Developmental Science

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 1

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Charles A. Nelson, Michelle de Haan, and Paul C. Quinn

Impact Factor: 3.982

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 5/69 (Psychology Developmental); 7/85 (Psychology Experimental)

Online ISSN: 1467-7687


  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 133

    1. Reach tracking reveals dissociable processes underlying inhibitory control in 5- to 10-year-olds and adults

      Christopher D. Erb, Jeff Moher, Joo-Hyun Song and David M. Sobel

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12523

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      Two of the measures afforded by reach tracking, initiation time and curvature, revealed distinct patterns of trial sequence effects in the Eriksen flanker task in children 5 to 10 years of age and adults. We propose that the pattern of effects observed in initiation time reflects a response threshold adjustment process involving the global inhibition of motor output, while the pattern observed in reach curvature reflects a conflict resolution process involving competitive inhibition among co-active response alternatives.


    1. Shared musical knowledge in 11-month-old infants

      Samuel A. Mehr and Elizabeth S. Spelke

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12542

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      Eleven-month-old infants preferentially reach for objects endorsed by a person who previously sang a song known to the infant, regardless of whether they learned the song from a parent or a musical toy. Infants’ visual attention to the object endorsed by the singer of the familiar song is predictable from their degree of exposure in the home to that song – but only when the original source of the song was a parent (not a musical toy).


    1. Developmental changes in the whole number bias

      David W. Braithwaite and Robert S. Siegler

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12541

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      Whole number bias in children's understanding of fractions decreased from fourth to eighth grade. This change was driven by an increase in the number of children relying on fraction magnitude representations and a concurrent decrease in the number of children relying on componential or hybrid representations.

    2. How does social essentialism affect the development of inter-group relations?

      Marjorie Rhodes, Sarah-Jane Leslie, Katya Saunders, Yarrow Dunham and Andrei Cimpian

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12509

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      Three studies examined the implications of essentialism--induced via exposure to generic language--for children's beliefs and attitudes towards a novel social group. Across studies, hearing generic language led children to have more essentialist beliefs about the group and to share fewer resources with group members, but did not lead to out-group dislike. Essentialism thus underlies some negative intergroup phenomena, but does not lead directly to the development of prejudice.

    3. What explains the correlation between growth in vocabulary and grammar? New evidence from latent change score analyses of simultaneous bilingual development

      Erika Hoff, Jamie M. Quinn and David Giguere

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12536

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      Young bilingual children's rate of growth in vocabulary and grammar are related within English and within Spanish (shown here for English). There is no evidence that grammar depends on vocabulary or vocabulary depends on grammar, nor do the relations seem due to a general ability because they are strong and reliable only within languages. We suggest the tandem development of vocabulary and grammar reflects the influence of properties of input that benefit children's development in both linguistic domains, but only in that language.

    4. Transition to success on the model room task: the importance of improvements in working memory

      Lauren E. Hartstein and Neil E. Berthier

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12538

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      Success on the DeLoache Model Room Task was predicted by performance on the Delayed Recognition Span Test in children aged 33–39months. The data suggests that working memory updating is a key component in success on the dual representation Model Room Task.

  4. Papers

    1. Children's selective trust decisions: rational competence and limiting performance factors

      Jonas Hermes, Tanya Behne, Anna Elisa Bich, Christa Thielert and Hannes Rakoczy

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12527

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      Preschoolers are capable of rational inference on the basis of trait reasoning in their selective trust. Yet, they fall back on simpler cognitive strategies (e.g., global impression formation) due to limiting performance factors, such as a lack of relevant trait knowledge, insufficient executive function, or task structures that facilitate simpler strategies.


    1. Acquisition of abstract concepts is influenced by emotional valence

      Marta Ponari, Courtenay Frazier Norbury and Gabriella Vigliocco

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12549

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      In this study we report converging evidence from both analyses of age-of-acquisition ratings and children’s performance on an auditory lexical decision task, showing that emotion (especially positive) plays a role in learning early abstract words, particularly at around the age of 8–9.

    2. Children remember words from ignorant speakers but do not attach meaning: evidence from event-related potentials

      Haykaz Mangardich and Mark A. Sabbagh

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12544

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      This study used a combined word training - ERP paradigm to investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying children's selective word learning. Children who were trained novel word-referent links by an ignorant speaker encoded the links, but did not associate semantic meaning to these links, suggesting that selective word learning involves the disruption of processes specifically associated with the semantic consolidation of word learning events.

    3. Young children perceive less humanness in outgroup faces

      Niamh McLoughlin, Steven P. Tipper and Harriet Over

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12539

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      The developmental origins of dehumanization were investigated across two studies. We asked a sample of 5- and 6-year-olds to judge how human a set of ambiguous doll-human face morphs were when they belonged to their ingroup and their outgroup. In Study 1, the groups were based on gender and in Study 2 they were based on geographical location. In both studies, older children showed a tendency to perceive less humanness in outgroup faces. Interestingly, the strength of this dehumanization bias did not relate to children's explicit intergroup preference.


    1. From prioritizing objects to prioritizing cues: a developmental shift for cognitive control

      Nicolas Chevalier, Bruno Dauvier and Agnès Blaye

      Version of Record online: 16 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12534

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      In the cued task-switching paradigm, preschoolers fixated at target before fixating at the cue, whereas older children and adults looked at the cue before the target. Gaze patterns suggest a shift in the type of information that children prioritize in the environment, from objects that can be acted upon to cues signalling how to act efficiently.

    2. Verbal–spatial IQ discrepancies impact brain activation associated with the resolution of cognitive conflict in children and adolescents

      Amy E. Margolis, Katie S. Davis, Lisa S. Pao, Amy Lewis, Xiao Yang, Gregory Tau, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang and Rachel Marsh

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12550

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      In this study, functional MRI was used to explore in healthy youth the relationship between individual differences in cognitive abilities and brain activation during the resolution of cognitive conflict on a cognitive control task. Children and adolescents with greater verbal relative to spatial abilities under-engage fronto-striatal and limbic regions during the resolution of conflict. These findings suggest that the verbal-spatial discrepancy may contribute to deficient cognitive control processes, a characteristic of many childhood disorders.


    1. Dorsal stream function in the young child: an fMRI investigation of visually guided action

      Karin H. James and Alyssa J. Kersey

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12546

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      This study takes the initial steps in documenting the neural correlates that underly visually guided action in the 4- to 7-year-old child. Real time imaging of 3 different visually guided actions revealed a network of regions in the intraparietal sulci and the cerebellum that are important for visually guided actions in young children.

    2. Older but not younger infants associate own-race faces with happy music and other-race faces with sad music

      Naiqi G. Xiao, Paul C. Quinn, Shaoying Liu, Liezhong Ge, Olivier Pascalis and Kang Lee

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12537

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      Asian 9-month-olds showed associations between face race and music emotional valence by exhibiting longer looking to own-race (Asian) faces paired with happy music than to own-race (Asian) faces paired with sad music and longer looking to other-race (African) faces paired with sad music than to other-race faces (African) paired with happy music. Asian 3- and 6-month-olds did not show such associations.

