Developmental Science

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 2

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Charles A. Nelson, Michelle de Haan, and Paul C. Quinn

Impact Factor: 3.808

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 7/68 (Psychology Developmental); 8/85 (Psychology Experimental)

Online ISSN: 1467-7687

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  1. 1 - 74
  1. Short Reports

    1. Implicit expectations influence target detection in children and adults

      Philipp Ruhnau, Erich Schröger and Elyse S. Sussman

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12402

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      We investigated the influence of predictability on target processing indexed by behavioral responses and the P3b in children and young adults. Our results demonstrate that (implicit) target stimulus predictability increases processing speed in children and adults (earlier P3b latencies and shorter RTs for predictable targets). Interestingly, children did benefit even more from predictability of targets than young adults.

  2. Special Issue Articles

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Multivariate pattern classification of pediatric Tourette syndrome using functional connectivity MRI

      Deanna J. Greene, Jessica A. Church, Nico U.F. Dosenbach, Ashley N. Nielsen, Babatunde Adeyemo, Binyam Nardos, Steven E. Petersen, Kevin J. Black and Bradley L. Schlaggar

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12407

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      In the present paper, we used a multivariate approach – namely support vector machine (SVM) classification – to discriminate children with Tourette syndrome (TS) and unaffected controls based on resting state functional connectivity data. While univariate analyses found no significant group differences, SVM classified group membership with ~70% accuracy. Thus, there are multivariate patterns of functional connectivity that can discriminate TS from controls.

  3. Papers

    1. Developmental bias for number words in the intraparietal sulcus

      Courtney A. Lussier and Jessica F. Cantlon

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12385

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      When making magnitude judgments, there is a dissociation between number words and object words that emerges by at least 8 years of age in children: the IPS processes number words and ventral temporal cortex processes object words. Number words likely dissociate from object words because, as we show, they are rooted in numerosity judgments of physical sets.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Reduced adaptability, but no fundamental disruption, of norm-based face coding following early visual deprivation from congenital cataracts

      Gillian Rhodes, Mayu Nishimura, Adelaide de Heering, Linda Jeffery and Daphne Maurer

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12384

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      The updating of face norms by experience is reduced in cataract-reversal patients, suggesting a role for early visual experience in the development of adaptive face-coding mechanisms.

  5. Papers

    1. Cultural differences in self-recognition: the early development of autonomous and related selves?

      Josephine Ross, Mandy Yilmaz, Rachel Dale, Rose Cassidy, Iraz Yildirim and M. Suzanne Zeedyk

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12387

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      This study describes cultural differences in rural Zambian, urban Scottish and urban Turkish infants' performance on two established self-awareness tasks. Autonomous settings were associated with success in mirror self-recognition, whereas related settings were associated with success in the ‘body-as-obstacle’ task.

  6. Special Issue Articles

    1. Predicting writing development in dual language instructional contexts: exploring cross-linguistic relationships

      Robert Savage, Meagan Kozakewich, Fred Genesee, Caroline Erdos and Corinne Haigh

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12406

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      This 5 year longitudinal study predicted writing in English and French in grade 6 from within- and cross-language word decoding and oral linguistic comprehension abilities in Grade 1. Results showed significant predictive power for both factors, and more particularly for tasks involving sentence formulation in grade 1, suggesting cross-language facilitation.

  7. Papers

    1. Trust matters: Seeing how an adult treats another person influences preschoolers' willingness to delay gratification

      Laura E. Michaelson and Yuko Munakata

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12388

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      Children's willingness to delay gratification is typically interpreted in terms of cognitive control, but may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised. We manipulated preschoolers' impressions of social trust by having them observe an adult either lie or behave honestly with another person, and then measured their willingness to delay gratification for a reward promised by that adult in the classic marshmallow task. Preschoolers waited less time, and were less likely to wait the full 15 min delay period, for rewards that had been promised by an untrustworthy adult relative to a trustworthy adult.

  8. Short Reports

    1. Patterns of attention to threat across tasks in behaviorally inhibited children at risk for anxiety

      Santiago Morales, Bradley C. Taber-Thomas and Koraly E. Pérez-Edgar

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12391

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      Cross-task convergence of attentional bias to threat was dependent on children's temperament (behavioral inhibition). In addition, children with a consistent bias across tasks had higher levels of anxiety, suggesting that convergence across attention bias measures may be dependent on individuals' predispositions (e.g. temperament), and convergence may serve as a marker of information processing patterns shaping socioemotional outcomes.

  9. Papers

    1. Associations of non-symbolic and symbolic numerical magnitude processing with mathematical competence: a meta-analysis

      Michael Schneider, Kassandra Beeres, Leyla Coban, Simon Merz, S. Susan Schmidt, Johannes Stricker and Bert De Smedt

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12372

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      This is the first meta-analysis on the association of non-symbolic and symbolic magnitude comparison with mathematical competence. We synthesized 284 effect sizes from 17,201 participants. Associations with mathematical competence were stronger for symbolic than for non-symbolic measures. Measures of comparison and mathematical competence strongly moderated the effect sizes.

