International Nursing Review

Cover image for Vol. 61 Issue 4

Edited By: Sue Turale

Impact Factor: 0.736

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 72/105 (Nursing (Social Science)); 75/107 (Nursing (Science))

Online ISSN: 1466-7657

Author Guidelines


International Nursing Review (INR) is the official journal of the International Council of Nurses (ICN). It is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal that focuses predominantly on nursing and health policy issues of relevance to nurses. INR welcomes original articles that help to forward ICN’s global mission by representing nursing, advancing the profession and shaping health policy. ICN also contributes to the ongoing development of nursing internationally with its regular section on International Perspectives. The diverse international readership of INR is located in more than 130 countries. Published both in hard copy and on-line, INR is a key resource for nurses and health policy makers worldwide.

INR encourages unsolicited original manuscripts where nurses describe the policy relevance of their work and document their experience and research. Authors are encouraged to develop a ‘global intelligence’ on nursing and to address INR’s diverse audience by exploring beyond local or national interests to the more general, global application of the principles underlying their work. Background information on the local arrangements for nursing and health care in a country also provides useful context for this global readership. Policy concerns of this journal are as follows: regulation of the profession, workplace issues, innovations in practice, patient safety, quality improvement education, ethics, nurses’ and midwives’ work-life experiences, and the impact of globalization and technology on nursing and health and social policy.

Authors reporting studies conducted in countries other than their own should, wherever possible, involve local authors when writing their articles. All contributed assistance should be acknowledged, including financial support and any conflicts of interest.

For those interested in the Wiley-Blackwell policy on the NIH Public Access Mandate, please visit our policy statement

Please read the instructions below carefully for details on the submission of manuscripts, the journal's requirements and standards as well as information concerning the procedure after a manuscript has been accepted for publication in International Nursing Review.

Authors are encouraged to visit Wiley-Blackwell Author Services for further information on the preparation and submission of articles and figures.

Given our rapid review process, we do not accept pre-submission enquiries for original research papers. For guidance on “fit” to the Journal, authors should read our Guidelines and examine recent published issues before making a decision about whether or not to submit


In keeping with INR's aim and scope above, preference is given to manuscripts that address nursing and health policy and related topics.

We accept empirical and non-empirical research studies, literature reviews and short communications. In these authors need to address the implications of their work for nursing and health policy in the abstract, literature review, discussion and conclusions/recommendations sections.

Authors reporting studies conducted in countries other than their own should, wherever possible, involve local authors when writing their articles. All contributed assistance should be acknowledged, including financial support and any conflicts of interest.

For those interested in the Wiley-Blackwell policy on the NIH Public Access Mandate, please visit our policy statement.

Please read the instructions below carefully for details on the submission of manuscripts, the journal's requirements and standards as well as information concerning the procedure after a manuscript has been accepted for publication in International Nursing Review.

Authors are encouraged to visit Wiley-Blackwell Author Services for further information on the preparation and submission of articles and figures.


International Nursing Review adheres to the below ethical guidelines for publication and research.

3.1. Authorship and Acknowledgements

Authorship: Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors and that all authors agree to the submission of the manuscript to the Journal. All authors must have agreed on the final version of the paper and must meet at least one of the following criteria (based on those recommended by the ICMJE):
1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data
2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content.
Contributors who do not qualify as authors should be mentioned under Acknowledgements.

3.2 Source of Funding statement

Authors are required to specify any sources of funding (institutional, private and corporate financial support) for the work reported in their paper. This information, in the form of the name of the funding organisation/s and the grant number -or should be included in the title page under the heading ‘Funding’, and provided at the time of submitting the paper. If there was no funding, the following wording should be used: “This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.” Any suppliers of materials should be named and their location (town, state/county, country) included if appropriate. This information will be included in the published article.

3.3 Conflict of Interest statement

Authors are required to disclose any possible conflict of interest when submitting a paper. These can include financial conflicts of interest e.g. patent ownership, stock ownership, consultancies, speaker's fee. All conflict of interest (or information specifying the absence of conflict of interest) should be included in the title page under ‘Conflicts of Interest’. This information will be included in the published article. If the author does not have any conflict of interest the following statement should be included: “No conflict of interest has been declared by the author(s).”