    3. Learning across languages: bilingual experience supports dual language statistical word segmentation

      Dylan M. Antovich and Katharine Graf Estes

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12548

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      Bilingual, but not monolingual 14-month-old infants segmented two interleaved artificial languages using statistical cues. This suggests that early exposure to two languages supports infants’ abilities to segment dual language speech using transitional probabilities

    4. Around the world, adolescence is a time of heightened sensation seeking and immature self-regulation

      Laurence Steinberg, Grace Icenogle, Elizabeth P. Shulman, Kaitlyn Breiner, Jason Chein, Dario Bacchini, Lei Chang, Nandita Chaudhary, Laura Di Giunta, Kenneth A. Dodge, Kostas A. Fanti, Jennifer E. Lansford, Patrick S. Malone, Paul Oburu, Concetta Pastorelli, Ann T. Skinner, Emma Sorbring, Sombat Tapanya, Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado, Liane Peña Alampay, Suha M. Al-Hassan and Hanan M. S. Takash

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12532

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      Data from young people in 11 countries indicates that sensation seeking peaks around age 19, then declines during the twenties, whereas self-regulation increases linearly from preadolescence into the early twenties, at which point it plateaus.

  8. Papers

    1. Positive parenting predicts cortisol functioning six years later in young adults

      Elizabeth A. Shirtcliff, Martie L. Skinner, Ezemenari M. Obasi and Kevin P. Haggerty

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12461

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      In a prospective investigation of over 300 youth, half of whom were White and half were Black, we found that stronger attachment, bonding and teen-reported positive parenting were predictive of high waking cortisol and steeper diurnal slopes six years later when youth were emerging adults. When effects were moderated by race, links of positive parenting with HPA functioning were more consistent for White than Black youth. Positive aspects of the caregiving environment may also “get under the skin” and these effects are additive across a range of caregiving indices.


    1. Speaking a tone language enhances musical pitch perception in 3–5-year-olds

      Sarah C. Creel, Mengxing Weng, Genyue Fu, Gail D. Heyman and Kang Lee

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12503

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      Child tone-language speakers outstrip child speakers of a non-tone language at detecting pitch contour differences. The two groups performed comparably on control trials with timbre (musical instrument) differences.

  10. Papers

    1. Power in methods: language to infants in structured and naturalistic contexts

      Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda, Yana Kuchirko, Rufan Luo, Kelly Escobar and Marc H. Bornstein

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12456

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      Language inputs to infants were examined during 5 minutes of structured play and 45 minutes of naturalistic interaction at home. As seen in figures 3a to 3d, enormous intra-individual fluctuations characterized the word tokens and types of infant-directed speech during naturalistic interactions, whereas speech to infants during structured play was uniformly high and dense, with little fluctuation. Despite these differences, language input during structured play related strongly to language input during the peak 5 minutes of talk during naturalistic routines. Different methods yield different yet useful windows into the language experiences of infants.


    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Who's my little monkey? Effects of infant-directed speech on visual retention in infant rhesus macaques

      Emily M. Slonecker, Elizabeth A. Simpson, Stephen J. Suomi and Annika Paukner

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12519

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      Using a visual-paired comparison test, we found that exposure to infant-directed speech (IDS) during encoding inhibited visual discrimination 5 minutes after exposure but increased discrimination 60 minutes after exposure in infant rhesus macaques. These results are the first to suggest that exposure to IDS affects infants’ long-term memory, even in non-linguistic animals.

  12. PAPERS

    1. Adults blink more deeply: a comparative study of the attentional blink across different age groups

      Natalie Russo, Wendy R. Kates, Nicole Shea, Megan LeBlanc and Bradley Wyble

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12512

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      The attentional blink (AB) is commonly thought to reflect a limitation on the rate of information processing, since it shows that people have trouble identifying two targets when they are presented closely in time. However, another possibility is that the attentional blink reflects an adaptive attentional mechanism that allows for temporal chunking of incoming visual information. This theory predicts that the AB should increase during development, as this attentional system matures. Here, using a simpler design, we find that the AB depth increased with increasing age across childhood, adolescence and into adulthood (top of Figure). Temporal order errors also decreased as the AB increased (bottom of Figure) suggesting a tradeoff. Both of these results could be simulated by the eSTST model of the attentional blink (Wyble et al., 2009) through an increase in the strength of inhibitory control with age.

    2. Taxing behavioral control diminishes sharing and costly punishment in childhood

      Nikolaus Steinbeis

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12492

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      This study establishes a functional role for behavioral control in altruistic decisions in childhood. After taxing behavioral control children became less altruistic as indicated by a decrease in sharing and an increase in accepting unfair offers. A control experiment that taxed children’s emotion regulation before making their decision showed no such effect. The results carve out a special role for a specific behavioral control mechanism in altruistic decisions during childhood.


    1. Maturation constrains the effect of exposure in linking language and thought: evidence from healthy preterm infants

      Danielle R. Perszyk, Brock Ferguson and Sandra R. Waxman

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12522

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      Fullterm infants form object categories while listening to language: At 3 months they demonstrate familiarity preferences, whereas at 4 months and beyond they demonstrate novelty preferences. Healthy preterm infants also successfully form object categories while listening to language, and they shift from familiarity to novelty preferences at the same maturational age as their fullterm peers.

  14. Short Reports

    1. Interpersonal movement synchrony facilitates pro-social behavior in children's peer-play

      Bahar Tunçgenç and Emma Cohen

      Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12505

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      We investigated the effects of a synchronous movement activity on cooperative behavior in 4- to 6- year old children. The results showed that pairs of children who moved synchronously with each other subsequently helped their peers more than children who moved non-synchronously together. Although greater eye contact and mutual smiling were observed among synchronous pairs, neither measure mediated the effect of synchrony on helping behavior.

  15. Papers

    1. Audio-visual speech in noise perception in dyslexia

      Thijs van Laarhoven, Mirjam Keetels, Lemmy Schakel and Jean Vroomen

      Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12504

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      Individuals with developmental dyslexia benefited substantially less than subjects with typical development from lip-read information that disambiguates noise-masked speech, regardless of age and SNR. These results indicate a specific deficit in audio-visual word recognition in our sample of individuals with dyslexia and suggest that impaired multisensory integration might be an important aspect of developmental dyslexia.

  16. Short Reports

    1. Judgments of damage to public versus private property in Chinese children at different historical times

      Xinyin Chen, Dan Li, Junsheng Liu, Huichang Chen and Siman Zhao

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12506

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      The percentages of children in China judging the protagonist in the story damaging public property as more culpable were lower in the 2012 cohort than in the 1980 cohort. The cohort differences were more evident in older children than in younger children.

