International Nursing Review

Cover image for Vol. 62 Issue 4

Edited By: Sue Turale

Impact Factor: 0.948

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 55/109 (Nursing (Social Science)); 58/111 (Nursing (Science))

Online ISSN: 1466-7657

Author Guidelines

NOTE: These Guidelines apply to all new manuscripts submitted after 10th August 2015.

1. Is International Nursing Review (INR) the best journal for my manuscript?

Given our rapid review process, we do not accept pre-submission enquiries about potential manuscripts. So you as author need to decide whether your manuscript should be submitted to INR. Understand the aim and scope of INR first, read these Guidelines carefully, and look at recently published issues of INR. Don’t waste time and effort! If you don’t follow these Guidelines carefully you might not meet with publication success.

2. What is the aim and scope of INR?

International Nursing Review is the official journal of the International Council of Nurses (ICN) in Geneva, Switzerland. It is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal that focuses predominantly on nursing policy, health policy, and social policy issues of relevance to nurses and midwives. The aim of INR is to forward ICN’s global mission by representing nursing, advancing the profession, and shaping health policy and nursing policy. ICN also contributes to the ongoing development of nursing internationally with its regular section in INR on International Perspectives. The diverse international readership of INR is located in around 135 countries. Published both in hard copy and on-line, INR is a key resource for nurses and health policy makers worldwide.

INR welcomes only original manuscripts in which nurses and midwives describe the policy relevance of their work and document their experience and/or research. Policy concerns of INR are: regulation of the profession, workplace issues, innovations in practice, patient safety, quality improvement education, ethics, nurses’ and midwives’ work-life experiences, and the impact of globalization and technology on nursing, health and social policy. Authors are encouraged to develop a ‘global intelligence’ on nursing. They should address INR’s diverse audience by exploring beyond local or national interests to the more general, global application of the principles underlying their work. Background information on the local arrangements for nursing and health care in your country also provides useful context for INR’s global readership.

3. Important points about ethics, authorship, acknowledgements, sources of funding and copyright

Authors reporting studies conducted in countries other than their own should, wherever possible, involve local authors when writing their articles.

All people or organizations who contributed assistance should be acknowledged, including financial support and any conflicts of interest.

For those interested in the Wiley-Blackwell policy on the NIH Public Access Mandate, please visit our policy statement. Authors are encouraged to visit Wiley-Blackwell Author Services for further information on the preparation and submission of articles and figures.

International Nursing Review, like all Wiley journals, follows the publication ethics guidelines as a member of the international Committee for Publication Ethics (COPE). INR adheres to the following:

3.1 Authorship and acknowledgements

Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors. All authors must meet at least one of the following authorship criteria (based on those recommended by the International Council of Medical Journal Editors):

1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data

2) drafting the article and/or revising it critically for important intellectual content.

Contributors who do not qualify as authors should be mentioned under a brief “Acknowledgements” section on the Title Page, for example, statisticians who have given advice during the study, or participants.

Authors’ names will not be added to a manuscript after it has been submitted for the first time.

Where a manuscript is the result of a student’s study, the student should be listed as the first author, not one of the research or project supervisors.

INR publishes details of all authors’ contributions to a manuscript, regardless of the type of manuscript. On the Title Page of the manuscript, give details of authorship using initials of the authors. Use the following example as a guide:

Author contributions:
Study design: ST, JP, RS
Data collection: ST, JP
Data analysis: ST, JP, RS
Study supervision: JP
Manuscript writing: ST, JP, RS, KAP
Critical revisions for important intellectual content: ST, KAP

3.2 Sources of funding

Authors are required to specify any sources of funding (institutional, private and corporate financial support) for the work reported in their manuscript. The name of the funding organisation/s and the grant number should be included on the Title Page under the heading ‘Funding’. If there was no funding, the following wording should be used: “This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.” Any suppliers of materials should be named and their location (town, state/county, country) included if appropriate. This information will be included in the published article.

3.3 Conflict of interest

On the Title Page, under a sub-heading, “Conflict of Interest”, authors are required to make a statement, disclosing any possible conflict of interest. These can include financial conflicts of interest, e.g. patent ownership, stock ownership, consultancies, and speaker’s fee. All conflict of interest (or information specifying the absence of conflict of interest) will be included in the published article. If the authoring team does not have any conflict of interest, include the following statement: “No conflict of interest has been declared by the author(s).”

