Zoologica Scripta

Cover image for Vol. 45 Issue 5

Edited By: Per Sundberg

Impact Factor: 2.733

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 12/160 (Zoology); 24/45 (Evolutionary Biology)

Online ISSN: 1463-6409

Author Guidelines

For the journals Aims and Scope please click on this link

Manuscripts should not have been published previously, or submitted simultaneously to any other journal. Manuscripts must be written in English and should be linguistically correct. Non-native speakers are strongly encouraged to have the language checked prior to submission.

Papers should be submitted online at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/zsc. Full upload instructions and support are available online from the submission site via the 'Get Help Now' option. Please submit your covering letter or comments to the editor when prompted online.

Retain the original figures until the manuscript has been accepted for publication.

Contributions should preferably not exceed 15 printed pages (including figures, tables and references), and authors may be asked to pay a page charge if this limit is exceeded. Authors are encouraged to make use of the opportunity to publish supplementary material (online only) along with the manuscript. More lengthy contributions can be considered - but please contact the Chief Editor for further information prior to submission.

Molecular sequences should be deposited in GenBank, and authors are encouraged to deposit anatomical images in MorphoBank database. Authors are strongly encouraged to deposit voucher specimens for DNA, and to desposit alignments in e.g. the EMBL database.

Manuscripts not strictly conforming to the instructions will be returned without further consideration.

Data matrices/list of characters

To help improve the readability of articles, authors are encouraged to place data matrices/list of characters as supplementary information online only. See below for instructions.

All text, including figure legends must be typed in one column only, with 1.5 line spacing and no less than 3 cm margins on all sides. Page numbers and name of first author should be placed at the upper right of all text pages except the first. Please do not use right alignment and do not hyphenate words at the end of lines. Descriptions and diagnoses should be written in strict telegraphic style.

Scientific names
Names of species and genera should be italicized or underlined. Spell out the entire scientific name the first time a species is mentioned; thereafter, abbreviate the generic part of the name (first letter and period) except at the beginning of a paragraph or sentence. New taxa should be indicated by the Latin abbreviations 'sp. n.', 'gen. n.' etc, and should be mentioned in the abstract. Use SI units and appropriate standard abbreviations.

Spell out numbers one through nine; for 10 and above, use numerals. For measured quantities (6 mm, 3 days, 4 years, etc.) use numerals. For sections written in telegraphic style, use numerals throughout.

Online-only material
Since space of the printed paper is at premium, the journal requires that material such as multimedia adjuncts, large data sets, extra colour illustrations, bibliographies, or any other material for which insufficient space is available shall be published online as supplementary material to save space. Here, also figures and drawings absolutely not essential for understanding the content can be placed. Details of the supplementary material will be given at the end of the printed paper. Please click here for our supplementary material guidelines.

N.B. Please upload supplementary material when submitting the paper to make sure it is available to the reviewers, even if later to be published on the web only.


Title page
Type at the upper left, name, address, telephone number, email address  and, if available, fax number of the author to whom all correspondence should be sent. The title should be written in lower case letters and include the scientific name(s) of higher taxa (within parentheses and separated by commas) to indicate taxonomic position, but should not include Latin species names. Titles should not include authors of taxa. Below the title, type the author(s) name(s) in capitals with one Christian name spelled out. Further down, type a short running title of up to 45 characters and, on a line below this, the authors name(s) (if more than two, type the first authors name followed by et al.).

Titles should not exceed 120 characters and should be written to emphasize the area of interest, rather than taxonomic details.

The length of the abstract should not exceed 3% of the length of the text of the article. All newly described taxa must be given by name. Do not use paragraphs in the abstract. Write the abstract on a separate page, arranged as in the following example:

Sundberg, P. (2010) Ribbon worm (Nemertea) systematics in the 21st century. Zoologica Scripta, 00, 000-000.
Systematic developments in the phylum Nemertea are reviewed and shown to … Per Sundberg, Department of Zoology, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 463, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. E-mail per.sundberg@zool.gu.se

Do not centre any headings. Four levels may be used:

Principal heading
Placed on a separate line and followed by a blank line. Used for Introduction, Material and methods etc.

First subheading
Italicized, on a separate line, and followed by a blank line.

Second subheading. Italicized and followed by text on the same line. Should be used in taxonomic descriptions for Diagnosis, Remarks etc.

   Third subheading. Indented, italicized and followed by text on the same line. Used in taxonomic descriptions for information holotype, paratypes, etymology, etc.