  17. Papers

    1. Attaching meaning to the number words: contributions of the object tracking and approximate number systems

      Kristy vanMarle, Felicia W. Chu, Yi Mou, Jin H. Seok, Jeffrey Rouder and David C. Geary

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12495

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      Learning the meanings of the number words and how to apply them in the counting procedure mark children's first step into the world of formal, symbolic mathematics. We provide evidence that two core mechanisms -- the analog number system (ANS, in blue) and the object tracking system (OTS, in yellow) -- contribute to the initial stages of this process, but that only the ANS continues to influence children's learning as they acquire the cardinal principle and come to master the counting routine.

    2. The eye of the retriever: developing episodic memory mechanisms in preverbal infants assessed through pupil dilation

      Kahl Hellmer, Hedvig Söderlund and Gustaf Gredebäck

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12520

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      We assessed episodic memory mechanisms through recognition memory using a pupillary old/new paradigm in 4mo, 7mo, and adults. Results highlight similarities between adults' and 7mo pupillary response, but not 4mo, suggesting a contiguity in episodic memory development starting at 7 months of age.

    3. Frontal theta activation associated with error detection in toddlers: influence of familial socioeconomic status

      Ángela Conejero, Sonia Guerra, Alicia Abundis-Gutiérrez and M. Rosario Rueda

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12494

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      Toddlers show brain responses to observed errors characterized by a burst of frontal activation in theta frequency. This error-related response is considered an early functional marker of the executive attention network and, already at this young age, is partially predicted by familial socio-economic status.

    4. Diverse ontogenies of reciprocal and prosocial behavior: cooperative development in Fiji and the United States

      Bailey R. House

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12466

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      This study explores how reciprocity develops in three populations across the United States and Fiji, and shows that reciprocity develops similarly across these societies even as they develop different patterns of prosocial behavior. This suggests that societal variation in prosociality is not solely caused by societal differences in the development of reciprocity.

    5. Diminished ability to identify facial emotional expressions in children with disorganized attachment representations

      Tommie Forslund, Ben Kenward, Pehr Granqvist, Gustaf Gredebäck and Karin C. Brocki

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12465

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      This study investigated whether disorganized attachment representations may constitute a psychological mechanism behind deviations in children's ability to identify facial emotional expressions. Using a task where facial expressions were blurred to increase performance demands, as emotional expressions are often unclear in real life situations, disorganized children showed a generally diminished ability to identify facial emotional expressions, but no response biases towards particular emotional expressions.

    6. Training and transfer effects of response inhibition training in children and adults

      Xin Zhao, Ling Chen and Joseph H.R. Maes

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12511

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      A group of young adults and 10−12-year old children were either trained on an adaptive multiple-session response inhibition task or performed a control activity. The trained participants from both age groups displayed significant improvements during training and positive transfer to a similar inhibition task. Reliable, albeit short-lived, transfer effects were only found for the children, specifically to working memory updating and task-switching tasks.

    7. Time processing impairments in preschoolers at risk of developing difficulties in mathematics

      Valentina Tobia, Luca Rinaldi and Gian Marco Marzocchi

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12526

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      Children at risk of developing DD showed a poorer performance in time reproduction of 5-second intervals and in time discrimination. These results support the existence of a common magnitude system responsible for deficits in both numerical and temporal domains from the early stages of life.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Perceptual narrowing towards adult faces is a cross-cultural phenomenon in infancy: a behavioral and near-infrared spectroscopy study with Japanese infants

      Megumi Kobayashi, Viola Macchi Cassia, So Kanazawa, Masami K. Yamaguchi and Ryusuke Kakigi

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12498

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      In Japanese infants, infant face discrimination decrease between 3 and 9 months of age, while adult face discrimination is maintained, suggesting the perceptual narrowing towards adult faces. This perceptual narrowing translates into a right-hemispheric specialization for adult face processing by 9-month-olds.

    9. Adolescents’ inhibitory control: keep it cool or lose control

      Ania Aïte, Mathieu Cassotti, Adriano Linzarini, Anaïs Osmont, Olivier Houdé and Grégoire Borst

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12491

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      The present study suggests (a) that cool and hot inhibitory control abilities develop differently from childhood to adulthood – with a linear developmental pattern but an adolescent-specific one for cool and hot inhibitory control abilities, respectively – and (b) that they progressively become more domain-specific with age.

    10. Attention allocation towards own face is pronounced during middle adolescence: an eye-tracking study

      Hirokazu Doi and Kazuyuki Shinohara

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12490

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      We measured fixation duration on own, friend's and stranger's faces. Boys in middle adolescence fixated longer on own face than the other types of faces.

    11. Blindness to background: an inbuilt bias for visual objects

      Catherine G. O'Hanlon and Jenny C.A. Read

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12478

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      When asked to point to “blue” in the pictures above, two- to four-year olds have no problems pointing to the blue bubbles on the left. But they often struggle to find any blue in the picture on the right, even though the blue water makes up most of the scene! When prompted with nouns, they find “bubbles” or “water” equally easily, demonstrating children's inbuilt bias to attend to “things” rather than to abstract concepts like colour.

    12. Four-month-old infants individuate and track simple tools following functional demonstrations

      Maayan Stavans and Renée Baillargeon

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12500

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      After being induced to assign two tools to different categories, via functional as opposed to non-functional demonstrations, 4-month-olds correctly individuated and tracked the tools, indicating that the privileged status of categorical information emerges early in life.

    13. When preschoolers follow their eyes and older children follow their noses: visuo-olfactory social affective matching in childhood

      Annachiara Cavazzana, Christiane Wesarg, Julia Parish-Morris, Johan N. Lundström and Valentina Parma

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12507

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      Olfactory–visualmatchingabilitieshavebeentested in a group of 140 children (3-11 yearsold). One of threeodorprimes (rose, fish and no odor, ratedaspleasant or unpleasant by individualchildren) werepresentedbefore a facialchoice task (happy vs. disgusted face) in whichchildrenhad to selectone of the twofaces. Results showed that children younger than 5 years of age were biased towards choosing the happy face, irrespective of the odor prime. After age 5, an affective matching strategy guided children’s choices: smelling a pleasant odor predicted the choice of happy faces, whereas smelling the unpleasant or fish odor predicted the choice of disgusted faces.

    14. Neural activation patterns during retrieval of schema-related memories: differences and commonalities between children and adults

      Garvin Brod, Ulman Lindenberger and Yee Lee Shing

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12475

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      Medial PFC activation for correctly > incorrectly retrieved schema-congruent information was stronger (age difference in blue) in young adults (green) than in children (yellow), and correlated positively with children's age. However, hippocampus activation did not differ between the two age groups, suggesting an age-related shift from hippocampus-bound processing to an increasing recruitment of prefrontal regions.