3.4 Submissions by members of the editorial team and ICN staff

Editors of INR, and the team at ICN, are encouraged to publish in the journal. To avoid any conflicts of interest, editors do not process their own papers. If a member of the editorial team is submitting to INR, then the online ScholarOne system prevents them from viewing any details related to their paper and also prevents the Editor-in-Chief from allocating the paper to them for review, regardless of their place in the authorship of the paper. If the Editor-in-Chief submits a paper then another editor processes it. Editors also do not deal with the review or processing of papers by research collaborators or colleagues in their workplaces, and need to be very mindful of the potential for conflict of interest. All INR editors are expected to exercise discretion, fairness and declare to the editing team any proximity to submitting authors.

3.5 Ethical approvals

Research studies will only be published if the study has been conducted in full accordance with international ethical principles, such as those contained in the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki (2008), and the additional legal and research ethics requirements of the country where the research has been carried out. In the Ethical Considerations section of the manuscript, make a statement giving the full name of the ethical board or committee granting research ethics approval, as well as the approval number. We only publish manuscripts where there is clear indication that the authors gained the understanding and full informed consent of each participant and according to the above mentioned principles. Additionally under Ethical Consideration there needs to be description of how participants were ethically protected during the study. Editors reserve the right to reject papers if there are doubts as to whether appropriate procedures have been used.

Images of, or Information about, Identifiable Individuals: It is the author’s responsibility to obtain consent from patients and other individuals for use of information, images, audio files, interview transcripts, and video clips from which they may be identified. To ensure we have the rights we require please provide a signed consent/release form in all instances.

  • If the person is a minor, consent must be obtained from the child’s parents or guardians.
  • If the person is dead, we consider it essential and ethical that you obtain consent for use from the next of kin. If this is impractical you need to balance the need to use the photo against the risk of causing offence. In all cases ensure you obscure the identity of the deceased.
  • If using older material, or for material obtained in the field, for which signed release forms are, for practical purposes, unobtainable, you will need to confirm in writing that the material in question was obtained with the person’s understanding that it might be published.

The Patient Consent Form can be downloaded here.

3.6 Non-original material and plagiarism

In keeping with international trends in publication, all manuscripts are checked for the percentage of non-original material, and any referencing issues using anti-plagiarism software. At INR we use CrossCheck™ powered by iThenticate and we usually check manuscripts twice: once on submission, and again before acceptance. Authors are warned that plagiarism is a serious academic offense, and will not be tolerated in INR. So please carefully check that you reference your writing carefully and correctly before submission.

3.7 Appeal of decision

Authors who wish to appeal the decision on their submitted paper may do so by e-mailing the editorial office ( with a detailed explanation as to why they are appealing the decision.

3.8 Permission

If all or part of previously published illustrations, diagrams, tables or figures are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain this permission in writing and provide a copy of this to the Publishers, as well as make mention of this in a covering letter to the Editor-in-Chief. Any such material must have a statement of where it was sourced from and that it was reproduced with the permission of the parties concerned.

3.9 Copyright assignment

Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the work and its essential substance have not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. The articles published in INR are protected by copyright, which covers translation rights and the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute all of the articles printed in the journal. The work shall not be published elsewhere in any language without the written consent of the publisher. No material published in the journal may be stored on microfilm or videocassettes, in electronic databases and the like, or reproduced photographically without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Correspondence to the journal is accepted on the understanding that the contributing author licences the Publisher to publish the letter as part of the journal or separately from it, in the exercise of any subsidiary rights relating to the journal and its contents.

If your manuscript is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services. They will be asked via Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) to complete the license agreement on behalf of all co-authors.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement:

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below: CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen:

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you to comply with Wellcome Trust and Research Council’s UK requirements. For more information on this policy and INR’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

4. What are the word limits for different manuscripts?

All manuscripts must be in English and fit within the Aim and Scope of INR. All abstracts should be between 240-275 words except for abstracts for short communications which should be between 180-240 words.

Quantitative papers must be between 3,000-4,000 words in length, inclusive of the abstract and no more than 40 references. Qualitative papers, including mixed methods studies, must be between 4000-5,500 words in length, inclusive of the abstract and no more than 40 references. Literature Reviews should be between 4000-6000 words including a 250-300 word abstract, and no more than 55 references. Read further below about these.

5. What are the parts of the manuscript that I/we need to submit?

5.1 Title Page : This must be a separate file; do not include it in the manuscript file. It must include a title of no more than 12 words; the author(s) names in order of publication, credentials (nursing or other professional qualifications, followed by academic, and then honours), job title, department and institution for each author; the name, address, telephone, fax and e-mail for the corresponding author; the source(s) of funding statement; the conflict of interest statement; acknowledgements and authorship contributions. NOTE: The author name(s) should appear only on the title page, NOT in the abstract or manuscript.

