Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
© Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia
Edited By: Shannon Axiak and Cynthia Trim
Impact Factor: 1.776
ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 20/129 (Veterinary Sciences)
Online ISSN: 1467-2995
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia (VAA) publishes original, peer-reviewed articles covering all branches of anaesthesia and the relief of pain in animals. Articles concerned with the following subjects related to anaesthesia and analgesia are also welcome:
• the basic sciences,
• pathophysiology of disease as it relates to anaesthetic management,
• intensive care,
• chemical restraint of animals including wildlife and exotic animals,
• welfare issues associated with pain and distress,
• education in veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia.
VAA is making an effort to avoid publication bias and will publish negative studies that have been well-designed and conducted. VAA may use plagiarism-detection software.
VAA may use plagiarism-detection software.
- Prior to submission, please read the author guidelines carefully and review the authors’ checklist.
- It is highly recommended that novice writers consult the booklet Writing for Publication in Veterinary Medicine, which is available free online.
- Manuscripts should be submitted online at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/vaa.
- Full instructions and support are available on the site and a user ID and password can be obtained on the first visit. Support can be contacted by clicking the Get Help Now link which appears at the top right of every ScholarOne Manuscripts page (formerly known as Manuscript Central).
- Full instructions and support are available on the site and a user ID and password can be obtained on the first visit. Support can be contacted by clicking the Get Help Now link which appears at the top right of every ScholarOne Manuscripts page (formerly known as Manuscript Central). • If you cannot submit online, please contact the Editorial Assistant by email (VAAedoffice@wiley.com) or by phone (+44 (0)1865 476 327).
- Authors are personally responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyright material from other source
I. General Editorial and Ethical Issues
- VAA requires a statement of the authors’ individual contributions.
- VAA refers to The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) for the definition of authorship.
- ICMJE defines authors as those who:
1. Made substantial contributions to the conception and design of, or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data;
2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content;
3. Approved the final version to be published.
- Authors should meet conditions 1, 2 and 3. Otherwise they should be mentioned in acknowledgements.
- Participation in the acquisition of funding alone, translation and/or editing of the manuscript alone or data collection alone does not merit authorship.
- Except in the case of complex large-scale or multi-centre research, the number of authors should normally not exceed six.
- Please provide a statement in the cover letter defining the role of each author. For example:
M.D.: Data interpretation, statistical analysis and preparation of manuscript. R.G.: Design, data management, and preparation of manuscript.
B. Criteria for manuscript consideration
A manuscript will be considered for publication only if the work detailed therein:
- Is written in acceptable English;
- Adheres to the Consensus Author Guidelines on Animal Ethics and Welfare for Veterinary Journals developed by the International Association of Veterinary Editors;
- Follows international guidelines for humane animal treatment as outlined in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NRC 2011) and/or the Euroguide;
- Has been approved by the ethics review committee at the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted where such a committee exists;
- When such a committee does not exist, then approval should be obtained by an independent ethical review committee (please contact the editor for more information);
- For prospective studies using client-owned animals (public or private), demonstrates a high standard (best practice) of veterinary care and involves informed client consent (see editorial in VAA 2012, 39, 321-323);
- Describes clearly the primary and any secondary objectives of the study;
- Has made efforts in the study design to minimize the effects of subjective bias including blinding and randomization in the study design and data analysis;
- Explains, in the manuscript, how the number of animals was arrived at;
- Reports the number of animals used in each group for data analysis and the details of any animals or data that were not included in the analysis;
- Reports important adverse events in each group and any modifications to the experimental protocol made to reduce these events;
- Uses the ARRIVE guidelines as a basis for the design and the reporting of experimental studies, the CONSORT checklist for randomised clinical trials, the STROBE Statement for observational studies and PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
*”*Adherence to recommended reporting guidelines and the VAA authors‘ checklist will facilitate the review of your manuscript, increase the probability of its successful publication and improve the usability of research findings from your study in further research and clinical practice. Please consult the EQUATOR network (www.equator-network.org) for up-to-date reporting guidelines and other resources for manuscript preparation.***
Prior to acceptance of a manuscript, to verify compliance with the above policies, the authors must:
- Attest that the legal and ethical requirements have been met with regards to the humane treatment of animals described in the study;
- Specify in Materials and methods the ethical review committee approval process and the international, national, and/or institutional guidelines followed;
- If requested, provide evidence of ethical review, such as a signed animal-use form or protocol number at the institution or practice and/or copies of the signed informed client-consent form;
- Provide evidence in Materials and methods that the principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement have been met.