  18. Short Reports

    1. Seeing behind the surface: communicative demonstration boosts category disambiguation in 12-month-olds

      Ágnes M. Kovács, Ernő Téglás, György Gergely and Gergely Csibra

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12485

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      We investigated the role of ostensive communication in determining the kind membership of ambiguous objects. After infants watched a person sorting cups and plates into two locations, they observed an ostensive or a non-ostensive demonstration revealing that a new object looking like a plate is transformed into a cup. During test, we measured infants' anticipatory looks to assess whether they categorized this object as a plate or a cup. While infants looked equally towards the two sides after the non-ostensive demonstration, they performed more anticipations to the cup side after the ostensive demonstration, suggesting that this demonstration highlighted category-relevant, hidden dispositional properties of the object.

    2. Measuring the speed of newborn object recognition in controlled visual worlds

      Justin N. Wood and Samantha M.W. Wood

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12470

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      We used an automated controlled-rearing method to measure the speed of newborn object recognition in controlled visual worlds. We found that newborn chicks can recognize objects rapidly (within 125 ms). Thus, newborn visual systems are capable of rapid object recognition.

  19. Papers

    1. Mother still knows best: Maternal influence uniquely modulates adolescent reward sensitivity during risk taking

      João F. Guassi Moreira and Eva H. Telzer

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12484

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      Prior research showed that mothers could influence teens to make safe decisions during a risk taking task, but it was unknown whether this effect was unique to mothers. In this study, we found that maternal presence, compared to that of an unknown adult, uniquely altered adolescent neural circuitry associated with reward processing and social cognition and helped sway their adolescents towards safe decision making. These findings highlight the continued importance of maternal social scaffolding in adolescence.

  20. Short Reports

    1. Malleability of implicit associations across development

      Antonya Marie Gonzalez, William L. Dunlop and Andrew Scott Baron

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12481

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      The prevalence of implicit intergroup bias in adults underscores the importance of knowing how these biases form, and when during development they are most amenable to change. The present study examined whether developmental differences exist in the malleability of novel implicit associations among children ages 5–12. Results from over 800 children indicate that novel implicit associations formed quickly, regardless of age or domain (social or non-social), and are sensitive to reinforcement, providing evidence that a domain-general mechanism for implicit bias acquisition may be in place by age 5.

  21. Papers

    1. Mothers speak differently to infants at-risk for dyslexia

      Marina Kalashnikova, Usha Goswami and Denis Burnham

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12487

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      Infant-directed speech to infants at-risk for dyslexia does not present hyperarticulated vowels. Mothers adjust their infant-directed speech to infants at-risk for dyslexia, so at-risk infants experience altered early linguistic input from the first years of life.

  22. Short Reports

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Investigating looking and social looking measures as an index of infant violation of expectation

      Kirsty Dunn and J. Gavin Bremner

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12452

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      This study compared the commonly-used measure of looking time to the more recently introduced measure of social looking (Walden et al., ) as an index of 6-month-olds' response to perceptual novelty and violation of expectation (VoE). The results presented indicate the measurement of infant social looking may provide a more unambiguous measure of VoE than looking time.

  23. Papers

    1. Tracing trajectories of audio-visual learning in the infant brain

      Alyssa J. Kersey and Lauren L. Emberson

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12480

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      This study takes the initial steps in documenting how the neural responses in the brain change as infants learn to associate audio and visual stimuli. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNRIS) to record hemodynamic responses in the infant cortex (temporal, occipital and frontal cortex), we find that across the infant brain, learning is characterized by an increase in activation followed by a decrease. We take this U-shaped response as evidence of repetition enhancement during early stages of learning and repetition suppression during later stages, a result that mirrors the Hunter and Ames model of infant visual preference.

  24. Short Reports

    1. Amygdala–orbitofrontal connectivity predicts alcohol use two years later: a longitudinal neuroimaging study on alcohol use in adolescence

      Sabine Peters, Jiska S. Peper, Anna C.K. Van Duijvenvoorde, Barbara R. Braams and Eveline A. Crone

      Version of Record online: 23 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12448

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      Amygdala-orbitofrontal connectivity predicted alcohol use two years later, but not vice versa, suggesting that brain connectivity precedes explorative risk-taking behavior in adolescence.

    2. Maternal and infant affect at 4 months predicts performance and verbal IQ at 4 and 7 years in a diverse population

      Stephen J. Sheinkopf, Elena J. Tenenbaum, Daniel S. Messinger, Cynthia L. Miller-Loncar, Ed Tronick, Linda L. Lagasse, Seetha Shankaran, Henrietta Bada, Charles Bauer, Toni Whitaker, Jane Hammond and Barry M. Lester

      Version of Record online: 23 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12479

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      Maternal positive affect directed towards infants at 4 months of age was positively related to later verbal and nonverbal IQ, and displays of positive affect by the infant correlated with later verbal IQ. Early positive affective displays by mothers during dyadic interactions may index emotional engagement in interaction that facilitates both verbal and nonverbal cognitive development, while infant social positive affect may be specifically related to the acquisition of verbal reasoning abilities.

  25. Papers

    1. The influences and outcomes of phonological awareness: a study of MA, PA and auditory processing in pre-readers with a family risk of dyslexia

      Jeremy M Law, Jan Wouters and Pol Ghesquière

      Version of Record online: 23 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12453

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      In a group of pre-reading children with a family risk of dyslexia and low-risk controls, this study explores phonological awareness' PA's relationship at various grain sizes (syllable, onset/rime and phoneme) with measures of auditory processing (a frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise-time task (RT)) and morphological awareness MA, independent of reading experience. Group analysis revealed significant differences between high- and low-risk children on measures of MA, and PA at all grain sizes, while a trend for lower RT thresholds of high-risk children was found compared with controls. Correlational analysis demonstrated that MA is related to the composite PA score and to syllable awareness. Group differences on MA and PA were re-examined including PA and MA respectively as control variables. Results exposed PA as a relevant component of MA, independent of reading experience.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Longitudinal links between childhood peer acceptance and the neural correlates of sharing

      Geert-Jan Will, Eveline A. Crone, Pol A.C. van Lier and Berna Güroğlu

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12489

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      This study provides the first insights into the neural processes underlying widely established bidirectional links between peer acceptance and prosocial behavior. By combining neuroimaging with economic exchange games and sociometric measures of peer status, we could show that adolescents who were stably accepted by their peers (assessed yearly across the six final years of elementary school) exhibit more activity in brain regions supporting social cognition (i.e. temporo-parietal junction and temporal pole) and the detection of norm-violations (i.e. anterior insula) during costly sharing decisions than adolescents who were chronically rejected by their peers.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Oculomotor atypicalities in Developmental Coordination Disorder

      Emma Sumner, Samuel B. Hutton, Gustav Kuhn and Elisabeth L. Hill

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12501

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      ‘Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) present with significant motor difficulties; however, very little is known about their oculomotor skills. The present study examined oculomotor control in children with DCD and two typically-developing groups, a chronological age (CA) match and motor match (MM) group. Our data suggests that fundamental oculomotor processes (i.e., saccade preparation and accuracy, pursuit gain) are intact in children with DCD, but that these children have difficulty with higher-level cognitive control (i.e., inhibition of saccades) and perform similarly to younger children.

