Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia

Cover image for Vol. 41 Issue 2

Edited By: Shannon Axiak and Cynthia Trim

Impact Factor: 1.34

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 46/143 (Veterinary Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1467-2995

Author Guidelines

Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia

The official journal of the Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists, American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia; European College of Veterinary Anaesthesia; Veterinary Technician Anaesthesia Society; Academy of Veterinary Technician Anaesthetists; and the International Veterinary Academy of Pain Management

Edited by: KW Clarke and Cynthia Trim

Print ISSN: 1467-2987

Online ISSN: 1467-2995

Frequency: Bi-monthly

Current Volume: 41 / 2014

ISI Journal Citation Reports® Ranking: 2011: 58/143

Veterinary Sciences Impact Factor: 0.944 Top


Author Guidelines


Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia publishes original, peer-reviewed articles covering all branches of anaesthesia and the relief of pain in animals. Articles concerned with the following subjects related to anaesthesia and analgesia are also welcome: the basic sciences; pathophysiology of disease as it relates to anaesthetic management; equipment; intensive care; chemical restraint of animals including wildlife and exotic animals; welfare issues associated with pain and distress; education in veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia.

The following types of material will be published: 

• Research studies. 

• Review articles (including papers which clarify, summarize and critically evaluate the current literature). These will normally be invited by the Editors or a member of the Editorial Board, although unsolicited, acceptable material will be published. 

• Short communications describing small or preliminary experiments and their results. 

• Case reports (case-based studies; either single or multiple animals) 

• Historical notes, editorials and book reviews. 

• Letters. These may be clinical observations or comments which the correspondent believes to be of general interest to the readership, or the results of preliminary investigations. 

All original research, review articles, case reports and letters will be peer reviewed by at least two independent referees.

Animal ethics-based criteria for manuscript consideration


VAA uses the guide to ethical treatment of animals, as developed by the International Association of Veterinary Editors. All work commenced from July 2010 should comply as detailed below.  However, it is accepted that for work already completed, some aspects may need to be phased in.   Authors wishing to publish such work should consult the Editors.


Manuscripts will be considered for publication only if the work detailed therein:

1)    Follows international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for humane animal treatment; where national or institutional guidelines do not exist, international guidelines must be followed, e.g., National Institutes of Health3 or Euroguide4;

2)    Has been approved by a properly constituted internal ethics review committee at the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted;

3)    For studies using client-owned animals (public or private), demonstrates a high standard (best practice) of veterinary care and, as relevant, involves informed client/owner consent


Prior to acceptance of a manuscript, to verify compliance with the above policies, the authors must:

1)    Attest that legal and ethical requirements have been met with regards to the humane treatment of animals described in the study;

2)    Specify in Materials and Methods the ethical review committee approval process and the international, national, and/or institutional guidelines followed;

3)    If so requested, provide evidence, such as a signed animal use form or protocol number, of compliance with ethical review at the institution or practice;

4)    Provide evidence in Materials and Methods that the principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement have been met.


Animal ethics-based criteria for manuscript rejection


1)    Manuscripts and authors that fail to meet the aforementioned requirements;

2)    Studies that involve unnecessary death, pain, distress, suffering, or lasting harm to animals;

3)    The Editor retains the right to reject manuscripts on the basis of animal ethical or welfare concerns.




Manuscripts should be submitted online at

Full instructions and support are available on the site and a user ID and password can be obtained on the first visit. Support can be contacted by clicking the Get Help Now link which appears at the top right of every ScholarOne Manuscripts page (formerly known as Manuscript Central). If you cannot submit online, please contact Cherrylyn Arenga in the Editorial Office by email ( or by phone (+44 (0)1865 476327).

Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyright material from other sources.

Typescript Style

Typescripts must be written in English and must conform to the guidelines on the ScholarOne Manuscripts site or they will be returned immediately to the author(s) for correction. The typescript (Times New Roman 12pt) should be double-spaced with a 1" or 30 mm margin on each side. The lines should be numbered continuously.

Original research papers and review articles should usually not be longer than 5000 words. For Short Communications the manuscript should be <2000 words, have 10 or fewer references and either 1 figure or table (if needed). Letters to the editor should be <800 words, and have no more than 5 references.

The typescript for papers and short communications should be submitted in the following order: Title Page, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, References, Figure legends, Tables, Figures. 

The typescript for case reports should be submitted in the following order: Abstract, Introduction, Case history(ies) Diagnosis and management, Discussion, Conclusions.

