Global Ecology and Biogeography

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 3

Edited By: Brian McGill

Impact Factor: 5.84

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 1/49 (Geography Physical); 12/150 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 1466-8238

Associated Title(s): Diversity and Distributions, Journal of Biogeography

Author Guidelines

Journal Scope
Global Ecology and Biogeography (GEB) welcomes papers that investigate broad-scale (in space, time and/or taxonomy), general patterns in the organization of ecological systems and assemblages, and the processes that underlie them. In particular, GEB welcomes studies that use macroecological methods, comparative analyses, meta-analyses, reviews, spatial analyses and modelling to arrive at general, conceptual conclusions. Studies in GEB need not be global in spatial extent, but the conclusions and implications of the study must be relevant to ecologists and biogeographers globally, rather than being limited to local areas, or specific taxa. Similarly, GEB is not limited to spatial studies; we are equally interested in the general patterns of nature through time, among taxa (e.g., body sizes, dispersal abilities), through the course of evolution, etc. Further, GEB welcomes papers that investigate general impacts of human activities on ecological systems in accordance with the above criteria.

Global Ecology and Biogeography generally does not publish studies that focus on unique events or places, or on specific taxa in local areas. The journal is also not interested in studies that lack ecological and/or biogeographical focus.

Getting published in GEB (also see January 2016 editorial)
A substantial proportion of manuscripts submitted to GEB are declined without review. The decision is based on:

  • whether the paper fits the scope described above;
  • whether the Abstract and the display pieces present conceptual advances that will be relevant to the work of ecologists and biogeographers globally.

It is very important that papers submitted to GEB are presented in a way that emphasizes their generality. It is critical that the most citable points of the study be clearly presented in the Abstract and display pieces. Use the cover letter to highlight these points to the editors.

Requirements for submission

  1. Manuscripts submitted to GEB must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere.
  2. Every author named on the paper must provide written (or email) confirmation to the corresponding author that he/she consents to being named as an author on the manuscript, exactly as submitted to GEB. The corresponding author must be prepared to provide copies of this correspondence to the Editor-in-Chief on request.
  3. A cover letter highlighting the novelty and fit to the journal must accompany the submission.
  4. All manuscripts submitted to GEB will be scanned using software designed to detect plagiarism. In cases where plagiarism is found, the submission may be rejected and/or authors' institutions may be notified.
  5. Authors must disclose any conflict of interest that might be perceived as affecting the objectivity of conclusions, even if the conflict is only apparent.
  6. Each manuscript must be written clearly, using appropriate English syntax and grammar. Manuscripts that are poorly written may be rejected without review.
  7. There are no page charges for publication in GEB; however, the publisher does charge to print colour figures (see below).

Guidelines for Cover Submissions
If you would like to send suggestions for artwork related to your manuscript to be considered to appear on the cover of the journal, please follow the guidelines in this link.

Manuscript Types

  1. Research papers – These are standard research papers, typically not longer than ten printed pages. This corresponds to roughly 5000 words in the main body of the text, 50 literature citations, and six to eight display pieces (tables and figures). Papers that are shorter in one of these respects may be longer in another. Please use a structured Abstract, not longer than 300 words, with the following headings: Aim, Location, Time period, Major taxa studied, Methods, Results, Main conclusions.
  2. Ecological Soundings – These are typically short pieces (2000 words or less) that present perspectives, opinions, etc. on important themes in the field. Ecological Soundings are not intended for preliminary research results. Please use a structured Abstract, not longer than 250 words, with the following headings: Issue, Evidence, Conclusion. If you have an idea for a Soundings piece, please contact the Editor-in-chief before submitting.
  3. Concepts – These are papers that present and develop new ideas, conceptual syntheses, critiques of established ideas, etc. Typically these papers include at least preliminary empirical validation of the ideas discussed. Typically, there should not be more than 5000 words in the main body of the text, and 50 literature citations. Please use a structured Abstract, not longer than 250 words; 3-5 headings should be chosen to fit the structure of the paper. If you have an idea for a Concepts piece, please contact the Editor-in-chief before submitting.
  4. Meta-analyses – Statistical syntheses of earlier published analyses. Typically, these are not longer than ten printed pages. Please use a structured abstract not longer than 300 words, as described for research papers.
  5. Research reviews – Reviews should strive to concisely and critically synthesize a subject, as opposed to being exhaustive. Please use a structured Abstract, not longer than 300 words: 3-5 headings should be chosen to fit the structure of the paper. If you have an idea for a Research review, please contact the Editor-in-chief before submitting.
  6. Macroecological methods – Presentation of new analytical techniques, new software, etc., or critical evaluation of methods in macroecology. Typically, these papers do not exceed ten printed pages. A structured abstract not longer than 300 words with the following headings should be used: Aim, Innovation, Main conclusions.
  7. Data papers - These are short papers (typically 2000 words excluding the abstract, and two figures) that present datasets of broad macroecological interest. The data must be made public at time of publication, by depositing them in a stable online repository. Please use a structured Abstract, not longer than 300 words, with the following headings: Motivation, Main types of variable contained, Spatial location and grain, Time period and grain, Major taxa and level of measurement, Software format.
  8. CorrespondenceGEB welcomes short items of correspondence (typically 2000 words, plus a single-paragraph abstract not longer than 200 words) prompted by papers published in the journal, or occasionally other journals. Correspondence pieces will be sent to the critiqued authors for a response. Both the correspondence and the response are then sent out to review. The outcome of the review process may be that neither, only one or both items of the correspondence are published. All correspondence published on a topic will be in the same issue of the journal, with no further debate allowed.