    4. Little Bayesians or little Einsteins? Probability and explanatory virtue in children's inferences

      Angie M. Johnston, Samuel G.B. Johnson, Marissa L. Koven and Frank C. Keil

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12483

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      In four studies, we test whether children, like adults, use ‘explanatory virtues’ in evidence-based inferences. We presented 4- to 8-year-old children with two explanations, equally consistent with the observed data, but where one explanation made an unverified prediction. Children consistently failed to maximize posterior probability, preferring explanations that did not make unverified predictions. This bias was overridden in the face of strong prior odds, suggesting that children, like adults, consider both probability and explanatory virtue when evaluating explanations.

    5. Numerical magnitude processing impairments in genetic syndromes: a cross-syndrome comparison of Turner and 22q11.2 deletion syndromes

      Carmen Brankaer, Pol Ghesquière, Anke De Wel, Ann Swillen and Bert De Smedt

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12458

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      To understand heterogeneity in dyscalculia, we investigated symbolic magnitude processing in two distinct genetic syndromes that are both characterized by impairments in mathematics, Turner Syndrome and 22q11 Deletion Syndrome. Both patient groups showed similar deficits in symbolic magnitude processing, which were explained by poor visual-spatial working memory in Turner Syndrome but not in 22q11 Deletion Syndrome. These data show that different cognitive deficits underlie phenotypically similar impairments in symbolic magnitude processing and highlight the need to consider different pathways to dyscalculia.

    6. Longitudinal stability of pre-reading skill profiles of kindergarten children: implications for early screening and theories of reading

      Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Elizabeth S. Norton, Georgios Sideridis, Sara D. Beach, Maryanne Wolf, John D.E. Gabrieli and Nadine Gaab

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12471

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      Six distinct profiles of performance emerged from a latent profile analysis of pre-literacy performance among 1,215 kindergarten and pre-kindergarten students. These profiles demonstrated 100% stability two years later and were positively associated with 2nd grade reading scores in a manner that reinforces the multi-deficit view of dyslexia. These results support the feasibility of early identification of dyslexia risk and point to the heterogeneity of dyslexia risk profiles.

    7. The relationship between non-verbal systems of number and counting development: a neural signatures approach

      Daniel C. Hyde, Charline E. Simon, Ilaria Berteletti and Yi Mou

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12464

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      Event-related brain potentials provide evidence that parallel individuation (PI) of objects is related to individual differences in counting development in preschool-aged children. The relationship between PI and counting holds after controlling for general cognitive and linguistic abilities. Both quantitative and qualitative differences were observed in the neural signatures of numerical processing between developing and proficient counters, but need to be followed up with targeted experiments to be better understood.

    8. Children's initial sleep-associated changes in motor skill are unrelated to long-term skill levels

      Katharina Zinke, Ines Wilhelm, Müge Bayramoglu, Susanne Klein and Jan Born

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12463

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      In 8- to 12-year-old children learning a sequential motor task (SSRT), changes across sleep after initial learning did not predict long-term skill performance after a week of daily training. No matter whether children showed larger or smaller changes in reaction times over sleep, long-term training trajectories were comparable. Post-learning sleep spindle activity was associated with explicit motor sequence knowledge, but not with motor skill.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Navigating through apertures: perceptual judgements and actions of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

      Kate Wilmut, Wenchong Du and Anna L. Barnett

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12462

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      Children with and without DCD (aged 7-17years) completed perceptual passability judgements regarding passage through an aperture and also their passage through the same apertures was measured. The critical ratio in the perceptual task was smaller in the children with DCD compared to the TD group while in the action task the critical ratio was larger in the children with DCD compared to the TD group. Our results demonstrate that perception within a static context is different from behaviour in an action context. Despite this difference we found clear evidence for a relationship between perception and action in children with DCD.

    10. Functional connectivity differences in autism during face and car recognition: underconnectivity and atypical age-related changes

      Andrew C. Lynn, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Michael N. Hallquist, Beatriz Luna and Kirsten O'Hearn

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12508

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      Underconnectivity in addition to atypical age-related changes in functional connectivity between key face-processing regions and domain-general regions may underlie atypical development of face recognition abilities in autism.

    11. Event-related potential differences in children supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during infancy

      Ke Liao, Bruce D. McCandliss, Susan E. Carlson, John Colombo, D. Jill Shaddy, Elizabeth H. Kerling, Rebecca J. Lepping, Wichian Sittiprapaporn, Carol L. Cheatham and Kathleen M. Gustafson

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12455

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      This research is part of a longitudinal study in which infants were randomized to formula with or without long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation during the first year of life and followed to age 9 years. The results reported here show differences in brain electrophysiology to a Go/No-Go task when the children were between 5 and 6 years of age. Children who were supplemented in early life show significant event-related potential (ERP) amplitude differences between the Go and No-Go conditions that were not evident in the control group. Further, microstate analysis confirmed the significant condition difference, only in the LCPUFA-supplemented group and the between group difference for the No-Go condition, showing greater anterior activation for this microstate. These results, combined with previously reported measures of cognitive development in early childhood, suggest that LCPUFA supplementation in early life has a long-term programming effect.

    12. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development

      Sari Ylinen, Alexis Bosseler, Katja Junttila and Minna Huotilainen

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12472

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      As indicated by brain responses, context-based predictions facilitate word recognition in 12- and 24-month-old children (blue). Novel word forms generate a prediction error response (magenta), the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months.

  26. Short Reports

    1. Across space and time: infants learn from backward and forward visual statistics

      Kristen Tummeltshammer, Dima Amso, Robert M. French and Natasha Z. Kirkham

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12474

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      In this study, we demonstrate that 8-month-old infants are sensitive to backward and forward transitional probabilities within temporal and spatial visual streams. In addition, differences in sensitivity to violations of the forward and backward relations provide evidence that infants may not encode or represent spatial and temporal visual regularities in the same way.

  27. Papers

    1. Linking executive function skills and physiological challenge response: Piecewise growth curve modeling

      Jelena Obradović and Jenna E. Finch

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12476

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      Children's physiological response is a dynamic process that includes distinct reactivity and recovery trajectories. Discrepancies in how cool and hot EF skills relate to RSA response to the challenge task may index different utilization of these skills during social and cognitive task demands. Higher executive function skills in emotionally demanding situations were uniquely related to physiological recovery, as indexed by faster RSA augmentation following the challenge. Findings are consistent with the polyvagal perspective of social engagement and highlight the importance of studying the interplay between physiological and behavioral regulation.