  10. Special Issue Articles

    1. Functional connectivity of brain regions for self- and other-evaluation in children, adolescents and adults with autism

      Catherine A. Burrows, Angela R. Laird and Lucina Q. Uddin

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12400

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      Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate differences in self-referential processing, which may contribute to reduced understanding of themselves and others. We examined functional connectivity of brain regions underlying self and other-referential processing in individuals with ASD across development. Children with ASD demonstrated functional underconnectivity of both regions of interest compared with typically developing individuals, while older individuals showed fewer group differences.

  11. Original Articles

    1. Selective attention to a talker's mouth in infancy: role of audiovisual temporal synchrony and linguistic experience

      Anne Hillairet de Boisferon, Amy H. Tift, Nicholas J. Minar and David J. Lewkowicz

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12381

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      Studies show that infants shift their relative attention to a talker's eyes and mouth over the course of the first year of life and that these shifts are modulated by whether the talker speaks in a native or non-native language. We investigated whether the temporal synchrony of the auditory and visual speech that normally emanates from a talker's mouth affects attention by presenting desynchronized native and non-native audiovisual speech and tracking eye gaze in groups of 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-, and 12 month-old infants. Findings showed that desynchronization of both types of speech eliminated the usually observed preference for the talker's mouth at 10 but not at 8 months of age. This indicates that the multisensory redundancy of synchronous audiovisual speech plays a key role in recruiting infant attention to a talker's mouth during the canonical babbling stage, a key phase in the acquisition of speech production capacity.

  12. Papers

    1. The role of early visual input in the development of contour interpolation: the case of subjective contours

      Bat-Sheva Hadad, Daphne Maurer and Terri L. Lewis

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12379

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      Patients with early monocular deprivation show greater deficits, than those exhibited by patients with comparable binocular deprivation, in interpolating weakly supported contours. The results point to the detrimental effect of unequal competition between the eyes for cortical connections on the later development of the mechanisms underlying contour interpolation.

    2. Bilingualism alters children's frontal lobe functioning for attentional control

      Maria M. Arredondo, Xiao-Su Hu, Teresa Satterfield and Ioulia Kovelman

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12377

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      This fNIRS study investigated the impact of bilingual exposure on children's brain organization for attentional control (N = 27, ages 7-13). During a non-verbal attention task, bilinguals showed greater left frontal lobe activation than monolinguals. Monolinguals showed greater right frontal lobe activation than bilinguals. The findings suggest that bilingualism affects the functionality of children's left prefrontal cortex for attentional control.

  13. Short Reports

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Understanding the genetic and environmental specificity and overlap between well-being and internalizing symptoms in adolescence

      Claire M.A. Haworth, Kathryn Carter, Thalia C. Eley and Robert Plomin

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12376

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      Well-being is more than the absence of mental illness. Although genetic and environmental influences on mental illness were partly shared with those on well-being there were also significant genetic and environmental influences that were specific to measures of positive well-being in adolescence.

  14. Papers

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A cross-syndrome study of the differential effects of sleep on declarative memory consolidation in children with neurodevelopmental disorders

      Anna Ashworth, Catherine M. Hill, Annette Karmiloff-Smith and Dagmara Dimitriou

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12383

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      This novel study showed the expected pattern of sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation in typically developing children. Children with Down syndrome benefited from morning (as opposed to evening) learning and children with Williams syndrome had improved recall following a break from testing, regardless of whether the retention interval was of sleep or wake.

  15. Short Reports

    1. Unimpaired attentional disengagement in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder

      Jason Fischer, Hayley Smith, Frances Martinez-Pedraza, Alice S. Carter, Nancy Kanwisher and Zsuzsa Kaldy

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12386

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      A prominent hypothesis holds that ‘sticky’ attention early in life in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) limits their ability to explore and learn about the world, but evidence for this claim is inconsistent. Here, we tested attentional disengagement abilities in a group of toddlers just diagnosed with ASD, along with age-matched typical controls. We found no evidence of sticky attention in toddlers with ASD, and strikingly similar performance between the ASD and TD groups. Our findings indicate that impaired attentional disengagement probably does not play a causal role in the early development of ASD.

  16. Papers

    1. Development in reading and math in children from different SES backgrounds: the moderating role of child temperament

      Zhe Wang, Brooke Soden, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Sarah L. Lukowski, Victoria J. Schenker, Erik G. Willcutt, Lee A. Thompson and Stephen A. Petrill

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12380

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      Although higher SES risks are generally associated with poorer academic outcomes, this relation is not universal. The current study shows that high effortful control, low surgency, and low negative affect gradually help compensate for the academic disadvantages associated with SES constraints.

