Nutrition Bulletin

Cover image for Vol. 42 Issue 1

Edited By: Lucy Chambers, Sara Stanner and Judith Buttriss

Online ISSN: 1467-3010

Author Guidelines


The Nutrition Bulletin is the journal of the British Nutrition Foundation. Published quarterly, the Bulletin presents concise and informative articles about recent developments and current thinking in nutrition science. It provides an interface and forum for the communication of knowledge and transfer of ideas between nutrition experts and decision-makers in industry, university departments, research establishments and hospitals; GPs and other health professionals; teachers and other educators; policy makers; government departments and the media. The scientific quality of the Bulletin is maintained through a stringent editorial policy through submission of all review articles and original research to a peer review process, which is overseen by an international editorial board.

The Nutrition Bulletin publishes concise and informative articles about recent developments and current thinking in nutrition science. The Editors and Editorial Advisory Board welcome articles on issues relating to nutrition and health spanning all stages of the food chain from the cellular level, physiology, behaviour, and epidemiology through to issues affecting food manufacture and supply. Authors considering submitting review articles should contact the Editors in advance.

Nutrition Bulletin has now adopted ScholarOne Manuscripts, for online manuscript submission and peer review. The new system brings with it a whole host of benefits including:
• Quick and easy submission
• Administration centralised and reduced
• Significant decrease in peer review times

From now on all submissions to the journal must be submitted online at Full instructions and support are available on the site and a user ID and password can be obtained on the first visit. If you require assistance then click the Get Help Now link which appears at the top right of every ScholarOne Manuscripts page. If you cannot submit online, please contact Sara Stanner in the Editorial Office by telephone (+ 44 020 7404 6504) or by e-mail (

Please read the instructions below carefully for details on the submission of manuscripts, the journal's requirements and standards as well as information concerning the procedure after a manuscript has been accepted for publication in Authors are encouraged to visit for further information on the preparation and submission of articles and figures.


The Nutrition Bulletin adheres to the below ethical guidelines for publication and research.

2.1 Authorship and Acknowledgements

Authorship: Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors and that all authors agree to the submission of the manuscript to the Journal. ALL named authors must have made an active contribution to the conception and design and/or analysis and interpretation of the data and/or the drafting of the paper and ALL must have critically reviewed its content and have approved the final version submitted for publication. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship.

It is a requirement that all authors have been accredited as appropriate upon submission of the manuscript. Contributors who do not qualify as authors should be mentioned under Acknowledgements.

Acknowledgements: Under Acknowledgements please specify contributors to the article other than the authors accredited. Please also include specifications of the source of funding for the study and any potential conflict of interest, if appropriate. Suppliers of materials should be named and their location (town, state/county, country) included.

2.2. Ethical Approvals

All studies using human or animal subjects should include an explicit statement in the Methods section identifying the review and ethics committee, institutional council or review board approval for each study, if applicable. Authors will be asked during the submission process for confirmation that informed consent was obtained where appropriate. Editors reserve the right to reject papers if there is doubt as to whether appropriate procedures have been used.

2.3 Clinical Trials

Clinical trials should be reported using the CONSORT guidelines available at A CONSORT checklist should also be included in the submission material ( 2001 checklist.doc). Manuscripts reporting results from a clinical trial must provide the registration number and name of the clinical trial. Clinical trials can be registered in any of the following free, public clinical trials registries:,, The clinical trial registration number and name of the trial register will be published with the paper.

2.4 Conflict of Interest and Source of Funding

Conflict of Interest: Authors are required to disclose any possible conflict of interest. These include financial (for example patent, ownership, stock ownership, consultancies, speaker's fee). Author's conflict of interest (or information specifying the absence of conflicts of interest) will be published under a separate heading.

The Nutrition Bulletin requires that sources of institutional, private and corporate financial support for the work within the manuscript must be fully acknowledged, and any potential conflicts of interest noted. As of 1st March 2007, this information will be a requirement for all manuscripts submitted to the Journal and will be published in a highlighted box within the main body of the article. Please include this information under the separate headings of 'Source of Funding' and 'Conflict of Interest' at the end of your manuscript.

If the author does not include a conflict of interest statement in the manuscript then the following statement will be included by default: 'No conflicts of interest have been declared'.

Source of Funding: Authors are required to specify the source of funding for their research when submitting a paper. Suppliers of materials should be named and their location (town, state/county, country) included. The information will be disclosed in the published article.

2.3 Appeal of Decision

The decision on a paper is final and cannot be appealed.

2.4 Permissions

If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publishers. 