Longer papers - Authors may request that longer manuscripts be considered. However, page space in the journal is limited, and readers value concisely written manuscripts. In the cover letter, the authors must justify why extra space is necessary. The reviewers and Handling Editor must agree. Rejection rates of long papers may be commensurately higher.

Formatting your manuscript
The essential points of GEB’s format are summarized below. Please consult a recent volume of the journal for details and examples.

  1. General – Please use line numbering, continuous from the beginning to the end of the document.

  2. Title page - GEB papers should begin with a title page that includes:
    • the title
    • the names of all authors
    • the postal addresses and email addresses of the authors
    • a list of 6–10 keywords
    • a short running-title
    • the name of corresponding author
    • the number of words in the Abstract
    • the number of words in main body of the paper, from the Introduction through the Biosketch (see below)
    • the number of references
  3. Sections – The sections of the paper should be presented in the following order: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, List of brief titles of items in the supplementary material, Data Accessibility statement, Biosketch, References, Appendices containing references to data sources (see below), Tables, Figures (each table orfigure legend should be included with the respective table or figure), Supporting Information (i.e. appendices to be published online).

  4. A Data Accessibility statement should follow the Biosketch describing how to access data to reproduce results in the manuscript (see section Some Details about Formating for an example).

  5. A Biosketch should be included: a short (30-100 words for one author, or up to 150 words for three authors) description of the research interests of the author(s). For papers with >3 authors, a biosketch should either focus on first author(s), or should be a general statement of the focus of the research team. Links to authors' web pages may be provided.

  6. References – In the text, citationsshould be made by giving the author's name with the year of publication, as follows: ‘(Bush & Rivera, 1998)’ or ‘following Bush & Rivera (1998)’. When reference is made to a work by three or more authors the first name followed by et al. is used on all occasions. If several papers by the same author and from the same year are cited, then a, b, c, etc., should be put after the year of publication: (Schoener & Schoener, 1983a,b). When citing a list of papers, place them in chronological order, and alphabetically within years. Separate references with semi-colons: (Schoener & Schoener, 1983a,b; Bush & Rivera, 1998; Collins, 1998).

    References must be listed in alphabetical order at the end of the paper in the following standard forms (with titles of journals in full); when there are 15 or more authors, list only the first three followed by et al.:

    Cox, C.B. & Moore, P.D. (1999) Biogeography: an ecological and evolutionary approach, 6th edn. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford.
    May, R.M. (1994) The effects of spatial scale on ecological questions and answers. Large-scale ecology and conservation biology (ed. by P.J. Edwards, R.M. May and N.R. Webb), pp. 1–17. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
    Prentice, I.C., Guiot, J., Huntley, B., Jolly, D. & Cheddadi, R. (1996) Reconstructing biomes from palaeoecological data: a general method and its application to European pollen data at 0 and 6 ka. Climate Dynamics, 12, 185–194.
    Zappi, D.C., Filardi, F.L.R., Leitman, P. et al. (2015). Growing knowledge: an overview of seed plant diversity in Brazil. Rodriguésia, 66, 1085–1113.

    We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote for reference management and formatting. Visit EndNote to download the most up to date EndNote reference style for Global Ecology and Biogeography.