  17. Short Reports

    1. Colour and emotion: children also associate red with negative valence

      Sandrine Gil and Ludovic Le Bigot

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12382

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      Current theories about colour-emotion associations suggest two possible sources of this association: evolution and lifetime learning. This raises the question of whether colour-meaning associations change across development. We investigated (1) whether children implicitly associate the colour red with negative meaning, as has already been observed in adults, and (2) whether this association changes across development. The findings revealed that a red-meaning association influences how children perceive targets (i.e. ambiguous emotional faces against colour backgrounds), but failed to reveal any change across development (i.e. 5- to 10 year-old children).

  18. Papers

    1. Early childhood cortisol reactivity moderates the effects of parent–child relationship quality on the development of children's temperament in early childhood

      Daniel C. Kopala-Sibley, Lea R. Dougherty, Margret W. Dyson, Rebecca S. Laptook, Thomas M. Olino, Sara J. Bufferd and Daniel N. Klein

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12378

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      In the current study, a better quality parent-child relationship predicted increases in PE in less reactive children, whereas a poorer quality relationship predicted increases in NE for more highly reactive children.

  19. Short Reports

    1. Motor training at 3 months affects object exploration 12 months later

      Klaus Libertus, Amy S. Joh and Amy Work Needham

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12370

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      Reaching experiences were systematically manipulated in 3-month-old infants using ?Sticky Mittens’. When assessed 12 months after their training, infants showed increased grasping and object directed attention skills. Early reaching experiences seem to initiate developmental cascades that facilitate subsequent learning and exploration.

  20. Papers

    1. Children with autism are impaired in the understanding of teaching

      John Knutsen, David S. Mandell and Douglas Frye

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12368

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      In this study we investigated the understanding of teaching in ASD. Compared to matched TD controls, children with ASD were impaired in their comprehension that teaching is an intentional activity that requires a knowledge difference between teacher and learner.

    2. Auditory and proprioceptive spatial impairments in blind children and adults

      Giulia Cappagli, Elena Cocchi and Monica Gori

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12374

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      There is a general consensus on the crucial role of visual experience in guiding the maturation of space cognition in the brain (Thinus-Blanc & Gaunet, 1997). We tested congenitally blind children and adults in two spatial tasks (auditory distance discrimination and proprioceptive reproduction). We found a substantial spatial impairment in congenitally blind children and adults for auditory distance discrimination and proprioceptive reproduction, but we did not observe the same trend in a small group of late blind adults. The results support the idea that vision is crucial for the development of space perception and highlight the importance of cross-sensory input for calibration of sensory systems during development.

    3. Testing enhances subsequent learning in older but not in younger elementary school children

      Alp Aslan and Karl-Heinz T. Bäuml

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12340

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      Testing of previously studied nontarget lists (Lists 1-3) enhanced recall of a subsequently studied target list (List 4), and reduced number of intrusions from the nontarget lists during recall of the target list in adults and older elementary school children, but not in younger elementary school children.

    4. Genetic associations with reflexive visual attention in infancy and childhood

      Rebecca A. Lundwall, James L. Dannemiller and H. Hill Goldsmith

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12371

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      Participants completed a moving bar task as infants and again as children. Static bars exerted a distracting effect. We found that percent and response time to look at the moving bar was associated with SLC6A3 in infants and CHRNA4, COMT, and DRD4 for children.

  21. Special Issue Articles

    1. Atypical developmental of dorsal and ventral attention networks in autism

      Kristafor Farrant and Lucina Q. Uddin

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12359

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      Individuals with autism exhibit a variety of deficits in attention processes, yet brain networks supporting attention in autism have not been systematically investigated. We examined functional connectivity of dorsal and ventral attention networks in children and adults with autism and found that compared with neurotypical individuals, functional hyper-connectivity is observed in children with ASD, whereas functional hypo-connectivity is observed in adults with the disorder.

  22. Papers

    1. Beyond naïve cue combination: salience and social cues in early word learning

      Daniel Yurovsky and Michael C. Frank

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12349

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      Over the first two years, children appear to rely more on social and less on perceptual cues to learn the meanings of words. One account of this development is that children may gradually learn that social cues are more reliable than perceptual cues. In two experiments, however, we show that these changes emerge not from learning the predictive power of social cues, but instead from the gradual development of attention, memory, and speed of information processing.

    2. Transitive inference of social dominance by human infants

      Regina Paxton Gazes, Robert R. Hampton and Stella F. Lourenco

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12367

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      We used a violation-of-expectation paradigm to compare looking time to test videos of social dominance interactions that were congruent (expected) or incongruent (unexpected) with inferred social dominance relations between three puppets. Infants as young as 10 months looked longer to the incongruent than to the congruent test trials, and control conditions (one of which is depicted here) ruled out the possibility that these differences were due to expectations about the behavior of individual puppets. These results indicate that competence with TI in the social domain emerges as early as 10 months of age and may be supported by nonverbal, phylogenetically ancient ordinal and visuospatial processes.