C. Criteria for immediate manuscript rejection:
- Manuscripts and authors failing to meet the aforementioned requirements;
- Studies that involve unnecessary death, pain, distress, suffering, or lasting harm to animals;
- Manuscripts that do not fit the scope of VAA;
- The Editors retain the right to reject manuscripts on the basis of the criteria stated above and the Editors’ decision is final.
D. Peer Review
All submissions, once deemed appropriate for review by the Editor, will be peer reviewed by at least two independent referees and a statistician, if appropriate. We aim to give authors a decision (rejection, rejection with encouragement to re-work and re-submit, or acceptance subject to revision/copy editing) within three months of typescript submission.
II. Types of Articles
A. Original Studies. These articles usually should aim to be approximately 3500 words with a maximum word count (after review) of 5000 words. Normally there should not be more than 30-40 references and 4-6 tables and/or figures. These articles include original experimental or clinical research and meta-analyses. They require a structured abstract with a maximum of 300 words containing the following headings: Objective, Study design, Animals or Animal population, Methods, Results, Conclusions and clinical relevance.
B. Review articles. Review articles are papers which clarify, summarize and critically evaluate the current literature and should usually have ≤5000 words. These will normally be invited by the Editors or a member of the Editorial Board, although unsolicited, acceptable material will be considered for publication. Databases and literature search strategy used should be defined in the Material and methods. The abstract should contain no more than 300 words and be structured with the following headings: Objective, Databases used, Conclusions.
C. Short Reviews--“What is the Evidence?” These are short review articles designed as a platform for discussion and debate of a specific topic or question. They should be from 1500 - 3500 words with approximately 20 references and up to four tables and/or figures (if needed). The abstract should contain no more than 300 words and be structured with the following headings: Objective, Databases used, Conclusions.
D. Short communications. Short communications describe small or preliminary experiments and their results. They should have a maximum of 2000 words; have ten or fewer references and no more than one figure or table. They require a structured abstract with a maximum of 300 words containing the following headings: Objective, Study design, Animals or Animal population, Methods, Results, Conclusions and clinical relevance.
E. Case reports (case-based studies; either single or multiple animals). In general, VAA is no longer publishing case reports. In exceptional circumstances, they may be considered. Please contact the Editors prior to submission.
F. Letters. Letters should not exceed 800 words or 5 references. These may be descriptions of new equipment, clinical observations, short case reports or comments that the correspondent believes to be of general interest to the readership. VAA does not routinely accept letters for publication criticizing existing publications. Where a reader feels such criticism is justified, they should write (by e-mail) directly to the Editors and they should aim to make their point in an objective, positive and constructive manner. The Editors will decide if or what action is required. The Editors’ decision is final.
G. Other types. Historical notes, editorials and book reviews are also published. These are generally invited by the Editors. Editorials usually should contain no more than 2500 words, 25 references and one table and/or figure. Please contact the Editors for more information.
III. Manuscript Preparation
A. Style and General Arrangement
- Manuscripts must be written in English and must conform to the guidelines on the ScholarOne Manuscripts site or they will be returned immediately to the author(s) for correction.
- The typescript should be Times New Roman 12pt.
- The manuscript should be double-spaced with a 1" or 30 mm margin on each side.
- The lines should be numbered continuously.
- Units (with some examples):
- Blood pressure: mmHg
- Airway pressure: cm H2O
- Otherwise SI units, except for blood gas and vapour pressure values where both mmHg and kPA should be provided.
