Developmental Science

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 3

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Charles A. Nelson, Michelle de Haan, and Paul C. Quinn

Impact Factor: 3.808

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 7/68 (Psychology Developmental); 8/85 (Psychology Experimental)

Online ISSN: 1467-7687

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  1. 1 - 92
  1. Papers

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The role of learning in social development: Illustrations from neglected children

      Alison B. Wismer Fries and Seth D. Pollak

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12431

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      Typically developing children were able to successfully utilize implicit information to motivate their learning behavior. In contrast, children who experienced severe early neglect did not make these associations. Children's ability to use these implicit learning cues was associated with their indiscriminate behavioral problems. These data are consistent with the view that motivated learning processes may be influenced by early caregiving and undermine children's abilities to form discriminate social relationships.

  2. Special Issue Articles

    1. Caregiver talk to young Spanish-English bilinguals: comparing direct observation and parent-report measures of dual-language exposure

      Virginia A. Marchman, Lucía Z. Martínez, Nereyda Hurtado, Theres Grüter and Anne Fernald

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12425

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      This research compared reported estimates of Spanish-English language exposure with those based on naturalistic recordings in 3-year old bilingual children. While moderately correlated, reported exposure failed to capture some variability in the number of child-directed words that children were observed to hear in each language. Moreover, observed estimates more consistently predicted children's outcomes than reported estimates. This figure plots the time course of spoken language processing, indicating faster processing speed in children who heard more vs. less child-directed speech in (a) Spanish and (b) English. Our results revealed important parallels between monolingual and bilingual language development and suggest that caregiver talk supports the development of language knowledge and also tunes up critical information-processing skills that are fundamental for language and cognitive growth.

    2. The influence of bilingualism on the preference for the mouth region of dynamic faces

      Alba Ayneto and Nuria Sebastian-Galles

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12446

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      This study explores if the increased preference for the mouth region in bilingual infants when looking at talking faces is generalized to other dynamic faces, such as emotional faces. The results show that bilingual infants look longer at the mouth as compared to monolingual infants regardless of the linguistic content of the stimuli. This indicates that the adaptations resulting from learning two languages can be generalized to non linguistic faces.

    3. Neural signature of developmental coordination disorder in the structural connectome independent of comorbid autism

      Karen Caeyenberghs, Tom Taymans, Peter H. Wilson, Guy Vanderstraeten, Hadi Hosseini and Hilde van Waelvelde

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12424

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      Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) were simultaneously investigated with graph theoretical analyses. The co-occurrence of DCD+ASD was associated with a distinct topological pattern. These results will aid in providing better definitions for comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders.

  3. Papers

    1. The development of generosity and moral cognition across five cultures

      Jason M. Cowell, Kang Lee, Susan Malcolm-Smith, Bilge Selcuk, Xinyue Zhou and Jean Decety

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12403

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      This developmental study combined measures of socioeconomic status (SES), executive function, affective sharing, empathic concern, theory of mind, and moral judgment in predicting sharing behavior in children (N = 999) from the age of 5 to 12 in five large-scale societies. Results demonstrate that age, gender, SES, culture, and social cognitive mechanisms explain over 20% of the variance worldwide in children’s resource allocation, highlighting continuities and discontinuities in children's generosity across urban contexts.

  4. Special Issue Articles

    1. Comprehending text versus reading words in young readers with varying reading ability: distinct patterns of functional connectivity from common processing hubs

      Katherine S. Aboud, Stephen K. Bailey, Stephen A. Petrill and Laurie E. Cutting

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12422

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      The authors found that, in adolescents, common neural hubs shared by word reading and text comprehension show differential, task-dependent functional connectivity patterns. These discriminatory patterns are predicted by reading and reading comprehension ability. Findings emphasize that shared activation in similar cognitive tasks may not necessarily be indicative of shared function.

    2. Segmenting words from fluent speech during infancy – challenges and opportunities in a bilingual context

      Linda Polka, Adriel John Orena, Megha Sundara and Jennifer Worrall

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12419

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      When two languages are presented in the same segmentation test session, monolingual infants segmented target words only in their native language and bilinguals infants segmented words only in French. This task reveals a distinct challenge for bilingual infants in their development of word segmentation.