5.2 Abstract : Should be between 240-275 words and structured under the following headings: Aim, Background, Introduction, Methods, Results or Findings, Discussion, Limitations, Conclusion and Implications for nursing, and Implications for Nursing Policy, and/or Health Policy and/or Social Policy. (Choose the appropriate sub-heading for the policy section). The emphasis in the abstract and the body of the manuscript is on policy, and not just the implications for nursing and/or health. The abstracts for manuscripts that are not research or systematic reviews can have alterations to the sub-heading for Methods. DO NOT include statistics or abbreviations in the abstract.

5.3 Keywords: Authors will be asked to choose 6-10 keywords on submission. Put the keywords in alphabetical order after the abstract on the written manuscript, including, if appropriate, the countries that are the subject of the article and the research approach of your study. Do not use long phrases in the keywords. When submitting online you will be asked to input keywords from our data base so that reviewers can be found.

5.4 Body of manuscript: On submission indicate the type of manuscript. For example:

5.4.1 Original research study

All manuscripts must be original and not previously published. Pilot studies are not a priority for publication, and generally neither are secondary analysis of data studies without significant justification. Generally the sections of a research study should be: Introduction; Background including the literature review; Aim of study; Methods which should include sub-sections on Design (including brief description of the theoretical framework of the study); Sample and setting; Data collection; Ethical considerations; Data analysis; and if a qualitative or mixed method study, Rigor and Trustworthiness. This should be followed by the Discussion section which includes Study limitations; Results or Findings; Conclusion and recommendations; Implications for nursing practice; and Implications for nursing policy, and health policy and/or social policy.

The Introduction and Discussion should include the global dimensions of the study as well as the national and local dimensions. Recent references in support of research methods should be cited and should be international in scope and discussion. Authors should aim to cite as much literature from the last 5 years (including the year of submission) in the Background and Discussion sections. Dates of data collection must be given in the data collection section, and data should not have been collected more than 4 years ago at the time of submission.

• Articles involving statistical methods should state the source of research participants, selection methods, sample size, response rate and main results with confidence intervals and actual P values.

• The Discussion and the Conclusion sections should consider the policy implications of the research, where appropriate for governments, management, education and/or practice. Limitations of the study should be provided in the Discussion section, generally at the start of this section.

5.4.2 Literature review

Systematic literature reviews are preferred over narrative reviews, and should address the aim and scope of INR, contain a structured format and be presented in a systematic way using references for the review method, aims, parameters (e.g. inclusion and exclusion criteria for articles, including dates of literature, and when the review was undertaken), databases searched, key words used in searching, a methodological critique of the papers included, the ways in which the findings can be used to influence practice or policy, conclusions and suggestions for further research based on the findings. Literature reviews conducted more than 1 year previously will not be accepted for publication.

• Abstracts for literature reviews should follow the guidelines for empirical research studies above.

• The findings of literature reviews are normally summarized by means of a table, or tables, that demonstrate the key variables considered. If you have long tables, these should be submitted as supplementary material to be published online only. Publication space is limited in INR, and we generally do not publish articles over 10 printed pages.

5.4.3 Other non-empirical manuscripts

These may be considered from the following sources, but must fit within the Aim and Scope of INR:

• a description of innovative practice based on ICN or other guidelines;

• an audit of best practice;

• a theoretical critique of an issue related to policy;

• an experience from the field; or

• an opinion piece of international interest.

These manuscripts are subject to the normal peer review process and should be structured under appropriate headings and should be no more than 5000 words including references and abstract. An emphasis must be placed on nursing and nursing policy or health policy or social policy in all of these. The abstract should normally include: Aim, Background, Sources of evidence, Discussion, Conclusion, Implications for nursing policy and/or Health policy and/or Social policy (choose as appropriate); Implications for Nursing Practice; References. Remember policy is not the same as implications for practice.

5.4.4 Short communication

This consists of a report up to 2000 words in one of the following categories:

· Report of research which is in progress or part of a larger project. The research should have ethical approval. This does not include pilot research which is not a priority for publication.

· Reports and service innovations that do not aim to be comprehensive or necessarily research-oriented, but which inform our international readership, and which would not require ethical committee approval.

All reports are subject to the normal peer review process and need to show the context, circumstances, situation, what happened and what needs to be done to address the problem, expressed as up to five key policy messages. A short abstract of up to 100 words is required, up to 5 key words, and up to 10 recent references may be given in the report. Subjects may include single case studies and experiences from the field.

5.4.5 Letter to the Editor

Letters commenting on recently published papers will be considered for publication and the authors of the original paper will be invited to respond. Submissions should be submitted online in the usual way. Authors should properly reference the paper that is being commented on.