  7. Citations to data sources – Some studies (e.g. meta-analyses) use data drawn from multiple published sources. If these sources are not otherwise cited in the main text, they should be listed in one or more appendices with titles similar to the following: “Appendix 1 – Data sources”. These data appendices will be printed in the main paper (so that citation indexing services will capture them), but in a reduced font. The main text should cite Appendix 1 (e.g. “A list of the data sources is found in Appendix 1.”). References in data appendices that have 3 or more authors should appear as first author et al., as follows:

    Pugh, P.J.A. & Convey, P. (2008) Surviving out in the cold: Antarctic endemic invertebrates and their refugia. Journal of Biogeography, 35, 2176–2186. Zappi, D.C. et al. (2015). Growing knowledge: an overview of seed plant diversity in Brazil. Rodriguésia, 66, 1085–1113.

  8. Supporting information – List all appendices, each with a brief title, e.g.:
     Appendix S1. Bird species recorded in this study
     Appendix S2. Supplementary methods

  9. Figures and tables – Every figure and table must have a legend that makes the display piece understandable without reference to the main text. The figure legend should be included on the same page as the figure or table it refers to. All acronyms and abbreviations used in the display piece must be defined in its legend. A casual browser of the literature should be able to easily grasp the point of the display piece. It is often worthwhile to add a sentence summarizing what conclusions the reader should draw from the display piece.

  10. Colour art work – Submissions to GEB may include colour artwork. In the digital versions of the published paper, these figures will appear in colour free of charge. In the printed versions of the paper, the figures will normally be reproduced in black-and-white. Please note that the vast majority of readers access the digital versions of the journal; printed copies are increasingly rare.

    Readers often print the digital versions of the paper on black-and-white printers. Authors are therefore encouraged to choose colour schemes such that will convert to greyscale without loss of information. For example, symbols of different colours may also be distinguished by shape. The legend should refer to the different symbol shapes, which are understandable in black-and-white, rather than only the colours.

    Please avoid colour scales based on red and green, as these colours may be indistinguishable or otherwise difficult for colour-blind readers.

    In some cases, a colour figure will not convert to black-and-white without loss of information. For example, while a rainbow spectrum (ROYGBIV) may be excellent in a colour figure, it does not convert well to grey scale because highest and lowest values (red and violet) both print as dark grey, while mid-values (yellow) print as pale grey. In these cases, authors should prepare a version of the figure that uses a grey scale in place of colour. The grey scale version will be used in the print copies of the journal.

    Authors may choose to have figures in colour in both the digital and the print versions of the paper. Please advise the Editor-in-chief if you choose this option. In this case there is a charge to print colour figures. When your paper is accepted for publication, Wiley–Blackwell will require you to complete and return a Colour Work Agreement Form before your paper can be published. Once completed, please return the form to Customer Services (OPI) by post (fax or scan is not acceptable) to following address: Customer Services (OPI), John Wiley & Sons Ltd, European Distribution Centre, New Era Estate, Oldlands Way, Bognor Regis, West Sussex, PO22 9NQ. This form must be returned before the paper can be published. Again, please avoid colour scales based on red and green, as these colours may be indistinguishable to colour-blind readers.

    Under exceptional circumstances, authors may request the above charges to be waived. This must be done, in writing, at the time of submission of the manuscript, and authors must justify to the Editor that inclusion of the figure(s) in colour is essential for interpretation of the results presented. If authors wish to apply for funds to cover the costs of colour printing, the Editor will provide relevant support letters to funding bodies, indicating acceptance of the paper.

  11. Supporting Information contains material to be put in on-line appendices. This material may include raw data, long tables, supporting analyses, etc. Supporting Information should be cited in the main text, initially as "Appendix S1 in Supporting Information", and later as simply "Appendix S1" (or S2, S3, etc.). Supporting information is not necessarily peer-reviewed, nor is it edited. The onus is on the author to ensure that material is correct at the time of submission. Note: if authors supply links to their own websites, Wiley–Blackwell is not responsible for the material on these sites. Further information on Supporting Information is available here.