    3. Bilingual enhancements have no socioeconomic boundaries

      Jennifer Krizman, Erika Skoe and Nina Kraus

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12347

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      To understand how socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism simultaneously operate on cognitive and sensory function, we examined executive control, language skills, and subcortical neural processing of sound in adolescents who differed in language experience (i.e. English monolingual or Spanish-English bilingual) and level of maternal education (a proxy for SES). Adolescent bilinguals of both low and high SES demonstrate more stable neural responses, stronger phonemic decoding skills, and heightened executive control, relative to their monolingual peers. These results support the argument that bilingualism can bolster cognitive and neural function in adolescents regardless of SES.

    4. The origins of word learning: Brain responses of 3-month-olds indicate their rapid association of objects and words

      Manuela Friedrich and Angela D. Friederici

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12357

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      Three-month-old infants learned pairings of eight novel objects and eight novel words within only four consistent repetitions, but they did not retain them in long-term memory until the next day. In the memory test infants relearned the combinations, even though objects and words were paired consistently in only half of their overall pairings. Instead of the N400 component that evidences the learning of word meanings in the ERP of older infants, a late left-hemispheric negativity indicated the learning of object-word pairings in 3-month-olds. This result represents the first neurophysiological distinction between ‘higher’ lexical-semantic learning and associative ‘proto-word’ learning.

    5. Relation of infant motor development with nonverbal intelligence, language comprehension and neuropsychological functioning in childhood: a population-based study

      Fadila Serdarevic, Tamara van Batenburg-Eddes, Sabine E. Mous, Tonya White, Albert Hofman, Vincent W.V. Jaddoe, Frank C. Verhulst, Akhgar Ghassabian and Henning Tiemeier

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12326

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      Early infant motor development, assessed by hands-on examination at around age 3 months, predicted immediate visual memory and mental rotation in school children in a population-based study of 3356 children.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Categorization in infancy: labeling induces a persisting focus on commonalities

      Nadja Althaus and Kim Plunkett

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12358

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      Twelve-month-old infants were familiarized with a novel object category in silence or with labels. Infants succeeded in forming a new category in both conditions. However, the processes underlying category formation differ when familiarization objects are presented with or without labels. In the absence of labels infants' attention is drawn to variability in category features. The presence of labels promotes attention to the commonalities between category exemplars.

    7. On the relationship between phonological awareness, morphological awareness and Chinese literacy skills: evidence from an 8-year longitudinal study

      Jinger Pan, Shuang Song, Mengmeng Su, Catherine McBride, Hongyun Liu, Yuping Zhang, Hong Li and Hua Shu

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12356

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      This article investigates the longitudinal relationship between preliterate and post-literate phonological awareness and morphological awareness, and their contributions to Chinese literacy skills. Our results suggest the importance of preliterate syllable awareness and post-literate morphological awareness in Chinese literacy skills. These findings underscore the unique relation of syllable awareness and morphological awareness in Chinese as they are mapped onto a character, which is the basic unit in Chinese reading.

  23. Short Reports

    1. Action observation network in childhood: a comparative fMRI study with adults

      Laura Biagi, Giovanni Cioni, Leonardo Fogassi, Andrea Guzzetta, Giuseppina Sgandurra and Michela Tosetti

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12353

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      In this study, functional MRI was used to explore the activation of the action-observation network in children and adults. Respect to adults, children show a similar pattern of fMRI activation for observation of manual action, but less lateralized and with a higher inter-subject variability. Moreover, as in adults, the anterior intraparietal cortices (AIP) of children present a hand identity effect, showing higher response during observation of the contralateral hand (hand identity effect) and during the observation of complex actions relative to simple grasping acts.

    2. Longitudinal evidence linking processing speed to the development of reasoning

      Robert V. Kail, Arne Lervåg and Charles Hulme

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12352

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      This longitudinal study examined the direct effects of age-related change in processing speed on reasoning as well as indirect effects of processing speed mediated by working memory. The findings indicated that faster processing speed is associated longitudinally with improved reasoning but indirect influences via working memory were less consistent.

  24. Articles

    1. Preschool children's control of action outcomes

      Livia Freier, Richard P. Cooper and Denis Mareschal

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12354

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      Preschoolers' strategy-guided acting differed for 3- and 5-year-olds on a naturalistic colouring task. All children attained goals at subordinate levels of the goal hierarchy but only 5-year-olds monitored action outcomes in line with the overarching goal of the task.

  25. Papers

    1. Splenium development and early spoken language in human infants

      Meghan R. Swanson, Jason J. Wolff, Jed T. Elison, Hongbin Gu, Heather C. Hazlett, Kelly Botteron, Martin Styner, Sarah Paterson, Guido Gerig, John Constantino, Stephen Dager, Annette Estes, Clement Vachet, Joseph Piven and for the IBIS Network

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12360

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      The association between developmental trajectories of language-related white matter fiber pathways from 6 to 24 months of age and individual differences in language production at 24 months of age were investigated in 77 typically developing infants. The rate of change in splenium development varied significantly as a function of language production, such that children with greater change in fractional anisotropy from 6 to 24 months produced more words at 24 months (blue solid line in figure). These findings highlight the importance of tracing brain development trajectories from infancy to fully elucidate emerging brain-behavior associations while also emphasizing the role of the splenium as a key node in the structural network that supports the acquisition of spoken language.