- Drug dosages: mg kg-1, mg kg hour-1
- Concentration: µg mL-1, L kg-1
- Flow: L minute-1
- Abbreviations should be defined first in the abstract and then again in the manuscript:
*Intravenous (IV), Intramuscular (IM)
*Respiratory frequency (fR)
*Tidal Volume (VT)
*Minute Ventilation (VE)
*Cardiac Output (Qt) or (CO)
*Arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2)
- Use numerals for numbers greater than 10 and words for numbers less than 10.
* Use numerals for things that are measured (5 weeks, 5 minutes)
* Use words for things that are not measured (five cats, five cells)
* Try to avoid numerals at the beginning of the sentence
* Always write ordinal numbers in full (fourth not 4th year)
* Use % (50% of cats not 50 percent)
- VAA conducts anonymous peer-review. When uploading your manuscript you will need to upload a manuscript file with no identifying author information (designate as Main Document) and a separate title page (designate as Title Page) with author details and Acknowledgements.
- Papers should be submitted in the following order:
- Cover Letter with Authors’ contributions and Funding;
- Separate Title Page with Acknowledgements;
- Abstract with Keywords;
- Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, References, Figure legends, Tables, Figures.
- Wiley now offers a service which will ensure your paper is clearly written in standard, scientific English language. Visit this site to learn about the options. Please note that using the Wiley English Language Editing Service does not guarantee that your paper will be accepted by this journal.
B. Cover Letter
The corresponding author should provide a brief cover letter. In this letter the details of the authors’ contributions (see Section A - Authorship) and funding should be included.
C. Title Page
The title page should include:
- a descriptive title for the article;
- the names [first name (if normally used in publication), initial(s) of middle name(s), surnames] and affiliations of all authors;
- the full postal address and e-mail of the author to whom correspondence should be addressed;
- a telephone number and fax number where the corresponding author can be reached;
- a suggested running title of not more than 40 characters including spaces.
This is an example of how the names and affiliations should be formatted:
Andrew Argue*, Brittany Banter* Charlotte Chatter† & Don Dolittle‡
*Department of Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Everywhere, Everywhere, Nation
†Companion Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Anywhere, Anywhere, Nation
‡Clinic of Orderly Conduct, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Somewhere, Somewhere, Country
Correspondence: Andrew Argue, Department of Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Everywhere, Everywhere, State, Nation, Postal code
Tel: 99 999 9999
Fax: 99 999 9998
Note that the affiliation address should be the one where the work was done.
D. Abstract and Keywords
- The abstract should be on a separate page and should not exceed 300 words.
- For original research articles and short communications a structured abstract should be used with the following titles: Objective, Study design, Animals or Animal population, Methods, Results, Conclusions and clinical relevance.
- For review articles and “What is the Evidence?” articles the abstract should be structured and usually should have the following headings: Objective, Databases used and Conclusions.
- Up to five keywords or phrases should be listed after the abstract. Ideally they should be MeSH headings. Note: these keywords are not necessarily the same that you will assign to your article during the submission process on ScholarOne.
- See this link for information on how to optimize your article for search engines.
E. Main Text
- This should begin on a separate page. Sections within the main text should be appropriately sub-headed: Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, and Discussion.
- The manufacturers of drugs and equipment used in the research that are important to the methods should be stated in parentheses immediately after the first use of that item in the text. This should include the specific identification of the equipment or the trade name for a drug followed by the name of the company, state (if USA) and the country from where it is sourced (e.g. Datex CD 200-02; Datex, UK). Abbreviations and footnotes should be avoided.
F. Statistical guidelines
The following guidelines apply to some basic approaches to statistical analysis with respect to anaesthesia and analgesia research but do not cover all eventualities. The advice and involvement of a competent statistician during the design of the research is highly recommended. The following sequence is suggested for statistical procedures:
- Start with a testable hypothesis using comprehensive information about the biological system under test.