  5. Papers

    1. Co-occurrence statistics as a language-dependent cue for speech segmentation

      Amanda Saksida, Alan Langus and Marina Nespor

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12390

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      Co-occurrence statistics are not equally informative about word boundaries in all languages. A possible source of statistical variance between languages is linguistic rhythm – in stress-timed languages (English, Polish, Dutch), co-occurrence statistics are more informative when an absolute threshold is selected, and in mora-timed languages (Japanese, Tamil), relative thresholding yields better word segmentation. Infants might therefore use language-specific information about rhythm to narrow down possible associative strategies to segment speech.

    2. Representations of numerical and non-numerical magnitude both contribute to mathematical competence in children

      Stella F. Lourenco and Justin W. Bonny

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12418

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      Numerical and non-numerical magnitude precision in 5- and 6-year-olds was estimated using non-symbolic number and cumulative area comparison tasks. The precision of children's magnitude representations predicted better performance on multiple measures of school-relevant mathematics, even when controlling for age and non-mathematical (verbal) intelligence. Hierarchical regression models revealed that the precision of numerical and non-numerical magnitude contributed shared and unique variance to mathematical competence. Altogether, these results suggest that math development may be rooted in a general system of magnitude representation that is not specific to numerical magnitude but that also encompasses non-numerical magnitude.

  6. Short Reports

    1. Consequences of ‘tiger’ parenting: a cross-cultural study of maternal psychological control and children's cortisol stress response

      Stacey N. Doan, Twila Tardif, Alison Miller, Sheryl Olson, Daniel Kessler, Barbara Felt and Li Wang

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12404

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      Maternal psychological control mediates cultural differences in children's cortisol stress response.

  7. Papers

    1. The organization of exploratory behaviors in infant locomotor planning

      Kari S. Kretch and Karen E. Adolph

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12421

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      When deciding whether to cross bridges varying in width, 13–14-month-old infants displayed an organized, efficient sequence of visual and haptic exploratory behaviors.

    2. The relationship between spoken language and speech and nonspeech processing in children with autism: a magnetic event-related field study

      Shu Hui Yau, Jon Brock and Genevieve McArthur

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12328

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      As a group, children with ASD show atypical neural auditory processing of both speech and nonspeech sounds, which is linked to overall spoken language ability. Children with ASD also show immature auditory brain responses at the group level. Within the ASD group, poor language processing is strongly associated with dissimilar speech and nonspeech responses in the left hemisphere (within the 200–400ms higher cognitive processing time window). An impacted or immature auditory processing system may contribute to less stable representations of sounds, and interfere with the development of spoken language perception and production in ASD.

    3. To trust or not to trust: social decision-making in post-institutionalized, internationally adopted youth

      Clio E. Pitula, Jennifer A. Wenner, Megan R. Gunnar and Kathleen M. Thomas

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12375

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      Using a developmentally appropriate trust game, trust behavior was examined in post-institutionalized (PI) adolescents internationally adopted as infants or young children. As shown here, in contrast with non-adopted comparison youth, PI youth, particularly those who were adopted over a year of age, were more mistrusting of peers at baseline (i.e., no feedback) and more sensitive to both defection (i.e., low reciprocation) and high reciprocation. Findings suggest that conditions early in life may set long-term biases in decision-making.

  8. Short Reports

    1. Eye blink rate predicts reward decisions in adolescents

      Emily Barkley-Levenson and Adriana Galván

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12412

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      Measurement of spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR) can be used as a proxy for dopamine in healthy adolescents in whom direct measurements of dopamine are prohibitively invasive. EBR correlates with reward-seeking decisions in adolescents but not adults, suggesting a role for dopamine receptor availability in previously observed adolescent behavioral and neural hypersensitivity to reward.

  9. Special Issue Articles

    1. Second label learning in bilingual and monolingual infants

      Padmapriya Kandhadai, D. Geoffrey Hall and Janet F. Werker

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12429

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      This research shows that linguistic experience shapes word-learning strategies even at the onset of lexical development. While bilingual infants interpreted a novel label that is applied to a familiar object as a second category label (another label for the familiar category), monolingual infants interpreted the novel word as a property (color) term for the familiar object. These findings show that growing up bilingual can influence word learning strategies even in infancy, and more generally underscores the need for theories of word learning to take into consideration the role of early linguistic experience.

  10. Papers

    1. Preliminary evidence of the impact of early childhood maltreatment and a preventive intervention on neural patterns of response inhibition in early adolescence

      Kathryn F. Jankowski, Jacqueline Bruce, Kathryn G. Beauchamp, Leslie E. Roos, William E. Moore III and Philip A. Fisher

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12413

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      The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Go/NoGo task to explore the impact of early childhood maltreatment and a preventive intervention on response inhibition in nonmaltreated adolescents who were raised by their biological parents, maltreated adolescents who were in foster care as preschoolers and were randomly assigned to receive services as usual, and maltreated adolescents who were in foster care as preschoolers and were randomly assigned to receive the intervention. These groups of adolescents demonstrated similar behavioral performance but significantly different neural patterns. For example, the maltreated adolescents who received the intervention recruited greater lingual gyral activity during successful response inhibition than the maltreated adolescents who received services as usual.