2.5 Copyright Assignment

Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the work and its essential substance have not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. The submission of the manuscript by the authors means that the authors automatically agree to assign copyright to the British Nutrition Foundation if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. The work shall not be published elsewhere in any language without the written consent of the publisher. The articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers translation rights and the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute all of the articles printed in the journal. No material published in the journal may be stored on microfilm or videocassettes, in electronic databases and the like, or reproduced photograpically without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Correspondence to the journal is accepted on the understanding that the contributing author licences the publisher to publish the letter as part of the journal or separately from it, in the excercise of any subsidiary rights relating to the journal and its contents.

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below: CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

For RCUK and Wellcome Trust authors click on the link below to preview the terms and conditions of this license:

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit


3.1 Submission Deadline Dates

For March issues, submission deadline is 1 November (of the previous year); for June issues, submission deadline is 1 February (of the same year); for September issues, submission deadline is 1 May (of the same year); for December issues, submission deadline is 1 August (of the same year). Please note that manuscripts submitted on time will not automatically be published in that issue. Manuscripts that are to appear in each issue are at the discretion of the Editors.

3.2 Blinded Review

All manuscripts submitted to the Nutrition Bulletin will be reviewed by at least one anonymous reviewer with expertise in that field, and the Editors. The Nutrition Bulletin uses single-blinded review. The names of the anonymous reviewers will thus not be disclosed to the author submitting a paper.


Articles including reviews, original research papers, short communications, items of topical interest, letters, book reviews and conference reports will be considered for publication. The use of tables, figures, drawings and photographs is encouraged to make the information more accessible and to break up large blocks of text.

Reviews are concise (between 2500 and 4000 words), critical but constructive and conclusive topical accounts written by experts in the field for non-specialists and covering the aspects of the broad range of topics of concern to those working in the field of nutrition and health. Reviews are usually commissioned by the Editors, but unsolicited reviews are welcomed. All reviews will be subjected to an anonymous peer-refereeing process. The Editors' decision is final.

Original research papers (2000-3000 words) report the results of new studies, usually controlled experimental studies or clinical trials. The results should not have been published elsewhere. Each paper should be presented in the internationally recognised format of abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, acknowledgements and references.  Original research papers are subjected to an anonymous peer-reviewing process.

Short communications, News & Views and items of topical interest (no more than 2000 words) may include brief original communications or comments on papers published elsewhere. Such items may also focus on smaller investigations, or be reports of newly available products with independent observation of their usefulness. Articles referring to the publication or content of recently published official documents and a discussion or comment on the impact of legislation may also come under this category.

Letters are published at the discretion of the Editors and in most cases refer to articles published in the Nutrition Bulletin. Comment on papers published elsewhere and items of topical interest will also be considered. Letters should not exceed 1000 words (including references), plus one figure or table. A right of reply, if appropriate, will be extended to the original authors at the discretion of the Editors. The covering letters of both the original letter and author-reply letter must bear the signatures of the persons who wish to be published signatories.

Book and other media reviews and conference reports also feature regularly in the Nutrition Bulletin.

Authors who would like to submit such articles should contact the Editors in advance for advice on the suitability of their proposal. The Editors retain the right to publish an article under whatever heading is considered appropriate. Topics of only narrow local interest will not be accepted unless they have wider potential or consequences. The Editors also reserve the right to: make the final decision whether or not a paper is accepted; make literary corrections and suggestions to improve brevity; modify manuscripts which do not conform to scientific, stylistic or grammatical standards. 


5.1 Format 

Authors are advised to read carefully and adhere to the following instructions. Authors should familiarise themselves with the style and content of articles in Nutrition Bulletin before preparing their submission. The requirements for authorship and for preparation of manuscripts submitted to Nutrition Bulletin are in accordance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (1993) Journal of the American Medical Association 269: 2282-2286).

Electronic Submission - The original submission should be via email.  Manuscripts should be typewritten, double-spaced on one side of plain white A4 (297x210mm) paper leaving a generous margin (25mm at the top, bottom and sides). Pages should be numbered serially. Carriage returns should not be used at the ends of lines within paragraphs. The hyphenation option should be turned off. Authors should indicate if a keyboard character has been used to represent a character not on their keyboard (e.g. Greek). All parts of the text should be as a single file. Authors must retain their own copy as the editors cannot accept responsibility for loss or damage.

Standard Usage, Abbreviations and Units - Manuscripts should be written in clear concise English. Nutrition Bulletin follows British conventions of spelling, grammar and punctuation, for which contributors may wish to consult Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University of Oxford (1994, Oxford University Press). 'Fetus' and 'fetal' should be spelled without 'o', and Nutrition Bulletin uses the 'ise' not 'ize' spelling of most words. The Oxford Shorter English Dictionary is the reference for spelling and hyphenation.

Any acronyms must be defined at first usage. The generic names of foods or drugs should be used unless trade names are directly relevant. Trade names should be designated by the use of the symbol (. Any specialised equipment, chemical or pharmaceutical product cited in the text must be accompanied by the name, city and country of the manufacturer.