Editors of INR are encouraged to publish in the journal. To avoid conflicts of interest, editors do not process their own papers. If a member of the editorial team is submitting to INR, then the ScholarOne system prevents them from viewing any details related to their paper and also prevents the Editor-in-Chief from allocating the paper to them for review, regardless of their place in the authorship of the paper. If the Editor-in-Chief is submitting a paper then the Editorial Assistant is informed and the paper allocated to another editor for processing. Editors are also urged to be aware of other potential conflicts of interest such as processing papers by collaborators and colleagues. Such situations are unavoidable but editors are expected to exercise discretion and fairness regardless of any proximity to submitting authors.

3.4 Ethical Approvals

Experimental Subjects: experimentation involving human subjects will only be published if such research has been conducted in full accordance with ethical principles, including the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki (2008) and the additional requirements, if any, of the country where the research has been carried out. Manuscripts must be accompanied by a statement that the experiments were undertaken with the understanding and written consent of each subject and according to the above mentioned principles. A statement regarding the fact that the study has been independently reviewed and approved by an ethical board should also be included. Editors reserve the right to reject papers if there are doubts as to whether appropriate procedures have been used.

3.5 Appeal of Decision

Authors who wish to appeal the decision on their submitted paper may do so by e-mailing the editorial office with a detailed explanation for why they find reasons to appeal the decision.

3.6 Permissions

If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publishers.

3.7 Copyright Assignment

Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the work and its essential substance have not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. The articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers translation rights and the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute all of the articles printed in the journal. The work shall not be published elsewhere in any language without the written consent of the publisher. No material published in the journal may be stored on microfilm or videocassettes, in electronic databases and the like, or reproduced photographically without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Correspondence to the journal is accepted on the understanding that the contributing author licences the publisher to publish the letter as part of the journal or separately from it, in the exercise of any subsidiary rights relating to the journal and its contents.

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below: CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:


International Nursing Review prefers to receive all manuscript submissions electronically using ScholarOne Manuscripts. To submit a manuscript, please follow the instructions below.

4.1 Getting Started

1.Launch your web browser and go to the International Nursing Review’s ScholarOne Manuscripts homepage (
2. Log-in or click the “Create Account” option if you are a first-time user of Manuscript Central.
3. After clicking on “Create Account”, enter your name and e-mail information and click “Next”. Your e-mail information is very important. Enter your institution and address information as appropriate, and then click “Next.” Enter a user ID and password of your choice (we recommend using your e-mail address as your user ID), and then select your area of expertise. Click “Finish”.

If you have an account but have forgotten your log in details, go to “Password Help” on the homepage and enter your email address. The system will send you an automatic user ID and password reminder.

4.2 Submitting Your Manuscript

After you have logged in, enter your Author Centre and click the “Submit a Manuscript” link. Enter data and answer questions as appropriate. Click the “Next” button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen. You are required to upload your files. Click on the “Browse” button and locate the file on your computer. Select the designation of each file in the drop down next to the Browse button. When you have selected all files you wish to upload, click the “Upload Files” button. Review your submission (in both PDF and HTML formats) before sending to the Journal. Click the “Submit” button when you are finished reviewing.

You may suspend a submission at any phase before clicking the “Submit” button and save it to submit later. After submission, you will receive a confirmation e-mail. You can also access ScholarOne Manuscripts at any time to check the status of your manuscript. The Journal will inform you by e-mail once a decision has been made.

4.3 Getting Help with Your Submission

Each page of the ScholarOne Manuscripts website has a ‘Get Help Now’ icon connecting directly to the online support system at Telephone support is available 24 hours a day, 5 days a week through the US ScholarOne Support Office on: 1 434 817 2040, ext 167. If you do not have Internet access or cannot submit online, please contact the Editorial office by e-mail at .

4.4 Blinded Review

All manuscripts submitted to International Nursing Review will be reviewed by two experts in the field. International Nursing Review uses double-blinded review. The names of the reviewers will thus not be disclosed to the author submitting a paper and the name(s) of the author(s) will not be disclosed to the reviewers. To allow double-blinded review, please submit your main manuscript and title page as separate files.


All manuscripts submitted to International Nursing Review should include:

Title Page: The title page must be a separate file; do not include it in the manuscript file. It must include a title of no more than 10 words; names, credentials (nursing qualifications, followed by academic, and then honours), job title, department and institution for each author; the name, address, telephone, fax and e-mail for the corresponding author; the source of funding statement; the conflict of interest statement; and any acknowledgements. NOTE: The author's name should appear only on the title page, not in the abstract or manuscript.