- Use the best possible design for an experiment to test that hypothesis. This should include careful calculations of the number of subjects or patients needed to demonstrate clinically relevant differences (see editorial in VAA 2003, 30, 59-61).
- Set up and conduct the experiment to conform to the specific design.
- Analyze and interpret the data according to the specific design used and determine whether the results support the hypothesis. Do not allow the results to determine the analysis. Reasoning after the fact is only valid as a basis for future work.
- Present the hypothesis, design, analysis, and interpretation in a clear and concise manner so that the reader can follow what was done.
- Report the values to the same level of accuracy at which they were measured. For example blood pressure is usually measured in whole integers so it should be reported as e.g. 100 ± 10 mm Hg. An exception to this is when whole integer scoring scales are used, where reporting to one decimal place will allow the reader to see the differences between groups (e.g. an ordinal scale of 1,2,3,4 where scores are reported as 3.3 and 3.7).
- Use mean and standard deviation (SD) rather than standard error (SEM) unless reporting large sets of population data. In general the 95% confidence intervals are preferred over the SEM. Many biological variables are not normally distributed so it may be more appropriate to report the median and range or interquartile range of the data (if the SD is >half the mean then the data are not likely to be normally distributed). When using ordinal scales (e.g. pain scales) these should be reported as median and range or interquartile range.
- When analyzing some data it may be appropriate to use transformation techniques that “normalize” them such as logarithms, square roots or exponentials. The data should be reported as the original values even when the analysis is done in this way. Non-parametric statistical tests may need to be used on some data that fall into this category. This would be the case for most situations where ordinal scoring scales are used.
- Report the actual P values calculated for the data e.g. p=0.034 not p0.05 unless the statistical calculation only reports it this way.
- When discussing the results it is important to point out the values that are statistically significant and those that are clinically significant. It is common in anaesthesia papers to measure pH and one may get statistical differences between values such as 7.425 and 7.409 but it is unlikely that this would be clinically significant.
- Report the statistical software used to analyse the data, including the manufacturer, state (if USA), and country.
G. Acknowledgements and Conflicts of Interest
- Acknowledgements should be brief and must include reference to sources of material and logistical support.
- Author(s) should clear the copyright of material they wish to reproduce from other sources and this should be acknowledged.
- Acknowledgements should only appear on the title page and not on the main document to ensure anonymity through the peer-review process.
- Any other potential conflicts of interest should be stated.
- Harvard style should be used.
- Cite the author names followed by year of publication, e.g. (Jones 1997; Gregory 1999).
- Where there are two authors they should both be included with an ampersand e.g. (Pascoe & Bennett 1999).
- Where there are three or more authors, the first author's name followed by et al. should be used, e.g. (Williams et al. 1996). If there is more than one reference per year from an author then distinguish with a letter, e.g. 1997a, 1997b.
- A detailed reference list should be supplied on a separate page, listed in alphabetical order of first author names.
- Journal titles should be abbreviated according to the standard forms in the National Library of Medicine, USA, database (Medline or Pubmed).
- Book titles should be written out in full.
- An EndNote style download is available here.
- The following are examples of style:
- Young LE, Blissitt KJ, Clutton RE et al. (1998) Temporal effects of an infusion of dobutamine hydrochloride in horses anesthetized with halothane. Am J Vet Res 59, 1027-1032.
- Hall LW, Taylor PM (1994) Anaesthesia of the Cat (1st edn), Balliere Tindall, London, UK, pp. 189-193.
- Pascoe PJ, Bennett RC (1999) Thoracic Surgery. In: Manual of Small Animal Anaesthesia and Analgesia (1st edn). Seymour C, Gleed R (eds). BSAVA, Cheltenham, UK, pp 183-196.
- Matthews NS, Hartsfield SM, Carroll GL et al. (1997) Maintenance and recovery from anesthesia with sevoflurane in 40 equine clinical cases. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of Veterinary Anaesthesiology, Thessaloniki, Greece. pp 125 (abstract).