Abbreviations should be used when long or unwieldy names occur frequently, but rarely in the title; they should be given at the first mention of the name. Chemical formulae and solutions must specify the form used, e.g. anhydrous or hydrated, and the concentration must be in clearly-defined units. Where molecular weight is known, the amount of a substance should be expressed in mol or appropriate sub-unit (mmol). Common species names should be followed by the Latin binomial in italics at the first mention. For subsequent use, the generic name should be contracted to a single letter if it is unambiguous. Authors should follow the standard abbreviations for measurements specified by Units, Symbols and Abbreviations: A Guide for Biological and Medical Editors and Authors (1988) published by the Royal Society of Medicine.

Statistics and measurements should always be given in figures, e.g. 10 min, except when the number begins a sentence. When the number does not refer to a unit of measurement it is spelt out unless it is 10 or greater. For 10 or more persons, objects, days, weeks, months or years, authors should use Arabic numerals. The exception to this are instances in which a comparison is being made between less than 10 persons, objects, etc. and 10 or more; for these comparisons, authors should use Arabic numerals for consistency (e.g. 1 in 10). The solidus (/) should be used for expressing quantity (e.g. g/day, l/min).

With the exception of blood pressure (mmHg) and haemoglobin (g/l) measurements should normally be expressed in SI units. If other units are used, a conversion factor should be included. Energy should be expressed in kilojoules (kJ) or megajoules (MJ). Kilocalories (kcal) may be included in parentheses if the author sees this as appropriate.

Contributions from overseas are very welcome and authors whose first language is not English should seek help and advice from a colleague fluent in written English.

5.2 Structure

Articles should contain pages in the following sequence:

Title page: A separate title page (page 1). The full title of the article should give an informative and accurate indication of its content (the Editors reserve the right to shorten any title which is excessively or unnecessarily long), and use terms which will be understood by the majority of the readers of Nutrition Bulletin. A short running head, derived from the title, of not more than 50 characters including spaces should also be suggested. The title page should include the author(s) name(s) (initials and surname) and qualifications and the author(s) affiliation(s). If more than one author, the person designated as the author responsible for correspondence and proofs should be indicated together with current telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address.

Main body of text (beginning on page 2): The text can be subdivided as appropriate into sections described by short headings. References should be cited using the Harvard style (see examples below). Footnotes should not be used except in tables.

Acknowledgements: All support, financial or otherwise, for any work described should be acknowledged, with the exception of support from employing institutions identifiable from the title page. It is the responsibility of authors to inform the Editors about potential conflicts of interest. These must be outlined in a covering letter to the Editors.

5.3 References

It is essential that all citations and references are checked carefully before submission. Nutrition Bulletin follows the conventions of the Harvard reference list system. References in the text should be quoted in parentheses by author's name(s) and year of publication and should be listed in chronological order when two or more occur together. For references with two authors only, both names should be given.If there are 4 or more authors, please supply the first 3 author names then et al. Where references are by the same author and of the same date, these should be identified by adding a letter (e.g. Smith 1998a,b).

References must be listed in alphabetical order in the reference list. This should begin on a separate page immediately following the main body of the text. Journal titles must be given in full, and last as well as first page cited. If there are four or more authors, list the first three followed by et al.

As a guide for the citation style of the varied types of sources, contributors should consult the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.

The following examples illustrate the correct style:

Gibson RS & Ferguson EL (1998) Nutrition intervention strategies to combat zinc deficiency in developing countries. Nutrition Research Reviews 11: 115-131.

Steptoe A, Perkins-Porras L, McKay C et al. (2003b) Psychological factors associated with fruit and vegetable intake and with biomarkers in adults from a low-income neighborhood. Health Psychology 22: 148-155.

Department of Health (1991) Report on Health and Social Subjects, No 41. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK. Report of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. HMSO: London.

Newsholme EA & Leech AR (1983) Biochemistry for the Medical Sciences. John Wiley and Sons Ltd: Chichester.

Southgate, DAT (1993) Food composition tables. In: Human Nutrition and Dietetics (eds JS Garrow & WPT James), 9th edn, pp 264-272. Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh.

References are only acceptable if already published or if formal acceptance has been given for publication. Accepted papers not yet published may be cited as references in the text, and in the reference list should include the title, the designated journal and the words 'in press' in parentheses. Unpublished work, personal communications, and information from unpublished sources must only be cited where absolutely necessary, and only in the text as 'unpublished observations' in parentheses.

The editor and publisher recommend that citation of online published papers and other material should be done via DOI (digital object identifier), which all reputable online published material should have - see for more information. If an author cites anything which does not have a DOI they run the risk of the cited material not being traceable.