  11. Short Reports

    1. Infant learning is influenced by local spurious generalizations

      LouAnn Gerken and Carolyn Quam

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12410

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      Infants failed to generalize one of two phonotactic rules from 24 randomly-ordered words (Exp. 1). They succeeded in generalizing the same rules when the stimuli were re-ordered to avoid local spurious generalizations.

  12. Papers

    1. Longitudinal development of manual motor ability in autism spectrum disorder from childhood to mid-adulthood relates to adaptive daily living skills

      Brittany G. Travers, Erin D. Bigler, Tyler C. Duffield, Molly D.B. Prigge, Alyson L. Froehlich, Nicholas Lange, Andrew L. Alexander and Janet E. Lainhart

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12401

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      We investigated age-related changes from early childhood into mid-adulthood in manual motor skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typical development. We then examined if manual motor performance correlated with current and future daily living skills. We found evidence for atypical development of grip strength and finger tapping speed in ASD, atypically low grip strength in ~1/3 of the individuals with ASD, and correlations between manual motor performance and both current and future daily living skills.

  13. Special Issue Articles

    1. Speech discrimination in 11-month-old bilingual and monolingual infants: a magnetoencephalography study

      Naja Ferjan Ramírez, Rey R. Ramírez, Maggie Clarke, Samu Taulu and Patricia K. Kuhl

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12427

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      The study used whole head MEG to compare brain activity in response to speech sounds in 11-month-old babies raised in monolingual (English) and bilingual (Spanish-English) households. While the monolingual brains discriminated only English, the bilingual brains discriminated Spanish and English. The bilingual brains also showed increased activity in areas related to executive functioning, suggesting that exposure to two languages shapes cognitive development more generally.

    2. Exposure to multiple languages enhances communication skills in infancy

      Zoe Liberman, Amanda L. Woodward, Boaz Keysar and Katherine D. Kinzler

      Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12420

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      Infants raised in multilingual environments outperformed infants raised in monolingual environments at taking a speaker's visual perspective to understand her intended meaning in a communication task. We propose that communicative benefits may arise due to differences in social experiences based on linguistic background, and that even minimal second language exposure can enhance communication skills.

  14. Commentaries

    1. Conceptual constraints and mechanisms in children's selective learning

      Mark A. Sabbagh, Melissa A. Koenig and Valerie A. Kuhlmeier

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12415

  15. Response to Commentaries

  16. Short Reports

    1. Brain responses reveal that infants' face discrimination is guided by statistical learning from distributional information

      Nicole Altvater-Mackensen, Sarah Jessen and Tobias Grossmann

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12393

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      We exposed 6.5-month-olds to exemplars of female faces taken from a morphed continuum going from one identity to another. Using ERPs, we show that infants discriminated between identities after familiarization with a bimodal, but not a unimodal frequency distribution.

  17. Papers

    1. Learning the association between a context and a target location in infancy

      Julie Bertels, Estibaliz San Anton, Titia Gebuis and Arnaud Destrebecqz

      Version of Record online: 26 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12397

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      We explored the statistical learning of visual contingencies in 8- to 12-month-old infants. We investigated whether infants can learn the association between a target location and the context in which it is presented. To address this issue, we used a visual associative learning procedure that is reminiscent of the contextual cuing paradigm. We observed that infants could learn the target-context associations. In particular, infants selected clusters of co-occurring contextual shapes and learned the covariation between the target location and this subset, as revealed by strong correlations between the target-cluster distance during training and the familiarity effect at test.

  18. Short Reports

    1. Preschoolers have better long-term memory for rhyming text than adults

      Ildikó Király, Szilvia Takács, Zsuzsa Kaldy and Erik Blaser

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12398

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      Parents read a novel rhyming verse as their child’s bedtime story on ten consecutive days. A group of young adults listened to the verse, matching the exposure of children. All participants subsequently performed a free-recall of the verse, verbatim. Four-year-olds outperformed both groups of adults, with free-recall of nearly twice as many correct words of the verse, and far fewer errors. Children's memory for verbatim recall is excellent.