Title Page

The title page should include a descriptive title for the article, the names [first name (if normally used in publication), initial(s) of middle name(s), surnames] and affiliations of all authors, and the full postal address and e-mail (if available), of the author to whom correspondence should be addressed. A suggested running title of not more than 50 characters including spaces should be included. This is an example of how the names and affiliations should be formatted:

Andrew Argue*, Brittany Banter* Charlotte Chatter† & Don Dolittle‡

*Department of Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Everywhere, Everywhere, Nation

†Companion Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Anywhere, Anywhere, Nation

‡Clinic of Orderly Conduct, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Somewhere, Somewhere, Country


Correspondence:Andrew Argue, Department of Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Everywhere, Everywhere, State, Nation, Postal code



Note that the affiliation address should be the one where the work was done.


Abstract and Keywords

The abstract should be on a separate page and should not exceed 300 words.

For original research articles a structured abstract should be used with the following titles: Objective, Study design, Animals or Animal population, Methods, Results, Conclusions and Clinical relevance.

For review articles the abstract should have the following headings: Objective, Databases used, Conclusions.

For Case Reports the Abstract headings should be History, Physical examination, Management, Follow-up, Conclusions.

Up to six keywords or key phrases should be listed after the abstract. Notes on writing structured abstracts are available from the editors.

Main Text

This should begin on a separate page. Sections within the main text should be appropriately sub-headed: Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, and Discussion. The manufacturers of drugs and equipment used in the research that are important to the methods should be stated in parentheses immediately after the first use of that item in the text. This should include the specific identification of the equipment or the trade name for a drug followed by the name of the company, state (if USA) and the country of origin (e.g. Datex CD 200-02; Datex, UK). Abbreviations and footnotes should be avoided.

Statistical guidelines

The following guidelines apply to some basic approaches to statistical analysis with respect to anesthesia and analgesia research but do not cover all eventualities.  The advice and involvement of a competent statistician during the design of the research is highly recommended.  The following sequence is suggested for statistical procedures:


1.       Start with a testable hypothesis using comprehensive information about the biological system under test.

2.       Use the best possible design for an experiment to test that hypothesis.  This should include careful calculations of the number of subjects or patients needed to demonstrate clinically relevant differences (see editorial in VAA 2003, 30, 59-61)

3.       Set up and conduct the experiment to conform to the specific design.

4.       Analyze and interpret the data according to the specific design used and determine whether the results support the hypothesis. Do not allow the results to determine the analysis. Reasoning after the fact is only valid as a basis for future work.

5.       Present the hypothesis, design, analysis, and interpretation in a clear and concise manner so that the reader can follow what was done.

Report the values to the same level of accuracy at which they were measured.  For example blood pressure is usually measured in whole integers so it should be reported as e.g. 100 ± 10 mm Hg.  An exception to this is when whole integer scoring scales are used, where reporting to one decimal place will allow the reader to see the differences between groups (e.g. an ordinal scale of 1,2,3,4 where scores are reported as 3.3 and 3.7).

Use mean and standard deviation (SD) rather than standard error (SEM) unless reporting large sets of population data.  In general the 95% confidence intervals are preferred over the SEM. Many biological variables are not normally distributed so it may be more appropriate to report the median and range or interquartile range of the data (if the SD is >half the mean then the data are not likely to be normally distributed).  When using ordinal scales (e.g. pain scales) these should be reported as median and range or interquartile range. When analyzing some data it may be appropriate to use transformation techniques that “normalize” them such as logarithms, square roots or exponentials.  The data should be reported as the original values even when the analysis is done in this way.  Non-parametric statistical tests may need to be used on some data that fall into this category.  This would be the case for most situations where ordinal scoring scales are used.

Report the actual P values calculated for the data e.g. P=0.034 not P<0.05 unless the statistical calculation only reports it this way.

When discussing the results it is important to point out the values that are statistically significant and those that are clinically significant.  It is common in anesthesia papers to measure pH and one may get statistical differences between values such as 7.425 and 7.409 but it is unlikely that this would be clinically significant.

Report the statistical software used to analyse the data, including the manufacturer, state (if USA), and country.


Acknowledgements should be brief and must include reference to sources of financial and logistical support. Author(s) should clear the copyright of material they wish to reproduce from other sources and this should be acknowledged.

Any other potential conflict of interest should be stated.

Acknowledgements should only appear on the title page and not on the main document to ensure anonymity through the peer-review process.


Harvard style should be used. Cite the author names followed by year of publication, e.g. (Jones 1997; Gregory 1999). Where there are two authors they should both be included with an ampersand e.g. (Pascoe & Bennett 1999). Where there are three or more authors, the first author's name followed by et al. should be used, e.g. (Williams et al. 1996). If there is more than one reference per year from an author then distinguish with a letter, e.g. 1997a, 1997b.