Description of taxa
Descriptions of new taxa should be arranged as in the following example:

Genus Pachygnatha Sundevall, 1823
Pachygnatha atromarginata sp. n. (Figs 100-111)
   Holotype. m, CAMEROON, Mount Koupé, 1600 m, rain forest, 8 February 1983, Bosmans & Bosselaers (sweep net), (MRAC).
   Paratypes. Same data as for holotype, 4 mm 8ff W (MRAC).
   Other material. Mount Koupé, 1300 m, rain forest, 1f, 31 January 1983 (pitfall trap); 1f, 2 February 1983 (sweep net) (MRAC Mount Koupé, 900 m, rain forest, 1 m (subadult) 2ff, 31 January 1983 (pitfall trap), Bosmans & Bosselaers (all MRAC).
   Etymology. The name refers to the dark, reticulated marginal zone of the carapace.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished by the shape of the paracymbium (Fig. 103) and the vulvar morphology (Fig. 111) in the female.

Male (holotype). Total body length 2.38mm, 1 car 1.15mm, 1 stern 0.66 mm, 1 abd 1.45 mm, w car 0.93 mm ...
Female (paratype). Total body length 3.03mm ...

The complete data of the holotype and paratypes, and the institutions in which they are deposited, must be recorded in the original description. All material examined should be listed in similar format: localities should be cited in order of increasing precision as in the examples; names of countries should be in capitals. Sex symbols will be used in the journal; abbreviations used to indicate sex must be clearly stated in the manuscript.

Redescriptions of taxa should be arranged as in the following example:

Genus Phyllodoce Lamarck, 1818
Phyllodoce citrina Malmgren, 1865: Fig. 2.
Phyllodore citrina Malmgren, 1865: 95-96, pl. XIII, fig. 24.
Phyllodoce badia Malmgren, 1867: 22, pl. II, fig. 6.
Anaitides citrina Bergström 1914: 140-141, fig. 41; Eliason 1962a: 18; Hartmann-Schröder 1971: 105-107, fig. 33D-F; Uschakov 1972: 136-137, pl. V, figs 5, 6.
   Material examined. Phyllodoce citrina: 3 syntypes from Spitsbergen (SMNH type collection 2419 and 2420); 1 syntype from Spitsbergen (BMNH 1865.9.23.3); about 30 specimens from Wales, Shetland, western Norway, Spitsbergen, and Greenland (SMNH, MZB); about 10 specimens from the Arctic, Bering Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk (ZIL). Phyllodoce badia: several syntypes (at least 4 specimens and some fragments) from Bohuslän, Sweden (SMNH type collection 2423).

Pre-submission English-language editing
Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at www.Wiley Blackwell.com/bauthor/english_language.asp. Japanese authors can also find a list of local English improvement services at http://www.wiley.co.jp/journals/editcontribute.html. All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

Literature citations and reference list

References in Articles
We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting.

EndNote reference styles can be searched for here: http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp

Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here: http://www.refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp

Arrangements of citations and reference list generally follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 4th edition.

Citations in the text should read: Smith (1987) described..., or Smith (1987, 1988).. ., or Smith & Brown (1986)..., or Smith et al. (1983)..., or '(Smith 1977, 1978; Berg & Brown 1980; Smith et al 1984a, b; Warén & Bouchet 1986: figs. 17-21; Cook 1988: 3).... Note that a comma should only be interposed between author of a scientific name and the year of its publication to indicate authorship.

Author names should be arranged in alphabetical order in the reference list. If more than one paper by an author is cited for the same year, distinguish these papers by a, b, c, etc., after the year. Names of all co-authors should be given in the reference list. Specify figures or plates if these appear outside the pagination of a reference. Titles of journals should not he abbreviated.

Goloboff, P. A., Farris, J. S. & Nixon, K. C. (2008). TNT, a free program for phylogenetic analysis. Cladistics, 24, 774-786.

N.B. Journal titles should not be abbreviated

Parenti, L. R. & Ebach, M. (2009). Comparative biogeography. Berkely: University of California Press.

Article in book
Andrew, C. J. (2007). The grid and biodiversity informatics. In G. B. Curry % C. J. Humphries (Eds) Biodiversity databases. Techniques, politics and applications (pp. 83-82). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Computer programs
Swofford, D. L. 1993. PAUP - Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony. Ver. 3. 1. [Computer software and manual]. Champaign, Illinois: Illinois Natural History Survey.

On-line source
Eriksson, T. (1996, June). AutoDecay version 2.9.2. Available via http:/www.botan.su.se/systematik/Folk/Torsten.html

Figures and tables

Please consult our Electronic Artwork Information for Authors guidelines for the preparation of electronic artwork.

Graphs, drawings and photographs are figures and should be numbered consecutively as Fig. 1, Figs 2-4, Fig. 7C-F, etc. Tables are referred to as Table 1, Table 2, etc. (Roman numerals).

Adjust the size of the lettering and the thickness of the lines on illustrations according to intended reduction so that lettering size match in print, and make sure that lines do not disappear in reduction. 