  19. Papers

    1. Visual cues of motion that trigger animacy perception at birth: the case of self-propulsion

      Elisa Di Giorgio, Marco Lunghi, Francesca Simion and Giorgio Vallortigara

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12394

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      Understanding how humans identify and separate social agents from other objects and how this ability develops are open and intriguing questions. The aim of this paper was to investigate sensitivity in human newborns to the most basic and rudimentary motion cues that reliably trigger perception of animacy in adults. We sistematically manipulated the onset of motion by self-propulsion (Exp.1) and the change in trajectory direction in the presence or absence of direct contact with an external object (Exp.2 and Exp.3) to investigate how these motion cues determine preference in newborns. Data demonstrated that, at least at birth, the self-propelled onset motion is a crucial visual cue that allowed newborns to differentiate between self and non-self-propelled objects. Overall, our findings are compatible with the hypothesis of the existence of inborn predispositions to visual cues of motion that trigger animacy perception in adults.

    2. Monolingual and bilingual children's social preferences for monolingual and bilingual speakers

      Krista Byers-Heinlein, Douglas A. Behrend, Lyakout Mohamed Said, Helana Girgis and Diane Poulin-Dubois

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12392

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      Past research has shown that young monolingual children exhibit language-based social biases: they prefer native language to foreign language speakers. In two experiments, we investigated whether both monolinguals and bilinguals display the same bias. In contrast to monolinguals, bilingual children showed similar affiliation with monolingual and bilingual speakers, as well as for monolingual speakers using their dominant versus non-dominant language.

  20. Short Reports

    1. Bodily maps of emotions across child development

      Jari K. Hietanen, Enrico Glerean, Riitta Hari and Lauri Nummenmaa

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12389

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      Different basic emotions are consistently associated with distinct bodily sensation maps, which may underlie subjectively felt emotions. Here we investigated the development of bodily sensations associated with basic emotions in 6- to 17-year-old children and adolescents. The bodily sensation maps changed from less to more specific, adult-like patterns as a function of age. Developing awareness of their emotion-related bodily sensations may shape the way children perceive, label, and interpret emotions.

  21. Special Issue Articles

    1. Interactions between levels of attention ability and levels of bilingualism in children's executive functioning

      Geoff B. Sorge, Maggie E. Toplak and Ellen Bialystok

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12408

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      This project is the first to investigate the interaction between bilingualism and attention ability on children's executive functioning (EF). Consistent with previous literature, poor attention was associated with poorer EF and greater degree of bilingualism was associated with better EF performance across all tasks. Interactions showed that each of bilingualism and attention ability is primary for different EF tasks.

    2. Parietal hyper-connectivity, aberrant brain organization, and circuit-based biomarkers in children with mathematical disabilities

      Dietsje Jolles, Sarit Ashkenazi, John Kochalka, Tanya Evans, Jennifer Richardson, Miriam Rosenberg-Lee, Hui Zhao, Kaustubh Supekar, Tianwen Chen and Vinod Menon

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12399

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      We investigated intrinsic functional connectivity and regional low-frequency signal fluctuations in a well-characterized group of 7–9-year old children with mathematical disabilities (MD). Compared to carefully matched typically developing peers, we found MD-related hyper-connectivity of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), as well as higher levels of spontaneous low frequency fluctuations in multiple frontal and parietal areas. Our findings advance the view that MD is best characterized as a network-level deficit, and not an isolated dysfunction of the IPS.

  22. Short Reports

    1. Implicit expectations influence target detection in children and adults

      Philipp Ruhnau, Erich Schröger and Elyse S. Sussman

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12402

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      We investigated the influence of predictability on target processing indexed by behavioral responses and the P3b in children and young adults. Our results demonstrate that (implicit) target stimulus predictability increases processing speed in children and adults (earlier P3b latencies and shorter RTs for predictable targets). Interestingly, children did benefit even more from predictability of targets than young adults.

  23. Special Issue Articles

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Multivariate pattern classification of pediatric Tourette syndrome using functional connectivity MRI

      Deanna J. Greene, Jessica A. Church, Nico U.F. Dosenbach, Ashley N. Nielsen, Babatunde Adeyemo, Binyam Nardos, Steven E. Petersen, Kevin J. Black and Bradley L. Schlaggar

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12407

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      In the present paper, we used a multivariate approach – namely support vector machine (SVM) classification – to discriminate children with Tourette syndrome (TS) and unaffected controls based on resting state functional connectivity data. While univariate analyses found no significant group differences, SVM classified group membership with ~70% accuracy. Thus, there are multivariate patterns of functional connectivity that can discriminate TS from controls.