Main Text of Articles: Manuscripts must be in English, between 3000 and 6000 words in length inclusive of a 250-300 word abstract and no more than 40 references. Wherever possible and appropriate, references used should be within the last 5 years.

Authors should indicate the data sources for their articles. For example:

5.1. Empirical research study

An empirical research study consists of an article on original research that has not been previously published in its current format.
• Abstracts for reports of empirical studies should be between 250-300 words structured under appropriate headings and include the Aim, Background, Introduction, Methods, Results or Findings, Discussion, Conclusion and Implications for Nursing and/or Health Policy. It helps the 'flow' of the article if the abstract headings are used to structure the main text, where appropriate references in support of research methods should be cited. Dates of data collection should be given and should not be more than 4 years old.
• Up to 3 tables and/or figures may be included.
• Up to ten keywords in alphabetical order should follow the abstract including, if appropriate, the countries that are the subject of the article.
• Articles involving statistical methods should state the source of research subjects, selection methods, sample size, response rate and main results with confidence intervals and actual P values.
• The Discussion should consider the policy implications of the research, where appropriate, for governments, management, education and/or practice; including the global dimensions of the study.

5.2 Literature review

• Abstracts for literature reviews should follow the guidelines for empirical research studies. It helps the 'flow' of the article if the abstract headings are used to structure the main text.
• Reviews are normally published in a structured format and presented in a systematic way with aims, parameters (e.g. inclusion and exclusion criteria for articles, including dates), databases searched, key words used, a methodological critique of the papers included, and conclusions and suggestions for further research based on the findings.
• The findings included in literature reviews are normally summarized by means of a table, or tables, that demonstrate the key variables considered.

5.3 Other non-empirical research

Other non-empirical research manuscripts may be considered from the following sources:

• a description of innovative practice based on ICN or other guidelines;
• an audit of best practice;
• a theoretical critique;
• an opinion piece of international interest.

These manuscripts are subject to the normal peer review process and should be structured under appropriate headings. The abstract should normally include the article’s Aim, Background, Sources of evidence, Discussion, Conclusion and Implications for Nursing and Health Policy. It helps the 'flow' of the article if the abstract headings are used to structure the main text.

5.4 Short Communications

A Short Communication consists of a report up to 2000 words of which there are two categories:
- reports on research which is in progress or part of a larger project. The research should have ethical approval.
- reports and service innovations that do not aim to be comprehensive or necessarily research-oriented, which would not require ethical committee approval.

The authors are entirely responsible for the content which needs to be of interest to our international readership. All reports are subject to the normal peer review process and need to show the context, circumstances, situation, what happened and what needs to be done to address the problem, expressed as up to five key policy messages. A short abstract of up to 100 words is required and up to 10 references may be given. Subjects may include single case studies and Experiences from the Field.

5.5 Letters to the Editor

Letters commenting on recently published papers will be considered for publication and the authors of the original paper will be invited to respond. Submissions should be sent to the Editor at


6.1 Format

Language: The language of publication is English.

Units, Spelling and Measurement: System International (SI) units should be used. Spelling should conform to The Concise Oxford Dictionary.

Optimizing Your Abstract for Search Engines: Many students and researchers looking for information online will use search engines such as Google, Yahoo or similar. By optimizing your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. We have compiled these guidelines to enable you to maximize the web-friendliness of the most public part of your article.

6.2 References

Harvard style must be used. Information on the Harvard style can be found here. References are cited in the text using the author names followed by year of publication, e.g. (Berry 2011). When there are three or more authors, the first author's name followed by et al. should be used, e.g. (Andrew et al. 2009). If there is more than one reference per year from an author, distinguish with a letter, e.g. (Cowin 2008a), (Cowin 2008b). A reference list including all citations must be supplied on a separate page. References are listed in alphabetical order by first author names. References must include sufficient information to retrieve source material. When a web page is cited, please provide the date it was last accessed. The following are examples of style:

Benner, P., Sutphen, M., Leonard, V. & Day, L. (2009) Educating Nurses: A Call for Radical Transformation. Carnegie Foundation, Washington, DC. Demirtaş, B. (2012)

Breastfeeding support received by Turkish first-time mothers. International Nursing Review, doi: 10.1111/j.1466-7657.2012.00977.x.