In the case of sectional figures, label each sub-figure A, B, C etc. The letters should appear 3-4 mm high in print. Other capital letters in the figures should appear about 2 mm high in print, lower case letters correspondingly smaller, but not less than 1 mm.

Abbreviations used in one or more figures should be explained, in a new paragraph at the end of the legend of the first figure where the abbreviations are used, e.g.:
Abbreviations: a, atrium; CS, copulatory sac; py, pygidium; ...

Half-tone illustrations should be submitted in electronic form wherever possible. If originals are supplied they they must be trimmed at right angles and in the desired final size. The mounted prints should be trimmed to show only the essential features and mounted on white cardboard with a 1-3 mm space between those arranged in groups. Where necessary indicate the top of the figure.

Photographs in colour are accepted only if printed at the authors expense. Please see below for details.

Each figure or group of figures should be planned to fit into the area of either one or two columns of text. Drawings and photographs should not be included in the same group. The maximum width of a one column illustration is 80 mm and of a two column illustration 169 mm; the maximum height of illustrations is 218 mm (but this should normally also include the legend). The size of submitted figures should not exceed A3, i.e. 420 × 297 mm.

Do not submit original illustrations before the paper is accepted for publication. If the author wishes artwork to be returned after publication, this must be clearly stated on submission; artwork is otherwise not normally returned after publication.

Figure legends should be listed on separate sheets at the end of the manuscript and arranged as in the following example:

Fig. 1. A-C. Fenestrulina antarctica sp. n. - A. An autozooid, × 60. - B. An ovicelled autozooid, × 60. - C. Detail to show orifice, ascopore and stellate frontal pores, × 160 - D, E. Smittoidea pugiuncula sp. n. - D. A group of autozooids, × 50. - E. Detail of a condyle, × 2200.

Approximate positions of both figures and tables should be indicated in the left-hand margin of the manuscript.

Tables should not include any vertical lines.  See example.

Colour figures

It is the policy of Zoologica Scripta for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour work. If there is colour artwork in your manuscript when accepted for publication, Wiley Blackwell require you to complete and return a colour work agreement form before your paper can be published. This form can be downloaded as a PDF* from the internet here: Colour Work Agreement Form.
If you have problems downloading the form please contact the Production Editor (zsc@wiley.com).

Please post or courier all pages of your completed form to:

Customer Services (OPI)
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, European Distribution Centre
New Era Estate
Oldlands Way
Bognor Regis
West Sussex
PO22 9NQ

*PDF files can be read using the free Acrobat Reader available to download from: http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html

Copyright Transfer Agreement Form
If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp and visit http://www.wileyopenaccess.com/details/content/12f25db4c87/Copyright--License.html.

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit: http://www.wiley.com/go/funderstatement.

Files should be formatted double-spaced with no hyphenation and automatic wordwrap (no hard returns within paragraphs). Please type your text consistently, e.g. take care to distinguish between 1 (one) and l (lower-case L) and 0 (zero) and O (capital o), etc.

Tables should be typed as text, using tabs to align columns. The use of table editors should be avoided. Do not use graphics software to create tables.

In-line equations should be typed as text. The use of graphics programs and equation editors should be avoided. Displayed equations are re-keyed by our typesetter.

Please send us digital versions of your figures if at all possible. EPS and TIFF files are preferable, but please consult our Electronic Artwork Information for Authors guidelines for further details. Please note that your paper will go through production more quickly if the figures do not have to be relabelled or redrawn. Please ensure that electronic artwork is prepared such that, after reduction to fit across one or two columns or two-thirds width (80 mm, 169 mm or 110 mm, respectively) as required, all lettering will be clear and easy to read, i.e. no labels should be too large or too small. Avoid using tints if possible; if they are essential to the understanding of the figure, try to make them coarse.  No artwork should be incorporated into the text files.

Author material archive policy

Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley Blackwell will dispose of all submitted hardcopy or electronic material  two months post-publication. If you require the return of any submitted material, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible if you have not yet done so.


The corresponding author will receive an email alert containing a link to a web site. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from this site. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following web site:


This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Excessive changes made by the author in the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately.


A free PDF offprint can be retrieved by the author via Author Services. Additional offprints may be ordered, at extra cost, via an online ordering system. Details will be sent with paper proofs. Offprint orders received after publication incur a surcharge.

Online-only supplementary material

Nota bene: appendices are no longer used. Additional material (such as multimedia adjuncts, large data sets, extra colour illustrations, bibliographies, or any other material for which insufficient space is available) may be able to be published online as supplementary material. Details of the available material will be given at the end of the printed paper. Please click here for our supplementary material guidelines.


OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, please see here .

Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website, here .

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.