  26. Short Reports

    1. Native Amazonian children forego egalitarianism in merit-based tasks when they learn to count

      Julian Jara-Ettinger, Edward Gibson, Celeste Kidd and Steve Piantadosi

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12351

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      In the Tsimane', a farming-foraging group from the Bolivian amazon, children who can count are more likely to take merit into account when distributing resources, compared to children who cannot count.

  27. Papers

    1. Effect of socioeconomic status (SES) disparity on neural development in female African-American infants at age 1 month

      Laura M. Betancourt, Brian Avants, Martha J. Farah, Nancy L. Brodsky, Jue Wu, Manzar Ashtari and Hallam Hurt

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12344

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      Relationships between SES and neural development have been shown in older children, however, less is known regarding the impact of SES on neural development in infants. We examined effects of SES on cortical gray, deep gray, and white matter volumes in term, healthy, appropriate for gestational age, African-American, female infants at 5 weeks of age and found that lower SES was associated with smaller cortical gray and deep gray matter volumes. These SES effects on neural outcome at such a young age build on similar studies of older children, suggesting that the biological embedding of adversity may occur very early in development.

    2. Difficult temperament and negative parenting in early childhood: a genetically informed cross-lagged analysis

      Lauren Micalizzi, Manjie Wang and Kimberly J. Saudino

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12355

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      Individual differences in difficult temperament and negative parenting in early childhood are due to genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental effects. In addition to contemporaneous associations at ages 2 and 3, there is evidence of a bidirectional association between difficult temperament and negative parenting across this period that is due to genetic and environmental influences.

    3. Facial speech gestures: the relation between visual speech processing, phonological awareness, and developmental dyslexia in 10-year-olds

      Gesa Schaadt, Claudia Männel, Elke van der Meer, Ann Pannekamp and Angela D. Friederici

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12346

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      Studies demonstrated impaired auditory speech processing in individuals with developmental dyslexia (DD), but visual aspects of speech processing have hardly been investigated. We analyzed the visual Mismatch Response (vMMR) to mouth movements silently pronouncing syllables in school children with and without DD. Children without DD show a posterior vMMR, whereas children with DD show an anterior vMMR, which was more pronounced in children with severe phonological deficits. As anterior MMR scalp distributions are typically observed for auditory speech processing, the anterior vMMR of children with DD might suggest an attempt to anticipate potentially upcoming auditory speech information in order to support phonological processing.

    4. Lexical leverage: category knowledge boosts real-time novel word recognition in 2-year-olds

      Arielle Borovsky, Erica M. Ellis, Julia L. Evans and Jeffrey L. Elman

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12343

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      We measured novel word recognition in 24 month old children as a function of whether newly learned words came from relatively dense or sparse semantic categories. Results indicated that words were recognized more reliably when words came from dense categories. The findings suggest that young children recognize links between novel and known word meanings and leverage this knowledge during word learning.

    5. Functional brain organization for number processing in pre-verbal infants

      Laura A. Edwards, Jennifer B. Wagner, Charline E. Simon and Daniel C. Hyde

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12333

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      We investigated functional brain organization for numerical processing in pre-verbal infants using fNIRS. We show that sensitivity to numerosity change is restricted to right parietal cortex and responses to number can be functionally and spatially dissociated from the broader visual-attentional response. These results suggest a strict brain lateralization and specialization for numerosity before the acquisition of a symbolic number system.

    6. Challenging gender stereotypes: Theory of mind and peer group dynamics

      Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Michael T. Rizzo and Melanie Killen

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12345

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      To investigate the social-cognitive skills related to challenging gender stereotypes, children (N = 61, 3–6 years) evaluated a peer who challenged gender stereotypic norms held by the peer's group. Participants with false belief theory of mind (FB ToM) competence were more likely than participants who did not have FB ToM to expect a peer to challenge the group's stereotypes and propose that the group engage in a non-stereotypic activity. Further, participants with FB ToM rated challenging the peer group more positively.

    7. Development of infants' segmentation of words from native speech: a meta-analytic approach

      Christina Bergmann and Alejandrina Cristia

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12341

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      In a meta-analysis, we addressed how infants across different ages segment words from continuous speech in their native language. Based on previous popular theoretical and experimental work, we expected infants to display familiarity preferences early on, with a switch to novelty preferences as infants become more proficient at processing and segmenting native speech. The combined results from 168 experiments reporting on data gathered from 3774 infants revealed a persistent familiarity preference across all ages. There was no significant effect of additional factors, including native language and experiment design. Further analyses revealed no sign of selective data collection or reporting. We conclude that models of infant information processing that are frequently cited in this domain may not, in fact, apply in the case of segmenting words from native speech.

    8. Emotional experience in music fosters 18-month-olds' emotion–action understanding: a training study

      Tik Sze Carrey Siu and Him Cheung

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12348

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      Training 15-month-olds to recognize emotions via interactive musical activities not only enhances their appreciation of musical expressiveness, but also promotes their affective interpretation of behaviour.