  24. Papers

    1. Developmental bias for number words in the intraparietal sulcus

      Courtney A. Lussier and Jessica F. Cantlon

      Version of Record online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12385

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      When making magnitude judgments, there is a dissociation between number words and object words that emerges by at least 8 years of age in children: the IPS processes number words and ventral temporal cortex processes object words. Number words likely dissociate from object words because, as we show, they are rooted in numerosity judgments of physical sets.

  25. Original Articles

    1. Reduced adaptability, but no fundamental disruption, of norm-based face coding following early visual deprivation from congenital cataracts

      Gillian Rhodes, Mayu Nishimura, Adelaide de Heering, Linda Jeffery and Daphne Maurer

      Version of Record online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12384

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      The updating of face norms by experience is reduced in cataract-reversal patients, suggesting a role for early visual experience in the development of adaptive face-coding mechanisms.

  26. Papers

    1. Cultural differences in self-recognition: the early development of autonomous and related selves?

      Josephine Ross, Mandy Yilmaz, Rachel Dale, Rose Cassidy, Iraz Yildirim and M. Suzanne Zeedyk

      Version of Record online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12387

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      This study describes cultural differences in rural Zambian, urban Scottish and urban Turkish infants' performance on two established self-awareness tasks. Autonomous settings were associated with success in mirror self-recognition, whereas related settings were associated with success in the ‘body-as-obstacle’ task.

  27. Special Issue Articles

    1. Predicting writing development in dual language instructional contexts: exploring cross-linguistic relationships

      Robert Savage, Meagan Kozakewich, Fred Genesee, Caroline Erdos and Corinne Haigh

      Version of Record online: 29 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12406

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      This 5 year longitudinal study predicted writing in English and French in grade 6 from within- and cross-language word decoding and oral linguistic comprehension abilities in Grade 1. Results showed significant predictive power for both factors, and more particularly for tasks involving sentence formulation in grade 1, suggesting cross-language facilitation.

  28. Papers

    1. Trust matters: Seeing how an adult treats another person influences preschoolers' willingness to delay gratification

      Laura E. Michaelson and Yuko Munakata

      Version of Record online: 21 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12388

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      Children's willingness to delay gratification is typically interpreted in terms of cognitive control, but may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised. We manipulated preschoolers' impressions of social trust by having them observe an adult either lie or behave honestly with another person, and then measured their willingness to delay gratification for a reward promised by that adult in the classic marshmallow task. Preschoolers waited less time, and were less likely to wait the full 15 min delay period, for rewards that had been promised by an untrustworthy adult relative to a trustworthy adult.

  29. Short Reports

    1. Patterns of attention to threat across tasks in behaviorally inhibited children at risk for anxiety

      Santiago Morales, Bradley C. Taber-Thomas and Koraly E. Pérez-Edgar

      Version of Record online: 19 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12391

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      Cross-task convergence of attentional bias to threat was dependent on children's temperament (behavioral inhibition). In addition, children with a consistent bias across tasks had higher levels of anxiety, suggesting that convergence across attention bias measures may be dependent on individuals' predispositions (e.g. temperament), and convergence may serve as a marker of information processing patterns shaping socioemotional outcomes.

  30. Papers

    1. Associations of non-symbolic and symbolic numerical magnitude processing with mathematical competence: a meta-analysis

      Michael Schneider, Kassandra Beeres, Leyla Coban, Simon Merz, S. Susan Schmidt, Johannes Stricker and Bert De Smedt

      Version of Record online: 14 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12372

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      This is the first meta-analysis on the association of non-symbolic and symbolic magnitude comparison with mathematical competence. We synthesized 284 effect sizes from 17,201 participants. Associations with mathematical competence were stronger for symbolic than for non-symbolic measures. Measures of comparison and mathematical competence strongly moderated the effect sizes.

  31. Special Issue Articles

    1. Functional connectivity of brain regions for self- and other-evaluation in children, adolescents and adults with autism

      Catherine A. Burrows, Angela R. Laird and Lucina Q. Uddin

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12400

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      Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate differences in self-referential processing, which may contribute to reduced understanding of themselves and others. We examined functional connectivity of brain regions underlying self and other-referential processing in individuals with ASD across development. Children with ASD demonstrated functional underconnectivity of both regions of interest compared with typically developing individuals, while older individuals showed fewer group differences.