  12. Other formatting details – please see section below on 'Some details about formats'.

Submitting your manuscript

  1. All manuscripts must be submitted on-line, through ScholarOne Manuscripts at
  2. The manuscript should be uploaded as a single text file (e.g., Word) with figures embedded in the same file. A PDF file will then automatically be created for reviewing purposes. Full instructions and support for authors can be found at the Site. We can accept LaTeX files, but authors must generate and upload their own PDF file.
  3. All manuscripts must include a cover letter, which should be pasted into the form within ScholarOne Manuscripts, rather than uploaded as a separate file.
  4. Appendices should be uploaded as one or more separate files.
  5. Also upload any supporting documents to which editors and reviewers should have access, such as manuscripts by the same authors that are still in press and that are cited in the submitted paper.
  6. Authors may suggest (positively or negatively) possible handling editors and/or reviewers at the time of submission.
  7. You will be able to track your article through the review process on Scholar One.

Declined manuscripts
This journal works together with Wiley’s Open Access Journals, Ecology and Evolution and Geo: Geography and Environment, to enable rapid publication of good quality research that is unable to be accepted for publication by our journal. Authors may be offered the option of having the paper, along with any related peer reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Editors of these journals. Authors will not need to reformat or rewrite their manuscript at this stage, and publication decisions will be made a short time after the transfer takes place. The Editors of Ecology and Evolution and Geo: Geography and Environment will accept submissions that report well-conducted research which reaches the standard acceptable for publication. Both journals are Wiley Open Access journals, and article publication fees apply. More information can be found here.

After acceptance

  1. After acceptance, Wiley Blackwell’s Author Services enables authors to track their article through the production process to publication online and in print. Author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Visit for more details.

  2. Copyright – If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the corresponding author will receive an email prompting him or her to login into Author Services. There, the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) will ask the corresponding author to complete a license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

    Authors may choose either a copyright transfer agreement (CTA), or an OnlineOpen option. With a CTA, there is no charge to publish the paper. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

    CTA Terms and Conditions

    OnlineOpen is available to authors of articles who wish to make their article open access. With OnlineOpen the author, their funding agency, or institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in PubMed Central and PMC mirror sites. In addition to publication online via Wiley Online Library, authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on a website, institutional repository, or other free public server, immediately on publication.

    If you want your article to be open access please choose the appropriate licence agreement when you log in to Wiley’s Author Services system. Click on ‘Make my article OnlineOpen’ and choose the appropriate license by clicking on ‘Sign license agreement now’ when you log in to Wiley’s Author Services system.

    For authors choosing OnlineOpen

    If the OnlineOpen option is selected, the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

    Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

    Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

    Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

    To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit–License.html.

    If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust or by members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK), you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license that complies with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

  3. Proofs – Authors will be sent an e-mail alerting them that their PDF proof is available for download. Proofs should be marked-up electronically using the Acrobat’s PDF annotation tools, and returned by e-mail to the address below. The annotation software can be downloaded free of charge from the following web site: Instructions on using the annotation tools are given at the end of the proof. If you are unable to electronically annotate the proof, authors may mark-up hardcopy. Please return your corrected proofs to the Production Editor within two weeks of receipt. Major alterations to the text and illustrations are only accepted when absolutely necessary; the additional costs may be charged to the author.

  4. Offprints – Free access to the final PDF offprint or your article will be available via Author Services only. Please therefore sign up for Author Services when your paper is accepted if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits that Author Service offers (see next section). Paper offprints may also be purchased and should be ordered when you return your proof corrections by following the instructions supplied at the time.

  5. Early View – As soon as the proofs of a GEB article have received final approval from the authors and the editors, the article will be posted on-line on the GEB website under Early View. Articles will thus be available without having to wait for the next available published issues. Articles in Early View are in their final form, and cannot be modified after on-line publication. Each article published on-line is assigned a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) number, making the citable. We will endeavor to get accepted articles on line as quickly as possible. More information about DOI numbers can be found at

  6. Data archiving – It is important in science, and it is increasingly viewed as standard practice, to deposit the data supporting scientific publications in a publicly accessible archive. GEB strongly encourages authors to ensure that data will remain available for future syntheses by using a data depository. When this is not possible a statement justifying why data are not being deposited should be included in the data availability statement to be published preceding the Author Biosketches. Also, the availability or non-availability of data is one of many factors to be weighed in assessing the interest and merit of the paper when deciding whether to accept or reject it.

Contact us : queries, concerns, suggestions
Please direct queries to the editorial office The Editor-in-chief welcomes any suggestions or concerns you may have about the journal or about the handling of your paper.