    9. The influence of power and reason on young Maya children's endorsement of testimony

      Thomas Castelain, Stéphane Bernard, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst and Hugo Mercier

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12336

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      Children from a traditional Maya community were more likely to endorse testimony supported by a good argument (Experiment 1), provided by a dominant (Experiment 2), and supported by a good argument provided by a subordinate (Experiments 3 and 4).

    10. Infants’ unprovoked acts of force toward others

      Audun Dahl

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12342

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      It is often thought that infants hit, bite, or kick others more often than older children merely because infants cannot regulate their frustration in response to provocation. Contrary to this view, two studies showed that a large proportion of acts of force in the second year are unprovoked and not accompanied by distress.

    11. Developmental consequences of behavioral inhibition: a model in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

      Katie Chun and John P. Capitanio

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12339

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      Although behavioral inhibition can result in an increased risk for anxiety and depression and decreased social behavior later in life, some studies have found that the stability of behavioral inhibition can be moderated by different factors. In a rhesus monkey model of behavioral inhibition, behaviorally inhibited juveniles showed increased anxious behaviors in response to relocation and decreased social behaviors in naturalistic conditions, however, as adults, behaviorally inhibited animals showed discontinuity in social behavior, which may be related to the quality of interactions early in life.

    12. Brain and behavioral inhibitory control of kindergartners facing negative emotions

      Tali Farbiash and Andrea Berger

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12330

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      Inhibitory control (IC) - one of the most critical functions underlying a child's ability to self-regulate - develops significantly throughout the kindergarten years. Experiencing negative emotions imposes challenges on executive functioning and may specifically affect IC. In this study, we examined kindergartners' IC and its related brain activity during a negative emotional situation. We found that theta power within the N2 window was increased in NoGo trials of the negative emotional block (B), compared to the non-negative emotional blocks (A and C). This increase reflects the recruitment of emotional and attentional resources needed when children were asked to cope with their negative emotions and exert inhibitory control under this challenging condition.

    13. Bimodal emotion congruency is critical to preverbal infants’ abstract rule learning

      Angeline Sin Mei Tsui, Yuen Ki Ma, Anna Ho, Hiu Mei Chow and Chia-huei Tseng

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12319

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      Pre-verbal infants can extract grammar-like abstract rules (e.g. A-A-B) from repeated sequence exposure. We discovered that simultaneous visual-auditory presentation enhanced this rule acquisition, but only when the visual- and auditory- stimuli were congruently paired. In this case, the emotional contents determined whether infants benefit from bimodal abstract rule learning.

    14. Developmental changes between childhood and adulthood in passive observational and interactive feedback-based categorization rule learning

      Rubi Hammer, Jim Kloet and James R. Booth

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12338

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      We tested autonomous observational category learning (OCL) and feedback-based category learning (FBCL) skills of elementary school children and adults. Early-phase FBCL performances in the two age groups were matched, but the OCL performances of adults were higher than those of children. Performances in post learning categorization tasks indicated that in FBCL tasks children directly learn the associations between an object and a category label, whereas in the OCL tasks they first learn which feature-dimensions were relevant.

    15. The irreversibility of sensitive period effects in language development: evidence from second language acquisition in international adoptees

      Gunnar Norrman and Emanuel Bylund

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12332

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      A prominent hypothesis holds that a second language can be more successfully acquired if the learner's first language is lost. We compared second language learners who had either lost their first language (adoptee learners) or maintained it (immigrant learners). Results showed that first language loss does not promote successful second language learning, and instead suggest that age of acquisition is the crucial factor.

    16. You have free access to this content
      The development of implicit gender attitudes

      Yarrow Dunham, Andrew Scott Baron and Mahzarin R. Banaji

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12321

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      Children's preference for their own gender emerges early in childhood. Thereafter, boys and girls show strikingly different patterns of development. Girls' attitudes, measured at both the implicit and explicit level, remain stable. By contrast, boys' attitudes show a marked decline in strength, ending at pro-female attitudes as measured explicitly and relative neutrality as measured implicitly.

    17. Electrophysiological evidence of phonetic normalization across coarticulation in infants

      Karima Mersad and Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12325

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      Preverbal infants can compute automatically consonant representation, independently of the vocalic context. Infants share with adults a similar neural architecture suitable for computing phonetic representations from the first months of life.

    18. Individual differences in neural mechanisms of selective auditory attention in preschoolers from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds: an event-related potentials study

      Elif Isbell, Amanda Hampton Wray and Helen J. Neville

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12334

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      To assess neural mechanisms of selective auditory attention, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) during a dichotic listening paradigm from 124 preschoolers from lower SES backgrounds. We observed prominent individual differences in neural indices of selective attention. These individual differences were associated with nonverbal IQ performance. Children with more pronounced ERP attention effects, i.e., larger mean amplitude differences between the ERPs elicited by identical probes embedded in stories when attended versus unattended, had higher nonverbal IQ scores.