    2. Implicit and explicit false belief development in preschool children

      Charlotte Grosse Wiesmann, Angela D. Friederici, Tania Singer and Nikolaus Steinbeis

      Version of Record online: 2 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12445

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      The present paper shows a dissociation of implicit anticipatory looking and standard explicit false belief tasks in preschool age. While 3-year-olds show correct anticipation in the implicit task, they fail in the explicit tasks, and the two task types do not correlate. Further, explicit false belief tasks correlate with language and executive functions, while the implicit task does not.

    3. Bilingual advantage, bidialectal advantage or neither? Comparing performance across three tests of executive function in middle childhood

      Josephine Ross and Alissa Melinger

      Version of Record online: 29 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12405

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      This study provides the first test of a possible bidialectal advantage in childhood, comparing bilingual and bidialectal children’s performance in executive function tasks to the performance of monolingual children. No bidialectal advantage was apparent. Further, the ?established’ bilingual advantage was found only in one measure in one task, calling into question the robustness of the effect.

    4. Comparing single- and dual-process models of memory development

      Brett K. Hayes, John C. Dunn, Amy Joubert and Robert Taylor

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12469

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      This experiment examined single-process and dual-process accounts of the development of visual recognition memory in 6–7-year-olds, 9–10-year-olds and adults (N=  96). Formal versions of a dual-process model and several single-process models (equal variance signal detection, unequal variance signal detection, mixture signal detection) were fit to the developmental data. The unequal variance and mixture signal detection models provided the best fit to recognition data in each age group. Moreover, a state-trace analysis of recognition responding found evidence for only one underlying memory process. These results suggest that single-process memory models based on memory strength are a viable alternative to dual-process models for explaining memory development.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Difficulties in auditory organization as a cause of reading backwardness? An auditory neuroscience perspective

      Victoria Leong and Usha Goswami

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12457

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      The neural encoding of speech is achieved in part by the accurate temporal alignment of brain rhythms (networks of neurons oscillating at different temporal rates) and the rhythms in speech (the changing intensity patterns as words are spoken: amplitude modulations [AMs]). The acoustic temporal structure of the child’s nursery rhyme ‘Cobbler cobbler mend my shoe’ is depicted according to an oscillatory framework, revealing how slower modulations in the temporal domain (Panel c) provide information relevant to identifying stressed syllables (aligned to peaks in the 1.4 Hz AM) and syllables (aligned to peaks in the 2.6 Hz AM). We apply this neural model to children's rhyme judgements, showing (counter to standard linguistic theory) that the perceived phonological similarity between words that rhyme depends primarily on slow, low-frequency spectro-temporal information, which is more predictive of childrens' performance than the faster information assumed by current theory to support phonetic judgements.

    6. Exploring the evolutionary origins of overimitation: a comparison across domesticated and non-domesticated canids

      Angie M. Johnston, Paul C. Holden and Laurie R. Santos

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12460

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      In three studies we investigate whether dogs (Canis familiaris) and dingoes (Canis dingo) overimitate. We find clear evidence against overimitation in both species. Although human children copy irrelevant actions across trials, dogs and dingoes filter out irrelevant actions as they gain experience across trials.

    7. Visual attention and academic performance in children with developmental disabilities and behavioural attention deficits

      Hannah E. Kirk, Kylie Gray, Deborah M. Riby, John Taffe and Kim M. Cornish

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12468

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      Children with neurodevelopmental disorders experience unique attention difficulties, which may contribute to reduced academic attainment. We examined visual attention and inattentive/hyperactive behaviour in relation to early academic skills across children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Down syndrome (DS), and non-specific intellectual disability (NSID). All children had comparable levels of inattentive/hyperactive behaviour, but children with DS had poorer visual attention compared to children with ASD and NSID. Visual attention difficulties were associated with poorer academic attainment for all children regardless of disorder.

    8. Anticipatory scene representation in preschool children's recall and recognition memory

      Erica Kreindel and Helene Intraub

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12444

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      Children (4–5 years old) and adults misremembered photographs (simple, single-object scenes) as showing more of the world than they'd actually seen (boundary extension), as measured by recall (drawing) and recognition memory (forced-choice) tasks. Recognition responses were asymmetrical, with wider-angle foils drawing more errors than close-up foils; however, when in another experiment more complex scenes (very wide-angle views) were presented, now only children exhibited this anticipatory spatial error, unless adults’ stimulus duration was greatly reduced. We suggest that greater boundary extension for children reflects developmental differences in source monitoring; with children being less adept at distinguishing self-generated from visually-perceived information in memory.

    9. Action mechanisms for social cognition: behavioral and neural correlates of developing Theory of Mind

      Lindsay C. Bowman, Samuel G. Thorpe, Erin N. Cannon and Nathan A. Fox

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12447

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      We investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of basic motor action to examine associations between these constructs and preschool children's developing theory of mind. Further we sought to clarify the functional correlates of the EEG mu rhythm—a rhythm in the brain that has been hypothesized to index action production as well as action representation, and that may constitute a neural mechanism facilitating links between developments in the motor and social cognitive domains. Results demonstrated that greater mu-desynchronization moderated relations between action production and action representation skills (contrary to some simplified conceptualizations of mu-rhythm), and critically also evinced clear links between action and theory of mind: For 3- to 5-year-old children with high mu-desynchronization (indicating greater activation of underlying neural populations), action representation mediated the relation between action production and theory of mind, whereby better action production performance predicted better action representation performance which in turn predicted better theory-of-mind performance.

    10. Eighteen-month-old infants show distinct electrophysiological responses to their own faces

      Janny C. Stapel, Ilse van Wijk, Harold Bekkering and Sabine Hunnius

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12437

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      18-month-old infants showed a different response in the face-selective ERP component for own compared to others' faces. This seemed not to depend on mirror test performance: the effect in the face-selective ERP component was not found to be different for infants coded as ‘recognizer’ and those coded as ‘non-recognizer’.

    11. Mastery of the logic of natural numbers is not the result of mastery of counting: evidence from late counters

      Julian Jara-Ettinger, Steve Piantadosi, Elizabeth S. Spelke, Roger Levy and Edward Gibson

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12459

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      Children's knowledge of counting correlates with their understanding of exact equality, controlling for age and education. These two acquisitions, however, do not emerge in a strict order.

    12. Brain bases of morphological processing in Chinese-English bilingual children

      Ka I Ip, Lucy Shih-Ju Hsu, Maria M. Arredondo, Twila Tardif and Ioulia Kovelman

      Version of Record online: 14 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12449

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      The study investigated the impact of bilingual exposure on children's language and reading abilities. During auditory morphological awareness tasks, young Chinese-English bilinguals showed monolingual-like competence as well as language-specific patterns of brain activation in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). This activation was greater for English than for Chinese in left IFG BA 45, but similar across languages in left IFG BA 47. Relative to English monolinguals, the bilinguals showed greater activation in left MTG region and this activation was significantly correlated with bilinguals’ English literacy. The findings suggest that bilingual exposure to a language with rich lexical morphology, such as Chinese, impacts the functionality of bilinguals’ left temporal regions typically associated with lexico-semantic processing and the ability to link word meanings to their orthographic forms.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Children on the autism spectrum update their behaviour in response to a volatile environment

      Catherine Manning, James Kilner, Louise Neil, Themelis Karaminis and Elizabeth Pellicano

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12435

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      In this study we tested key predictions from Bayesian and predictive coding accounts of autism using a probabilistic learning task. We found that autistic children used the statistics of the reward environment to guide their decisions to a similar extent as typical children and adults. These results help to refine Bayesian and predictive coding accounts of autism.