6. What else do We/I need to know about manuscript format and structure?

6.1 Format

Units, Spelling and Measurement: System International (SI) units should be used.

Authors can choose to use either British or USA style English. Whatever style is used, make sure this is used consistently throughout the manuscript.

Optimizing Your Abstract for Search Engines: Many students and researchers looking for information online will use search engines such as Google Scholar, or similar. By optimizing your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. We have compiled these guidelines to enable you to maximize the web-friendliness of the most public part of your article.

6.2 References

Preference is given to manuscripts that utilize the majority of references from the last 5 years. Harvard style must be used. References are cited in the text using the author names followed by year of publication, e.g. (Lee 2015). When there are two or more authors, the first author's name followed by et al. should be used, e.g. (Andrew et al. 2014). If there is more than one reference per year from an author, distinguish with a letter, e.g. (Cowin 2015a), (Cowin 2010b). Do not over-reference points discussed.

The References list including all citations must be supplied on a separate page at the end of the manuscript. References are listed in alphabetical order by first author family names. References must include sufficient information to retrieve source material. When a web page is cited, please provide the date it was last accessed. Authors are encouraged to look at recently published articles in INR to assist with referencing. The following are examples of referencing style:

Benner, P., Sutphen, M., Leonard, V. & Day, L. (2009) Educating Nurses: A Call for Radical
. Carnegie Foundation, Washington, DC.

Journal article:
Ferguson, S. (2014) Nurses are essential players in all health and policy arenas. International Nursing Review. 61: 297–298. doi: 10.1111/inr.12127

World Health Organization (2015) Sixty-eighth World Health Assembly. Available at: (accessed 16 May 2015)

Journal articles with four authors or less should be referenced in the reference list with the names of all the authors listed. Where there are five or more authors in a reference, the article should be listed with the name of the first author, followed by 'et al.’

The Editor and publisher recommend that citation of online published papers and other material should be done via a DOI (digital object identifier), which all reputable online published material should have - see for more information. If an author cites anything which does not have a DOI they run the risk of the cited material not being traceable.

We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting. EndNote reference styles can be searched for Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:

6.3 Tables, Figures and Figure Legends

Do not repeat in any tables that data that has already been presented in detail in the Findings or Results section. Do not include more than 3 tables, figures or illustrations. You can choose to have additional supplementary material such as an appendix published online. This should be clearly marked and indicated to the, as well as in a Cover Letter to the Editor uploaded at submission.

Tables: Charts, figures and tables should be on separate pages after the Reference list. Tables containing only essential data should be double-spaced and numbered separately e.g. Table 1, Table 2, and a caption for each should be provided. Only horizontal lines should be used, one above and one below the column headings and one at the table foot. All abbreviations must be defined in a footnote.

Figures: All graphs, drawings and photographs are considered figures and should be numbered in sequence with Arabic numerals. Each figure should have a legend and all legends should be typed together on a separate sheet and numbered correspondingly. If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author’s responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publisher. All figures and artwork must be provided in electronic format. Please save vector graphics (e.g. line artwork) in Encapsulated Postscript Format (EPS) and bitmap files (e.g. halftones) or clinical or in vitro pictures in Tagged Image Format (TIFF). Further information can be obtained from Wiley-Blackwell’s guidelines for illustrations.

Illustrations: These must be professionally prepared, submitted in a form suitable for reproduction, and supplied on separate pages. Avoid using tints if possible, but if they are essential to the understanding of the illustration, use coarse tints. The captions should be typed on a separate page at the end of the manuscript rather than in the text or under the illustrations. All illustrations including photographs should be referred to in the text as figures using Arabic numerals, e.g., Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc. in order of appearance.

Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication: Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (line art) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented programmes. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size. Please submit the data for figures in black and white or submit a Colour Work Agreement Form (see Colour Charges below). EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible). For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: line art: >600 dpi; halftones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi. Further information can be obtained from Wiley-Blackwell’s guidelines for figures and the electronic artwork checklist

Colour Charges: It is the policy of INR for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour artwork. Therefore, please note that if there is colour artwork in your manuscript when it is accepted for publication, Wiley-Blackwell requires you to complete and return a Colour Work Agreement Form before your paper can be published. If you are unable to access the Internet, or are unable to download the form, please contact the Production Editor at Once completed, the Colour Work Agreement Form must be sent to:

The Production Editor , On behalf of Wiley, Manila. Email:

Tel: +632-8558714; +632-8558790, Fax: +6323250768

6.4 Supporting Information

Publication in electronic formats has created opportunities for adding details or whole sections in the electronic version only. Supporting Information, such as data sets or additional figures or tables, that will not be published in the print edition of the journal but which will be viewable via the online edition, can be submitted. It should be clearly stated at the time of submission that the Supporting Information is intended to be made available through the online edition only.