We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting. Please visit the website below for this service:

5.4 Tables, Figures and Figure Legends 

Tables - Tables should be double-spaced on separate sheets. There should be no internal vertical rules, and the horizontal rules should be just above the table, just below the table, and one separating the column headings from the content of the table. Tables should be carefully designed, uncrowded, and include only essential data. Tables should not have more than 85 characters to a line (counting spaces between columns as 4 characters) and certainly not more than 110 characters to a line, unless absolutely unavoidable. Tables should be numbered sequentially with Arabic numerals (e.g. 'Table 1') followed by a brief self-explanatory caption. The presentation of data and information given in the table headings should not duplicate information already given in the text. Column headings should be very brief, abbreviated if possible with explanatory footnotes. All numerical values should be defined as specifically, briefly, and clearly as possible.

Figures and Illustrations - Original drawings or photographs should be supplied for reproduction. Figures will be reduced to single column width (no more than 80 mm) or double column width (no less than 140 mm and no greater than 170 mm) and should be planned accordingly. Illustrations should not be larger than A4, should be separate from the text, and numbered with Arabic numerals. Line drawings and photographs (clear, sharp, well-contrasted) should be of good quality. Computer generated illustrations must be submitted as laser printer output at a resolution of 300 dots per inch (or greater). The size of lettering should be consistent, ideally no larger than 10-point and never any smaller than 8-point. Figures should be drawn boldly in black, each on a separate sheet of white paper. Figures should be drawn so that on reduction they will fit within the type area, and that lines, figures and symbols will still be clearly legible and not overcrowded. Photographs must not be mounted, nor glossy prints retouched. They should be of good contrast, well matched and preferably with a transparent overlay for protection. All photographs should be of sufficiently high contrast to withstand the loss of contrast inherent in the printing process. Any lettering or arrows should be included on the photograph. An adhesive label bearing the figure number, the first named author and an arrow indicating the top margin of the figure should be attached on the back of each figure. Three copies of each illustration should accompany the manuscript. All illustrations must be given Arabic numerals in the text and on the back of the figure, where the title of the paper and the authors' names must also be marked. Authors should indicate in the margin of their manuscript the ideal place for inserting illustrations. Authors wishing the return of their illustrations must advise the Editorial office, otherwise these will be destroyed after publication.

Figure Legends - Self-explanatory legends of all figures should be provided and include keys to symbols and the statistical significance of differences.

Tables, Figures and Illustrations - Tables and figures should be comprehensible without reference to the text and any abbreviations defined in footnotes.

Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication - Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (line art) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-orientated programmes. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size (see below). Please submit the data for figures in black and white or submit a Colour Work Agreement Form (see Colour Charges below). EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible).

For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: line art >600 dpi; halftones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi.

Further information can be obtained at Wiley-Blackwell's guidelines for figures:

Check your electronic artwork before submitting it:

Permissions: If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publisher.

Colour Charges: It is the policy of the Nutrition Bulletin for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour artwork. Therefore, please note that if there is colour artwork in your manuscript when it is accepted for publication, Wiley-Blackwell require you to complete and return a Colour Work Agreement Form before your paper can be published. Any article received by Wiley-Blackwell with colour work will not be published until the form has been returned.

Note to NIH Grantees: Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see


Upon acceptance of a paper for publication, the manuscript will be forwarded to the Production Editor who is responsible for the production of the journal.

6.1 Proof Corrections

The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a website. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF from this site. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following website: This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Hard copy proofs will be posted if no e-mail address is available; in your absence, please arrange for a colleague to access your e-mail to retrieve the proofs.

Copy editing (amendments of spelling and grammar to conform to house style) is performed before a paper is formally accepted. Minor alterations will not be seen by the authors until the proof stage. The Editors reserve the right to ask authors to check inconsistencies in the text or reference list.

Authors are advised that they are responsible for proof reading of the text, references, tables and figures for absolute accuracy, including typographical errors, spelling and punctuation and numerical matter. Figures may have been redrawn and should therefore be checked particularly carefully at proof stage. The author named for correspondence will receive page proofs for correction. New material cannot be accepted at this stage and any re-writing of paragraphs is not permitted.

Proofs must be returned to the Production Editor within three days of receipt.

6.2 Author Services

Online production tracking is available for your article through Blackwell’s Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their article – once it has been accepted – through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

For more substantial information on the services provided for authors, please see Wiley-Blackwell Author Services.

6.3 Author Material Archive Policy

Please note that unless specifically requested, Blackwell Publishing will dispose of all material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or Production Editor as soon as possible.

6.4 Offprints and Extra Copies

The corresponding author will be sent a free PDF offprint of their article. Information about the purchase of further reprints can be obtained from the Editors on request.