    19. Delayed Match Retrieval: a novel anticipation-based visual working memory paradigm

      Zsuzsa Kaldy, Sylvia B. Guillory and Erik Blaser

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12335

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      Here we introduce a novel eye-tracking paradigm (Delayed Match Retrieval) to test infants’ visual working memory (VWM) using anticipatory gaze responses. 10-month-olds were able to reliably maintain two object-location bindings over a 1.5-second delay. Our paradigm can be readily scaled up to test toddlers and older children as well.

    20. Relationships between event-related potentials and behavioral and scholastic measures of reading ability: A large-scale, cross-sectional study

      Negin Khalifian, Mallory C. Stites and Sarah Laszlo

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12329

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      This report presents the results of a very large (N > 100) developmental ERP study that aimed to link ERP component amplitudes with behavioral and scholastic measures of reading achievement. Results indicate a primacy of phonological ERP components for predicting scholastic reading success.

    21. Probing the nature of deficits in the ‘Approximate Number System’ in children with persistent Developmental Dyscalculia

      Stephanie Bugden and Daniel Ansari

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12324

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      In this study, children with persistent dyscalculia (DD) exhibited (a) larger Weber fraction and (b) greater error rates when the size of the individual dot stimuli were incongruent with the more numerous dot array during a non-symbolic numerical discrimination task compared to typically developing children. These findings reveal that indices commonly used to assess internal numerical representations are affected by visual perceptual variables and affects children with DD to a greater extent than their typically developing peers. Multiple explanations for the present set of findings are discussed herein.

    22. Neuro-oscillatory mechanisms of intersensory selective attention and task switching in school-aged children, adolescents and young adults

      Jeremy W. Murphy, John J. Foxe and Sophie Molholm

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12316

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      The amplitude of alpha band oscillations (~10Hz) modulates as a function of selective attention. These modulatory effects are considered to reflect attentional regulation of sensory information processing. Here we tested the developmental trajectory of these processes in a cued cross-sensory selective attention design in participants ranging in age from 8 to 34 years of age. Cross-sensory attention related alpha modulation in the cue-target interval was present even in the youngest participants, whereas age differences were reflected in greater behavioral costs as well as reduced switch-specific alpha modulation in the youngest group on trials in which the participant was cued to switch between attended sensory modalities. These data suggest that the ability to fully bring these attentional processes online is still developing in childhood, with implications for more attentionally taxing situations.

    23. Integration of audio-visual information for spatial decisions in children and adults

      Marko Nardini, Jennifer Bales and Denis Mareschal

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12327

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      Children aged 4–12 years and adults were faster at localising audio-visual targets given both senses together compared with either alone. All groups' reaction times were best explained by integration (pooling) of sensory information. These results provide new evidence for early and sustained abilities to integrate visual and auditory signals for spatial localisation from a young age.

    24. On the edge of language acquisition: inherent constraints on encoding multisyllabic sequences in the neonate brain

      Alissa L. Ferry, Ana Fló, Perrine Brusini, Luigi Cattarossi, Francesco Macagno, Marina Nespor and Jacques Mehler

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12323

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      We used near-infrared spectroscopy to show that neonates detected a change in a six-syllabic sequence if the edge syllables switched position, but not if two middle syllables switched position, suggesting that neonates better encode the edge syllables. However, if a 25ms pause was inserted between the two middle syllables as a prosodic boundary, neonates detected the switch. These findings suggest that there are inherent constraints on how newborns encode sequences of syllables and that these constraints can be modulated by prosodic cues in speech.

    25. Risky visuomotor choices during rapid reaching in childhood

      Tessa M. Dekker and Marko Nardini

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12322

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      We tracked the development of visuomotor decision-making during childhood, using a task in which participants rapidly reached towards targets to win points whilst avoiding penalty regions that incurred loss. Adults aimed for locations on the screen (Touched Location) with the highest expected score (Max Gain Location), while children aged 6–11 years aimed too close to the penalty region (data below the dotted identity line), with detrimental effects on their scores. This reveals a clear, age-related shift towards more optimal visuomotor decision-making across childhood and adulthood, with overly risk-seeking action selection between ages 6 and 11 years.

    26. Longitudinal relations among exuberance, externalizing behaviors, and attentional bias to reward: the mediating role of effortful control

      Santiago Morales, Koraly Pérez-Edgar and Kristin Buss

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12320

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      Attention bias towards reward was positively predicted by exuberance, negatively predicted by effortful control, and positively related to externalizing problems. The longitudinal path between exuberance and attention bias to reward was mediated by effortful control.

    27. Electrophysiological correlates of observational learning in children

      Julia M. Rodriguez Buritica, Ben Eppinger, Nicolas W. Schuck, Hauke R. Heekeren and Shu-Chen Li

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12317

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      We showed that the oFRN differentiated between negative and positive observed action-outcomes of others and may serve as a measure of observational learning in school-aged children. Moreover, we found that the oFRN showed a trend of being larger when observing other children compared to observing adults.