7. How do I/We submit our manuscript ?

International Nursing Review prefers to receive all manuscript submissions electronically using ScholarOne Manuscripts. Please follow the instructions below.

7.1 Getting started

1. Launch your web browser and go to the International Nursing Review’s ScholarOne Manuscripts homepage (

2. Log-in or click the “Create Account” option if you are a first-time user of Manuscript Central.

3. After clicking on “Create Account”, enter your name and e-mail information and click “Next”. Your e-mail information is very important. Enter your institution and address information as appropriate, and then click “Next.” Enter a user ID and password of your choice (we recommend using your e-mail address as your user ID), and then select your area of expertise. Click “Finish”.

If you have an account but have forgotten your log in details, go to “Password Help” on the homepage and enter your email address. The system will send you an automatic user ID and password reminder.

7.2 Submitting your manuscript

After you have logged in, enter your Author Centre and click the “Submit a Manuscript” link. Enter data and answer questions as appropriate. Click the “Next” button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen. You are required to upload your files. Click on the “Browse” button and locate the file on your computer. Select the designation of each file in the drop down next to the Browse button. When you have selected all files you wish to upload, click the “Upload Files” button. Review your submission (in both PDF and HTML formats) before sending to the Journal. Click the “Submit” button when you are finished reviewing.

You may suspend a submission at any phase before clicking the “Submit” button and save it to submit later. After submission, you will receive a confirmation e-mail. You can also access ScholarOne Manuscripts at any time to check the status of your manuscript. The Journal will inform you by e-mail once a decision has been made.

7.3 Getting help with your submission

Each page of the ScholarOne Manuscripts website has a ‘Get Help Now’ icon connecting directly to the online support system at Telephone support is available 24 hours a day, 5 days a week through the US ScholarOne Support Office on: 1434 817 2040, ext 167.

If you cannot submit online, please contact the Editorial office by email at The INR Editorial Office will then be able to assist with any queries you may have. Do not write to the Editor-in-Chief with your submission enquiries.

7.4 Blinded review

Once the Editorial team has decided your manuscript is of sufficient quality to be sent for review, it will be reviewed by at least two international experts in the field. INR uses double-blinded review. The names of the reviewers are not disclosed to the corresponding author and the name(s) of the author(s) are not disclosed to the reviewers. To allow double-blinded review, please submit your main manuscript and title page as separate files.

7.5 Review period

At INR we try our best to get manuscripts reviewed as quickly as possible but the Editor-in-Chief cannot accept requests for expedited reviews of your work. If you have not received an Editor’s decision about your manuscript two months after submission please send an email to the Editorial Office. Authors are encouraged to be patient during the review process. Remember reviewers are not paid and do this work voluntarily as part of their professional commitment. Most authors receive requests for revisions on their manuscript and it is very rare a manuscript is accepted without revision. Additionally it is often a number of months before a manuscript undergoing several revisions might be finally accepted for publication. Students needing to publish before they can graduate should bear this in mind.

8. What happens if the manuscript is accepted?

Upon acceptance of a paper for publication, the manuscript will be forwarded to the Production Editor who is responsible for the production of the journal online and in hard copy.

8.1 Proof corrections

The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a website. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from this site. Respond to the proof copy enquiries as soon as possible.

Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (Free of charge) from the following website: This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. If you are going to be absent around the time the proof needs to be checked please arrange for a colleague to access your e-mail to retrieve the proofs. Proofs must be returned to the typesetter within three days of receipt. Please note that if you have registered for production tracking e-mail alerts in Author Services, there will be no e-mail for the proof corrections received stage. This will not affect e-mails alerts for any later production stages. As changes to proofs are costly, we ask that you only correct typesetting errors. Excessive changes made by the author in the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately. Other than in exceptional circumstances, all illustrations are retained by the publisher. Please note that the author is responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.

8.2 Early View

International Nursing Review is covered by Wiley-Blackwell Publishing's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors’ final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

8.3 Author Material Archive Policy

Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley-Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible.

8.4 Offprints and extra copies

Free access to the final PDF offprint of your article will be available via Author Services only. Please therefore sign up for Author Services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers.

Additional paper offprints may be ordered online. Please click on the following link, fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields:

8.5 Author Services

Online production tracking is available for your article through Wiley-Blackwell's Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.