Global Ecology and Biogeography is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics (

Some details about formats

Abbreviations and units and nomenclature
SI units (m, km2, kg, etc.) are preferred. Statistics and measurements should always be given in figures, i.e. 10 km, except where the number begins the paragraph. When the number does not refer to a unit of measurement, it is spelt out (e.g. three samples), except where the number is greater than 100. Use: negative exponents (e.g. t year-1, not t/year); L for litres; 24-hour clock format; and format dates as 31 March 1999. The word ‘Figure’ should be abbreviated in the text, e.g. Fig. 1, Figs 2 and 3. The correct nomenclatural authorities for all taxa must be given on their first appearance in the text, in Tables, or figure captions, unless a general reference to a standard source can be provided at an appropriate place. A list of preferred abbreviations and naming conventions is available here.

Main text: Three different weights of headings are available:

A: New line, full out left, all capitals, bold type; following text on new line not indented; [example A LEVEL HEADING]

B: New line, full out left, initial capital letter first word only, bold type; following text on new line not indented; [example B level heading]

C: New line, full out left, initial capital letter first word only, italic; following text on new line not indented; [example C level heading]

Running title heading: A short running title should be included on the cover page for Research Papers, Research Reviews, Ecological Soundings and Meta-Analayes, and should be less than 60 characters (max.) in length (including spaces).

Tables must be typed on separate sheets and numbered consecutively (Table 1, Table 2, etc.). Column headings should be brief: with units of measurement in parentheses. Tables should be typed as text, using ‘tabs’ (not spaces) to align columns. The use of table editors should be avoided. Do not use graphics software to create tables.

Figures, Illustrations and Maps
All illustrations (including photographs) are classified as figures and should be numbered consecutively (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc.). When submitting a manuscript to ScholarOne Manuscripts, authors should upload a single text file with embedded figures. Upon your manuscript being accepted for publication, please supply separate files containing electronic versions of your figures (see File Formats, below). Please note that your paper will go through production more quickly if instructions on content and format are followed carefully. Each figure must have a legend that makes the material completely understandable. At this point, and in contrast to the version used in the review process, legends should be presented separately from the figures, in a list at the end of the manuscript. Label multi-panel figures (a), (b), (c), etc., preferably in the upper left corner, and refer to them in the text as, for example, Fig. 1(a). Please ensure that electronic artwork is prepared such that, after reduction to fit across one or two columns or two-thirds width (80 mm, 169 mm or 110 mm, respectively) as required, all lettering and symbols will be clear and easy to read, i.e. no labels should be too large or too small (not smaller than 9 point). Avoid using tints if possible; if they are essential to the understanding of the figure, try to make them coarse.

Maps at continental to global extents should be left unprojected when it is important to be able to read values from the map at precise locations defined by latitude and longitude (e.g., a global map of primary productivity). In contrast, when comparisons of area are important (e.g. species distributions), equal-area map projections (e.g. Mollweide or Aitoff's) are preferable. Authors must indicate the precise projection employed in the caption. On these maps, the equatorial scale should be indicated, while scale information should be provided, preferably as a scale bar within the figure, for all maps of whatever size and area.

File Formats
After acceptance of your manuscript for publication, figure files should be supplied as follows. Photographic figures should be saved in tif format at 300 d.p.i. (or failing that in jpg format with low compression, using RBG colour). Line figures should be saved as vector graphics (i.e. composed of lines, curves, points and fonts; not pixels) in eps or pdf format, or embedded as such in Word, as this enhances their display when published online.

Combination figures (those composed of vector and pixel/raster elements) should also be saved in eps or pdf format where possible (or embedded as such in Word). If line figures and combination figures cannot be saved in vector graphics format, they should be saved in tif format at high resolution (i.e. 600 d.p.i.) (do not save them in jpg format). If you are unsure about the resolution of your tif files, please zoom in and check that fonts, curves and diagonal lines are smooth-edged and do not appear blocky when viewed at high magnification. Note that line and combination figures supplied in tif format are downsampled for online publication and so authors should preferentially opt for vector graphic formats for these figure types (full resolution tif files are used for print publication).

Full artwork guidelines are given on the publisher’s web site.

Data Accessibility
Authors are strongly encouraged to make the data supporting their analyses publicly available. Authors must provide a statement of how other readers can access the data used in their paper, or, when data is not public providing a justification. This statement should be included after the Supporting Information section and before the Biosketch entry. A typical entry might read as follows:


All topographic and environmental GIS layers, the habitat suitability model and BTM results generated for this study are available as raster grids from the Pangaea database:

Revised 4th October 2016