- Bailey JE, Walsh MT, Webb AI et al. (1999) Anesthesia of the Florida Manatee (Trichcus manatus). Vet Surg 28, 133 (abstract).
- Seeler DC, Turnwald GH, Bull KS (1999) From teaching to learning:Part III. Lectures and approaches to active learning. J Vet Med Educ 21 http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JVME/V21-1/Seeler1.html
- Clear tables which contain essential data are welcome.
- Each table must be type-written on a separate page and should include a clear title that describes the information in the table such that the reader can understand it without reference to the text.
- Tables should be numbered in the same way as figures and given on separate pages at the end of the typescript.
- Only horizontal lines should be used for tables, one above and one below the column headings and one at the table foot.
- Each illustration (or figure) should have a clear legend that describes the information such that the reader can understand it without reference to the text.
- The legends to all the figures should be provided on a page separate to the illustrations (see style section above).
- Illustrations need to be of adequate quality (see below). Please note that graphs drawn by many statistical packages then imported into a Word document do not reach this standard.
- Illustrations should be referred to in the text as figures using Arabic numbers (e.g. Figure 1) in order of appearance.
- Colour images are welcome BUT their reproduction will be charged at cost (see below). Please contact the Editorial Office for details.
- Authors can opt for black and white in print but colour online without charge.
- Line drawings should be on separate sheets. Avoid using tints. If they are essential to the understanding of the figure please try to make them coarse.
- It is the policy of Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour artwork. Therefore, please note that if there is colour artwork in your manuscript when it is accepted for publication, Wiley Blackwell require you to complete and return a colour work agreement form before your paper can be published. This form can be downloaded as a PDF from the internet. The web address for the form is: http://media.wiley.com/assets/7130/56/SN_Sub2000_F_CoW.pdf
- If you are unable to download the form, please contact the production editor: Rechelle Tangcangco, Production Editor, Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Once completed, the original form (i.e. not a scan or fax) must be returned by mail to the Production Editor at the address above.
K. Electronic Artwork
- We would like to receive your artwork in electronic form. Please save vector graphics (e.g. line artwork) in Encapsulated Postscript Format (EPS), and bitmap files (e.g. half-tones) in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). Detailed information on our digital illustration standards is available at: http://authorservices.wiley.com/prep_illust.asp
- Illustrations should be on separate sheets grouped together at the back of the typescript, headed as briefly as possible and numbered consecutively throughout the article. A guide to the appropriate position of each figure and table should be indicated in the text margin.
L. Supporting Information
- Supporting Information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supporting Information include additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files.
- Supporting Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format.
- For further information on recommended file types and requirements for submission, please visit: http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/suppinfo.asp
A. Page Proofs and Offprints
- The corresponding author will receive an email alert containing a link to a website. The proof can be downloaded as an Acrobat PDF (portable document format) file. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following website: http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html
- This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Authors may also use Acrobat Professional (or similar software) to add their corrections to the PDF electronically and return this file to the publishers. Further instructions will be sent with the proof.
- The corresponding author will be sent a link to a PDF copy of their paper once it has been published in a print issue. Additional paper offprints may be ordered online. Please click on the following link and fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields. http://offprint.cosprinters.com/cos/bw/main.jsp?SITE_ID=bw&FID=USER_HOME_PG
- If you have queries about offprints please email email@example.com
- If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.
- For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement:
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below: CTA Terms and Conditions http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp
C. For authors choosing OnlineOpen
- If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
- Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
- Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
- Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA
- To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp and visit http://www.wileyopenaccess.com/details/content/12f25db4c87/Copyright--License.html.
- If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit: http://www.wiley.com/go/funderstatement
D. Early View
- Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia is covered by Wiley Blackwell's Early View service.
- Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for allocation to a print issue.
- Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication.
- The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.
E. Author Material Archive Policy
- Please note that unless specifically requested not to, Wiley will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted 2 months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible if you have not already done so.
F. Further Information
- If you wish to discuss prospective submissions or to clarify the guidance outlined above, please contact either of the Editors at the addresses given above.
Last Updated: October 2014