A detailed reference list should be supplied on a separate sheet, listed in alphabetical order of first author names. Journal titles should be abbreviated according to the standard forms in the National Library of Medicine, USA, database (Medline or Pubmed). Book titles should be written out in full. The following are examples of style:

Young LE, Blissitt KJ, Clutton RE et al. (1998) Temporal effects of an infusion of dobutamine hydrochloride in horses anesthetized with halothane. Am J Vet Res 59, 1027-1032.

Hall LW, Taylor PM (1994) Anaesthesia of the Cat. (1st edn), Balliere Tindall, London, UK, pp. 189-193.

Pascoe PJ, Bennett RC (1999) Thoracic Surgery. In: Manual of Small Animal Anaesthesia and Analgesia. (1st edn). Seymour C, Gleed R (eds). BSAVA, Cheltenham, UK, pp 183-196.

Matthews NS, Hartsfield SM, Carroll GL et al. (1997) Maintenance and recovery from anesthesia with sevoflurane in 40 equine clinical cases. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of Veterinary Anaesthesiology, Thessaloniki, Greece, pp 125.

Bailey JE, Walsh MT, Webb AI et al. (1999) Anesthesia of the Florida Manatee (Trichcus manatus). Vet Surg 28, 133 (abstract).

Seeler DC, Turnwald GH, Bull KS (1999) From teaching to learning:Part III. Lectures and approaches to active learning. J Vet Med Educ 21


Clear tables which contain essential data are welcome. Each table must be type-written on a separate sheet and should include a clear title that describes the information in the table such that the reader can understand it without reference to the text. Tables should be numbered in the same way as figures and given on separate pages at the end of the typescript. Only horizontal lines should be used for tables, one above and one below the column headings and one at the table foot.



Each illustration (or figure) should have a clear legend that describes the information such that the reader can understand it without reference to the text.  The legends to all the figures should be provided on a page separate to the illustrations (see typescript style section above).

Illustrations should be referred to in the text as figures using Arabic numbers (e.g. Fig. 1) in order of appearance.

Colour images are welcome BUT their reproduction will be charged at cost (see below). Please contact the Editorial Office for details. Line drawings should be on separate sheets. Avoid using tints. If they are essential to the understanding of the figure please try to make them coarse. Each figure should have a legend clearly describing it (see tables above) and the legends should be grouped together and supplied on a separate sheet at the end of the typescript.

It is the policy of Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour artwork. Therefore, please note that if there is colour artwork in your manuscript when it is accepted for publication, Wiley Blackwell require you to complete and return a colour work agreement form before your paper can be published. This form can be downloaded as a PDF from the internet. The web address for the form is:


If you are unable to download the form, please contact the production editor:

Rechelle Tangcangco, Production Editor, Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia

And a form will be emailed to you.

Once completed, the original form (i.e. not a scan or fax) must be returned by mail to the Production Editor at the address above.

Any article received by Wiley Blackwell with colourwork will not be published until the form has been returned.

Electronic Artwork

We would like to receive your artwork in electronic form. Please save vector graphics (e.g. line artwork) in Encapsulated Postscript Format (EPS), and bitmap files (e.g. half-tones) in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). Detailed information on our digital illustration standards is available at:

Illustrations should be on separate sheets grouped together at the back of the typescript, headed as briefly as possible and numbered consecutively throughout the article. A guide to the appropriate position of each figure and table should be indicated in the text margin.

Supporting Information

Supporting Information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supporting Information include additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. Supporting Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format.

For further information on recommended file types and requirements for submission, please visit:

Peer Review

All articles submitted for consideration as original clinical and investigational papers or review articles will be peer reviewed by at least two independent referees, and a statistician, if appropriate. We aim to give authors a decision (rejection, rejection with encouragement to rework and resubmit, or acceptance subject to revision/copy editing) within three months of typescript submission.


People given authorship should meet all of the following criteria: contribution to the conception and design of the piece of work, or to analysis and interpretation of the data; contribution to the drafting or revision of the article; and approval of the version finally published. Participation in the acquisition of funding alone or data collection alone does not merit authorship.

Page Proofs and Offprints

The corresponding author will receive an email alert containing a link to a website. The proof can be downloaded as an Acrobat PDF (portable document format) file. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following website:

This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Authors may also use Acrobat Professional (or similar software) to add their corrections to the PDF electronically and return this file to the publishers. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. The corresponding author will be sent a link to a PDF copy of their paper once it has been published in a print issue. Additional paper offprints may be ordered online. Please click on the following link and fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields.

If you have queries about offprints please email


If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

Early View

Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia is covered by Wiley Blackwell's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

Author Material Archive Policy

Please note that unless specifically requested not to, Wiley Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted 2 months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible if you have not already done so.

Further Information

If you wish to discuss prospective submissions or to clarify the guidance outlined above, please contact either of the Editors at the addresses given above.