    28. Small on the left, large on the right: numbers orient visual attention onto space in preverbal infants

      Hermann Bulf, Maria Dolores de Hevia and Viola Macchi Cassia

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12315

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      This work addresses the origins of the link between numbers and oriented spatial codes, as hypothesized under the‘mental number line’ model of numerical representation. Using a Posner-like task, we found that numerical (arrays of dots), but not non-numerical (size), cues orient 8-9 month-old infants' visual attention towards a peripheral region of space that is congruent with the number's relative position on a left-to-right oriented representational continuum. This evidence shows that a tendency to associate numbers onto spatial positions along a left-to-right oriented axis emerges before humans learn to read, write or count on their hands, and before acquisition of symbolic knowledge, supporting to the view that the number line is not merely a product of human invention.

    29. Child-directed teaching and social learning at 18 months of age: evidence from Yucatec Mayan and US infants

      Laura Shneidman, Suzanne Gaskins and Amanda Woodward

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12318

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      We considered 18 month old infants' imitative learning from child-directed and observed interaction in two cultural communities: a Yucatec Mayan village where infants have been described as experiencing relatively limited direct instruction (Study 1) and a US city where infants are regularly directly engaged (Study 2). Infants participated in a within-subjects study design where they were directly taught to use novel objects on one day and observed actors using different objects on another day. Mayan infants' imitation did not relate to condition, whereas US infants who were directly addressed on their first visit showed significantly higher overall imitation rates than infants who observed on their first visit.

    30. Identifying learning patterns of children at risk for Specific Reading Disability

      Baptiste Barbot, Suzanna Krivulskaya, Sascha Hein, Jodi Reich, Philip E. Thuma and Elena L. Grigorenko

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12313

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      This study explores the relationship between foreign language vocabulary acquisition and Specific Reading Disability (SRD) and suggests ways in which foreign language assessments can be a useful tool for understanding how children at risk for SRD and not at risk for SRD learn vocabulary differently.

    31. Rethinking the concepts of ‘local or global processors’: evidence from Williams syndrome, Down syndrome, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

      Dean D'Souza, Rhonda Booth, Monica Connolly, Francesca Happé and Annette Karmiloff-Smith

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12312

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      This cross-syndrome, cross-task, cross-modality comparison demonstrates that, in contrast to the traditional view, individuals with a neurodevelopmental disorder cannot be characterised as having a specific local or global processing style. Here we show that—contrary to claims in the literature—participants with Autism Spectrum Disorder or Williams syndrome failed to show a consistent local processing bias, while those with Down syndrome failed to show a reliable global processing bias.

    32. What would Batman do? Self-distancing improves executive function in young children

      Rachel E. White and Stephanie M. Carlson

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12314

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      Self-distancing (by taking a third person perspective on the self or taking the perspective of an exemplar other) improved executive function in 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds. Preliminary evidence suggests that these age-related differences could be attributable, at least in part, to improvements in theory of mind.

    33. Impaired face detection may explain some but not all cases of developmental prosopagnosia

      Kirsten A. Dalrymple and Brad Duchaine

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12311

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      We tested the face detection abilities of seven children with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) using two tests of face detection (“faces among non-faces” and “faces among face parts” search tasks). Four of the children with DP were impaired at face detection to some degree, while the remaining three children had normal face detection. We conclude that impaired face detection may explain some, but not all, cases of developmental prosopagnosia.

    34. Investigating cognitive transfer within the framework of music practice: genetic pleiotropy rather than causality

      Miriam A. Mosing, Guy Madison, Nancy L. Pedersen and Fredrik Ullén

      Article first published online: 1 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12306

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      We examined cognitive transfer within the framework of music practice using a genetically informative sample. We showed that when controlling for genetic influences the association between practice and IQ disappeared, suggesting no causal association between music practice and IQ. Our findings suggest that associations between training and cognitive abilities do not necessarily reflect far transfer, but rather suggest preexisting differences influence both training and cognitive ability.

    35. Narrowing in categorical responding to other-race face classes by infants

      Paul C. Quinn, Kang Lee, Olivier Pascalis and James W. Tanaka

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12301

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      White 6-month-olds categorically represent the distinction between Black and Asian faces, whereas White 9-month-olds form a broad other-race category inclusive of Black and Asian faces, but exclusive of own-race White faces. The findings provide evidence that experience-based narrowing can occur for mental processes other than discrimination: category formation is also affected. Nine-month-old representation of face race may be a precursor of an initial race-based ingroup-outgroup partitioning of faces.

    36. Visual size perception and haptic calibration during development

      Monica Gori, Luana Giuliana, Giulio Sandini and David Burr

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01183.x

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      It is still unclear how the visual system perceives accurately the size of objects at different distances. One suggestion, dating back to Berkeley’s famous essay, is that vision is calibrated by touch. If so, we may expect different mechanisms involved for near, reachable distances and far, unreachable distances. To study how the haptic system calibrates vision we measured size constancy in children (from 6 to 16 years of age) and adults, at various distances.

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