ANA – American Nurses Association (2010) National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators. Available at: (accessed 14 March 2011).

Journal articles with four authors or less should be referenced with the names of all the authors listed. Where there are five or more authors in a reference, the article should be listed with the name of the first author, followed by 'et al.'.

The editor and publisher recommend that citation of online published papers and other material should be done via a DOI (digital object identifier), which all reputable online published material should have - see for more information. If an author cites anything which does not have a DOI they run the risk of the cited material not being traceable.

We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting. EndNote reference styles can be searched for here: Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:

6.3 Tables, Figures and Figure Legends

Tables: Charts, figures and tables should be on separate pages. Tables containing only essential data should be double-spaced and numbered separately e.g. Table 1, Table 2, and a caption for each should be provided. Only horizontal lines should be used, one above and one below the column headings and one at the table foot. All abbreviations must be defined in a footnote.

Figures: All graphs, drawings and photographs are considered figures and should be numbered in sequence with Arabic numerals. Each figure should have a legend and all legends should be typed together on a separate sheet and numbered correspondingly. If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author’s responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publisher. All figures and artwork must be provided in electronic format. Please save vector graphics (e.g. line artwork) in Encapsulated Postscript Format (EPS) and bitmap files (e.g. halftones) or clinical or in vitro pictures in Tagged Image Format (TIFF). Further information can be obtained from Wiley-Blackwell’s guidelines for illustrations.

Illustrations: Illustrations must be professionally prepared, submitted in a form suitable for reproduction, and supplied on separate pages. Avoid using tints if possible, but if they are essential to the understanding of the illustration, use coarse tints. The captions should be typed on a separate page at the end of the manuscript rather than in the text or under the illustrations. All illustrations including photographs should be referred to in the text as figures using Arabic numerals, e.g., Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc. in order of appearance.

Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication: Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (line art) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented programmes. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size. Please submit the data for figures in black and white or submit a Colour Work Agreement Form (see Colour Charges below). EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible). For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: line art: >600 dpi; halftones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi. Further information can be obtained from Wiley-Blackwell’s guidelines for figures and the electronic artwork checklist

Permissions: If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publisher.

Colour Charges: It is the policy of International Nursing Review for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour artwork. Therefore, please note that if there is colour artwork in your manuscript when it is accepted for publication, Wiley-Blackwell requires you to complete and return a Colour Work Agreement Form before your paper can be published. Any article received by Wiley- Blackwell with colour work will not be published until the form has been returned. If you are unable to access the internet, or are unable to download the form, please contact the Production Editor at Once completed, the Colour Work Agreement Form must be posted or couriered to the address stated in the form.

6.4 Supporting Information

Publication in electronic formats has created opportunities for adding details or whole sections in the electronic version only. Supporting Information, such as data sets or additional figures or tables, that will not be published in the print edition of the journal but which will be viewable via the online edition, can be submitted. It should be clearly stated at the time of submission that the Supporting Information is intended to be made available through the online edition only.


Upon acceptance of a paper for publication, the manuscript will be forwarded to the Production Editor who is responsible for the production of the journal.

7.1 Proof Corrections

The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a website. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from this site.

Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following website: This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Hard copy proofs will be posted if no e-mail address is available; in your absence, please arrange for a colleague to access your e-mail to retrieve the proofs.

Proofs must be returned to the typesetter within three days of receipt. Please note that if you have registered for production tracking e-mail alerts in Author Services, there will be no e-mail for the proof corrections received stage. This will not affect e-mails alerts for any later production stages. As changes to proofs are costly, we ask that you only correct typesetting errors. Excessive changes made by the author in the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately. Other than in exceptional circumstances, all illustrations are retained by the publisher. Please note that the author is responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.

7.2 Author Services

Online production tracking is available for your article through Wiley-Blackwell's Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

7.3 Early View

International Nursing Review is covered by Wiley-Blackwell Publishing's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

7.4 Author Material Archive Policy

Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley-Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible.

7.5 Offprints and Extra Copies

Free access to the final PDF offprint of your article will be available via Author Services only. Please therefore sign up for Author Services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers.

Additional paper offprints may be ordered online. Please click on the following link, fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields: