment (26-29) and the challenges facing diabetes trials when addressing the burning clinical questions facing people with diabetes (30;31).

Given the breadth and depth of the review articles, once again, selecting 10 articles to appear in the virtual issue was challenging and in the end a personal choice. I have tended towards more general papers rather than those focussed towards a single drug.

The first three papers cover the role of different oral anti-hyperglycaemic drugs. The concerns about cardiovascular and skeletal side effects of thiazolidinediones have led to a marked reduction in their use but Consoli and colleagues argue that there may still be a role for these drugs (1). Over the last two years, sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors have entered the clinical arena, targeting the kidney as a means of controlling hyperglycaemia in people with type 2 diabetes. The promise of these drugs is considered by Chen and colleagues (2). On the other hand, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are now firmly established in clinical practice and are frequently used in combination with metformin, which is the subject of the review by Liu and colleagues (3). There is an on-going debate about safety of incretin based therapies which is discussed in the next article by Seufert and Gallwitz (14). The authors also discuss some of the potentially more beneficial extra pancreatic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists.

Hypoglycaemia and weight gain are major limitations to obtaining tight glycaemic control for people using insulin. Whether the new basal analogues offer advantages over the older human insulin is considered by Garber (4). Glucose variability is emerging as an important clinical measurement affecting the risk of complication and hypoglycaemia; many people with diabetes are frustrated by day-to-day differences in glucose measurements despite doing ostensibly the same thing. Although many factors may account for this, pharmacokinetics may play a role and the variability of basal insulin preparations is considered in the next review by Vora and Heise (26).

New technologies for insulin administration, particularly those that can be automated, are a major goal for diabetes care. The article by Bakhtiani and colleagues reminds us of the importance of remembering that the hormonal abnormalities of diabetes are not confined to insulin alone and that we forget glucagon at our peril (24). Creating algorithms to manage glucose without input from the person with diabetes are challenging because of the many variables affecting glycaemia. Safety is paramount to prevent disabling hypoglycaemia and changes in exercise patterns can change the use of glucose rapidly. Progress, however, has been made in in-patients, particularly overnight, and is discussed by Thabit and Hovorka (25).

There has been much thought given to the design of diabetes trials to ensure that they meet the needs of clinicians and people with diabetes. The treat-to-target trials are mandated by regulatory bodies and allow us to compare safety of different treatments but not. Perhaps a move towards composite patient related end-points may be more relevant to those with diabetes. These trial issues are considered by Garber and Einarson and colleagues in their articles (30;31). I hope you enjoy this virtual issue as much as last year’s and hope that it inspires you to seek out the other reviews that I was unable to include.

Conflict of Interest: RH is the Reviews Editor of Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism

II. Articles

Do thiazolidinediones still have a role in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus?
Consoli A, Formoso G.

Inhibition of the sodium glucose co-transporter-2: its beneficial action and potential combination therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Chen LH, Leung PS.

Combination therapy of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and metformin in type 2 diabetes: rationale and evidence.
Liu Y, Hong T.

The extra-pancreatic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists: a focus on the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems.
Seufert J, Gallwitz B.

Will the next generation of basal insulins offer clinical advantages?
Garber AJ.

Variability of glucose-lowering effect as a limiting factor in optimizing basal insulin therapy: a review.
Vora J, Heise T.

A review of artificial pancreas technologies with an emphasis on bi-hormonal therapy.
Bakhtiani PA, Zhao LM, El YJ, Castle JR, et al.

Glucose control in non-critically ill inpatients with diabetes: towards closed-loop.
Thabit H, Hovorka R.

Treat-to-target trials: uses, interpretation and review of concepts.
Garber AJ.

Composite endpoints in trials of type-2 diabetes.
Einarson TR, Garg M, Kaur V, et al.

III Reference List

(1) Consoli A, Formoso G. Do thiazolidinediones still have a role in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus? Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Nov;15(11):967-77.

(2) Chen LH, Leung PS. Inhibition of the sodium glucose co-transporter-2: its beneficial action and potential combination therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 May;15(5):392-402.

(3) Liu Y, Hong T. Combination therapy of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and metformin in type 2 diabetes: rationale and evidence. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 May 13.

(4) Garber AJ. Will the next generation of basal insulins offer clinical advantages? Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Oct 4.

(5) Madsbad S. The role of glucagon-like peptide-1 impairment in obesity and potential therapeutic implications. Diabetes Obes Metab 2014 Jan;16(1):9-21.

(6) Wysham C, Grimm M, Chen S. Once weekly exenatide: efficacy, tolerability and place in therapy. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Oct;15(10):871-81.

(7) Schmidt L, Habacher W, Augustin T, Krahulec E, Semlitsch T. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of lixisenatide in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab 2014 Jan 29.

(8) Bolli GB, Owens DR. Lixisenatide, a novel GLP-1 receptor agonist: efficacy, safety and clinical implications for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Dec 24.

(9) Josse RG, Woo V. Flexibly timed once-daily dosing with degludec: a new ultra-long-acting basal insulin. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Dec;15(12):1077-84.

(10) Frier BM, Russell-Jones D, Heise T. A comparison of insulin detemir and neutral protamine Hagedorn (isophane) insulin in the treatment of diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Nov;15(11):978-86.

(11) Hirsch IB, Buse JB, Leahy J, McGill JB, Peters A, Rodbard HW, et al. Options for prandial glucose management in type 2 diabetes patients using basal insulin: addition of a short-acting GLP-1 analogue versus progression to basal-bolus therapy. Diabetes Obes Metab 2014 Mar;16(3):206-14.

(12) Montagnani A, Gonnelli S. Antidiabetic therapy effects on bone metabolism and fracture risk. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Sep;15(9):784-91.

(13) Desjardins K, Brazeau AS, Strychar I, Rabasa-Lhoret R. Are bedtime nutritional strategies effective in preventing nocturnal hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes? Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Nov 8.

(14) Seufert J, Gallwitz B. The extra-pancreatic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists: a focus on the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Dec 24.

(15) Uckay I, Gariani K, Pataky Z, Lipsky BA. Diabetic foot infections: state-of-the-art. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Aug 2.

(16) Garg SK, Maurer H, Reed K, Selagamsetty R. Diabetes and cancer: two diseases with obesity as a common risk factor. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 May 13.

(17) Lambert K, Holt RI. The use of insulin analogues in pregnancy. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Oct;15(10):888-900.

(18) Deane AM, Horowitz M. Dysglycaemia in the critically ill - significance and management. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Sep;15(9):792-801.

(19) Jones P, Idris I. The use of U-500 regular insulin in the management of patients with obesity and insulin resistance. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Oct;15(10):882-7.

(20) Petry NM, Cengiz E, Wagner JA, Hood KK, Carria L, Tamborlane WV. Incentivizing behaviour change to improve diabetes care. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Dec;15(12):1071-6.

(21) Solomon TP, Thyfault JP. Type 2 diabetes sits in a chair. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Nov;15(11):987-92.

(22) Christie D, Channon S. The potential for motivational interviewing to improve outcomes in the management of diabetes and obesity in paediatric and adult populations: a clinical review. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Aug 8.

(23) Inkster B, Frier BM. Diabetes and driving. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Sep;15(9):775-83.

(24) Bakhtiani PA, Zhao LM, El YJ, Castle JR, Ward WK. A review of artificial pancreas technologies with an emphasis on bi-hormonal therapy. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Dec;15(12):1065-70.

(25) Thabit H, Hovorka R. Glucose control in non-critically ill inpatients with diabetes: towards closed-loop. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Nov 1.

(26) Vora J, Heise T. Variability of glucose-lowering effect as a limiting factor in optimizing basal insulin therapy: a review. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Aug;15(8):701-12.

(27) Herring R, Jones RH, Russell-Jones DL. Hepatoselectivity and the evolution of insulin. Diabetes Obes Metab 2014 Jan;16(1):1-8.

(28) Rossetti P, Ampudia-Blasco FJ, Ascaso JF. Old and New Basal Insulin Formulations: Understanding Pharmacodynamics is Still Relevant in Clinical Practice. Diabetes Obes Metab 2014 Jan 8.

(29) O'Keefe L, Simcocks AC, Hryciw DH, Mathai ML, McAinch AJ. The cannabinoid receptor 1 and its role in influencing peripheral metabolism. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Jun 19.

(30) Garber AJ. Treat-to-target trials: uses, interpretation and review of concepts. Diabetes Obes Metab 2014 Mar;16(3):193-205.

(31) Einarson TR, Garg M, Kaur V, Hemels ME. Composite endpoints in trials of type-2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013 Oct 22.

*Richard IG Holt
Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, UK
Address for Correspondence: Professor Richard IG Holt, IDS Building (MP887), Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
Tel: +44 23 8079 4665 Fax: +44 23 8079 5255
e-mail: R.I.G.Holt@southampton.ac.uk

 

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