    14. Genetic and environmental influences on early literacy skills across school grade contexts

      Rasheda Haughbrook, Sara A. Hart, Christopher Schatschneider and Jeanette Taylor

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12434

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      The grade a school receives is often used as a proxy for school quality. Our study finds that, across school grade contexts the etiology for early literacy skills differs. More specifically, pre-word reading skills appear to be influenced by more genetic factors in higher-graded schools, while environmental factors are more influential in lower-graded schools.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Are the literacy difficulties that characterize developmental dyslexia associated with a failure to integrate letters and speech sounds?

      Hannah M. Nash, Debbie Gooch, Charles Hulme, Yatin Mahajan, Genevieve McArthur, Kurt Steinmetzger and Margaret J. Snowling

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12423

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      We tested the hypothesis that dyslexia results from a failure to fully integrate letters and speech sounds into automated audio-visual objects by collecting behavioural and ERP data during a priming task. Our data suggest a developmental shift in typically developing children driven by reading experience and that English speaking children with dyslexia have developed a degree of integration that is at least in line with their reading level. This finding challenges the hypothesis.

    16. Intergenerational associations in numerical approximation and mathematical abilities

      Emily J. Braham and Melissa E. Libertus

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12436

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      Although growing evidence suggests a link between children's math skills and their ability to estimate numerical quantities using the approximate number system (ANS), little is known about the sources underlying individual differences in ANS acuity and their relation with specific mathematical skills. Here we find that parents' ANS acuity correlates with their children's ANS acuity, and parent's math ability predicts their children's math ability across a number of math measures. These findings provide the first evidence of intergenerational transmission of an unlearned, non-verbal numerical competence and are an important step toward understanding the multifaceted parental influences on children's math abilities.

    17. Functional brain organization of working memory in adolescents varies in relation to family income and academic achievement

      Amy S. Finn, Jennifer E. Minas, Julia A. Leonard, Allyson P. Mackey, John Salvatore, Calvin Goetz, Martin R. West, Christopher F.O. Gabrieli and John D.E. Gabrieli

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12450

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      Higher versus lower family income in adolescents was associated with higher scores on a statewide mathematics achievement test, greater working memory capacity, greater functional brain responses to increasing memory demands, and differential brain correlations with achievement. Findings indicate that the functional neural architecture of working memory varies with family income and is associated with achievement.

    18. Baby FaceTime: can toddlers learn from online video chat?

      Lauren J. Myers, Rachel B. LeWitt, Renee E. Gallo and Nicole M. Maselli

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12430

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      Children ages 22-25 months learned novel words from interactive video chat, but not from pre-recorded videos. Also, beginning at 17 months of age, children recognized someone they had previously only ‘met’ via video chat. Social contingency enables learning from video chat for children under 2 years old.

    19. You get what you give: children's karmic bargaining

      Konika Banerjee and Paul Bloom

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12442

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      We examine young children's belief in karmic bargaining – the practice of doing good acts in order to secure an unrelated future desired outcome. Children endorsed a belief in karmic bargaining in both first-person and third-person contexts, and about half of children also engaged in karmic bargaining behavior themselves. A belief in karma may reflect a broad bias to interpret life events in terms of agency, purpose, and design.

  28. Short Reports

    1. How do generic statements impact performance? Evidence for entity beliefs

      Daeun Park, Marjorie W. Schaeffer, Kyle M. Nolla, Susan C. Levine and Sian L. Beilock

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12396

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      Generic statements impair children's performance by creating an entity belief that a fixed ability determines performance. By coupling with generic statements with an effort explanation, the detrimental effects are mitigated. The current work elucidates how and when generic statements about the ability of one's social group hinders performance as well as identifying a way to negate the detrimental effects of such statements.

    2. Pubertal development shapes perception of complex facial expressions

      Natalie V. Motta-Mena and K. Suzanne Scherf

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12451

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      Using a perceptual staircase procedure, we tested pre-pubescent children, age- and sex-matched adolescents in early and later stages of pubertal development, and sexually mature adults. The ability to perceive complex expressions emerges as a function of pubertal development and becomes adult-like by late puberty when adolescents approach sexual maturity. In contrast, the ability to perceive basic expressions is mature by early adolescence and is not influenced by pubertal development. We suggest that this differential pattern of sensitivity to complex and basic expressions is related to adolescent-specific social developmental tasks related to exploring sexual and romantic relationships with peers that leads adolescents to extract new kinds of information from faces.

  29. Papers

    1. Part-based representations of the body in early childhood: evidence from perceived distortions of tactile space across limb boundaries

      Frances Le Cornu Knight, Dorothy Cowie and Andrew J. Bremner

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12439

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      Here we show that in childhood, as in adulthood, the way we represent our body in terms of its constituent parts and their boundaries, modulates the way that we perceive touch on the skin's surface. Two tactile stimuli presented on one body part are perceived as more similar, and therefore closer together, than two equally spaced tactile stimuli that cross over a body part boundary.

    2. Adolescent development of insula-dependent interoceptive regulation

      Dawei Li, Nancy L. Zucker, Philip A. Kragel, Virginia E. Covington and Kevin S. LaBar

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12438

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      This study investigated the brain mechanisms by which adolescents regulate their gut feelings in response to a virtual roller coaster ride. Participants were trained to use deep breathing exercises and biofeedback signals from their stomach (EGG) while brain activity was recorded using functional neuroimaging. Older adolescents show an increased reliance on a region of the insula, a brain area implicated in monitoring the body, to successfully regulate their gut activity.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Parent- and child-driven effects during the transition to adolescence: a longitudinal, genetic analysis of the home environment

      Laurie J. Hannigan, Tom A. McAdams, Robert Plomin and Thalia C. Eley

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12432

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      The home environment is shaped by parent-and child-driven processes operating interdependently. This study seeks to establish the extent to which these contribute to stability and change over the transition from childhood to adolescence.

    4. Napping reduces emotional attention bias during early childhood

      Amanda Cremone, Laura B.F. Kurdziel, Ada Fraticelli-Torres, Jennifer M. McDermott and Rebecca M.C. Spencer

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12411

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      To understand the mechanism through which sleep alters emotional processing during early childhood, we assessed attention biases following a mid-nap and an equivalent interval of wake in preschool children. Naps reduced emotional attention biases that were present following nap deprivation. Slow wave activity (SWA) may be a physiological property underlying the efficacy of emotional attention processing following sleep.

    5. Specialization of the motor system in infancy: from broad tuning to selectively specialized purposeful actions

      Hana D'Souza, Dorothy Cowie, Annette Karmiloff-Smith and Andrew J. Bremner

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12409

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      This study provides important new insights into the developmental process of motor specialization, by which motor abilities, similarly to cognitive and perceptual functions, start out broadly tuned to their goal, becoming progressively more tailored to action goals over the first year of life. Two experiments with 9- and 12-month-olds revealed gradual decreases in extraneous movements in non-acting limbs during unimanual actions. We also showed that the degree of specialization in infants’ unimanual actions is associated with individual differences in motor experience and visual attention, indicating the experience-dependent and broad functional nature of these developmental changes.

  30. Short Reports

    1. Preschoolers’ generosity increases with understanding of the affective benefits of sharing

      Markus Paulus and Chris Moore

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12417

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      This study assessed preschool children's reasoning about the affective consequences of sharing and not sharing with others. Children assumed that sharing makes them happier than not sharing. Further analyses indicated that children's own inclination to share with a stranger was related to their emotion predictions.

  31. Papers

    1. Adaptive specialization in position encoding while learning to read

      Dénes Tóth and Valéria Csépe

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12426

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      We investigated the development of the transposition effect, a widely studied phenomenon of orthographic processing. Children with better reading abilities and/or longer exposure to formal education showed larger transposition effect and this developmental pattern was specific to letter strings. A novel interpretation of the results considers the letter transposition effect a marker of adaptive specialization during reading acquisition.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The role of learning in social development: Illustrations from neglected children

      Alison B. Wismer Fries and Seth D. Pollak

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12431

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      Typically developing children were able to successfully utilize implicit information to motivate their learning behavior. In contrast, children who experienced severe early neglect did not make these associations. Children's ability to use these implicit learning cues was associated with their indiscriminate behavioral problems. These data are consistent with the view that motivated learning processes may be influenced by early caregiving and undermine children's abilities to form discriminate social relationships.

    3. The development of generosity and moral cognition across five cultures

      Jason M. Cowell, Kang Lee, Susan Malcolm-Smith, Bilge Selcuk, Xinyue Zhou and Jean Decety

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12403

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      This developmental study combined measures of socioeconomic status (SES), executive function, affective sharing, empathic concern, theory of mind, and moral judgment in predicting sharing behavior in children (N = 999) from the age of 5 to 12 in five large-scale societies. Results demonstrate that age, gender, SES, culture, and social cognitive mechanisms explain over 20% of the variance worldwide in children’s resource allocation, highlighting continuities and discontinuities in children's generosity across urban contexts.

    4. Co-occurrence statistics as a language-dependent cue for speech segmentation

      Amanda Saksida, Alan Langus and Marina Nespor

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12390

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      Co-occurrence statistics are not equally informative about word boundaries in all languages. A possible source of statistical variance between languages is linguistic rhythm – in stress-timed languages (English, Polish, Dutch), co-occurrence statistics are more informative when an absolute threshold is selected, and in mora-timed languages (Japanese, Tamil), relative thresholding yields better word segmentation. Infants might therefore use language-specific information about rhythm to narrow down possible associative strategies to segment speech.

    5. Representations of numerical and non-numerical magnitude both contribute to mathematical competence in children

      Stella F. Lourenco and Justin W. Bonny

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12418

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      Numerical and non-numerical magnitude precision in 5- and 6-year-olds was estimated using non-symbolic number and cumulative area comparison tasks. The precision of children's magnitude representations predicted better performance on multiple measures of school-relevant mathematics, even when controlling for age and non-mathematical (verbal) intelligence. Hierarchical regression models revealed that the precision of numerical and non-numerical magnitude contributed shared and unique variance to mathematical competence. Altogether, these results suggest that math development may be rooted in a general system of magnitude representation that is not specific to numerical magnitude but that also encompasses non-numerical magnitude.

  32. Short Reports

    1. Consequences of ‘tiger’ parenting: a cross-cultural study of maternal psychological control and children's cortisol stress response

      Stacey N. Doan, Twila Tardif, Alison Miller, Sheryl Olson, Daniel Kessler, Barbara Felt and Li Wang

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12404

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      Maternal psychological control mediates cultural differences in children's cortisol stress response.

  33. Papers

    1. The organization of exploratory behaviors in infant locomotor planning

      Kari S. Kretch and Karen E. Adolph

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12421

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      When deciding whether to cross bridges varying in width, 13–14-month-old infants displayed an organized, efficient sequence of visual and haptic exploratory behaviors.

    2. To trust or not to trust: social decision-making in post-institutionalized, internationally adopted youth

      Clio E. Pitula, Jennifer A. Wenner, Megan R. Gunnar and Kathleen M. Thomas

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12375

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      Using a developmentally appropriate trust game, trust behavior was examined in post-institutionalized (PI) adolescents internationally adopted as infants or young children. As shown here, in contrast with non-adopted comparison youth, PI youth, particularly those who were adopted over a year of age, were more mistrusting of peers at baseline (i.e., no feedback) and more sensitive to both defection (i.e., low reciprocation) and high reciprocation. Findings suggest that conditions early in life may set long-term biases in decision-making.

  34. Short Reports

    1. Eye blink rate predicts reward decisions in adolescents

      Emily Barkley-Levenson and Adriana Galván

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12412

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      Measurement of spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR) can be used as a proxy for dopamine in healthy adolescents in whom direct measurements of dopamine are prohibitively invasive. EBR correlates with reward-seeking decisions in adolescents but not adults, suggesting a role for dopamine receptor availability in previously observed adolescent behavioral and neural hypersensitivity to reward.

  35. Papers

    1. Preliminary evidence of the impact of early childhood maltreatment and a preventive intervention on neural patterns of response inhibition in early adolescence

      Kathryn F. Jankowski, Jacqueline Bruce, Kathryn G. Beauchamp, Leslie E. Roos, William E. Moore III and Philip A. Fisher

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12413

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      The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Go/NoGo task to explore the impact of early childhood maltreatment and a preventive intervention on response inhibition in nonmaltreated adolescents who were raised by their biological parents, maltreated adolescents who were in foster care as preschoolers and were randomly assigned to receive services as usual, and maltreated adolescents who were in foster care as preschoolers and were randomly assigned to receive the intervention. These groups of adolescents demonstrated similar behavioral performance but significantly different neural patterns. For example, the maltreated adolescents who received the intervention recruited greater lingual gyral activity during successful response inhibition than the maltreated adolescents who received services as usual.

  36. Short Reports

    1. Infant learning is influenced by local spurious generalizations

      LouAnn Gerken and Carolyn Quam

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12410

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      Infants failed to generalize one of two phonotactic rules from 24 randomly-ordered words (Exp. 1). They succeeded in generalizing the same rules when the stimuli were re-ordered to avoid local spurious generalizations.


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