  32. Original Articles

    1. Selective attention to a talker's mouth in infancy: role of audiovisual temporal synchrony and linguistic experience

      Anne Hillairet de Boisferon, Amy H. Tift, Nicholas J. Minar and David J. Lewkowicz

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12381

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      Studies show that infants shift their relative attention to a talker's eyes and mouth over the course of the first year of life and that these shifts are modulated by whether the talker speaks in a native or non-native language. We investigated whether the temporal synchrony of the auditory and visual speech that normally emanates from a talker's mouth affects attention by presenting desynchronized native and non-native audiovisual speech and tracking eye gaze in groups of 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-, and 12 month-old infants. Findings showed that desynchronization of both types of speech eliminated the usually observed preference for the talker's mouth at 10 but not at 8 months of age. This indicates that the multisensory redundancy of synchronous audiovisual speech plays a key role in recruiting infant attention to a talker's mouth during the canonical babbling stage, a key phase in the acquisition of speech production capacity.

  33. Papers

    1. The role of early visual input in the development of contour interpolation: the case of subjective contours

      Bat-Sheva Hadad, Daphne Maurer and Terri L. Lewis

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12379

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      Patients with early monocular deprivation show greater deficits, than those exhibited by patients with comparable binocular deprivation, in interpolating weakly supported contours. The results point to the detrimental effect of unequal competition between the eyes for cortical connections on the later development of the mechanisms underlying contour interpolation.

    2. Bilingualism alters children's frontal lobe functioning for attentional control

      Maria M. Arredondo, Xiao-Su Hu, Teresa Satterfield and Ioulia Kovelman

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12377

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      This fNIRS study investigated the impact of bilingual exposure on children's brain organization for attentional control (N = 27, ages 7-13). During a non-verbal attention task, bilinguals showed greater left frontal lobe activation than monolinguals. Monolinguals showed greater right frontal lobe activation than bilinguals. The findings suggest that bilingualism affects the functionality of children's left prefrontal cortex for attentional control.

  34. Short Reports

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Understanding the genetic and environmental specificity and overlap between well-being and internalizing symptoms in adolescence

      Claire M.A. Haworth, Kathryn Carter, Thalia C. Eley and Robert Plomin

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12376

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      Well-being is more than the absence of mental illness. Although genetic and environmental influences on mental illness were partly shared with those on well-being there were also significant genetic and environmental influences that were specific to measures of positive well-being in adolescence.

  35. Papers

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A cross-syndrome study of the differential effects of sleep on declarative memory consolidation in children with neurodevelopmental disorders

      Anna Ashworth, Catherine M. Hill, Annette Karmiloff-Smith and Dagmara Dimitriou

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12383

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      This novel study showed the expected pattern of sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation in typically developing children. Children with Down syndrome benefited from morning (as opposed to evening) learning and children with Williams syndrome had improved recall following a break from testing, regardless of whether the retention interval was of sleep or wake.

  36. Short Reports

    1. Unimpaired attentional disengagement in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder

      Jason Fischer, Hayley Smith, Frances Martinez-Pedraza, Alice S. Carter, Nancy Kanwisher and Zsuzsa Kaldy

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12386

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      A prominent hypothesis holds that ‘sticky’ attention early in life in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) limits their ability to explore and learn about the world, but evidence for this claim is inconsistent. Here, we tested attentional disengagement abilities in a group of toddlers just diagnosed with ASD, along with age-matched typical controls. We found no evidence of sticky attention in toddlers with ASD, and strikingly similar performance between the ASD and TD groups. Our findings indicate that impaired attentional disengagement probably does not play a causal role in the early development of ASD.

  37. Papers

    1. Development in reading and math in children from different SES backgrounds: the moderating role of child temperament

      Zhe Wang, Brooke Soden, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Sarah L. Lukowski, Victoria J. Schenker, Erik G. Willcutt, Lee A. Thompson and Stephen A. Petrill

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12380

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      Although higher SES risks are generally associated with poorer academic outcomes, this relation is not universal. The current study shows that high effortful control, low surgency, and low negative affect gradually help compensate for the academic disadvantages associated with SES constraints.

  38. Short Reports

    1. Colour and emotion: children also associate red with negative valence

      Sandrine Gil and Ludovic Le Bigot

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12382

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      Current theories about colour-emotion associations suggest two possible sources of this association: evolution and lifetime learning. This raises the question of whether colour-meaning associations change across development. We investigated (1) whether children implicitly associate the colour red with negative meaning, as has already been observed in adults, and (2) whether this association changes across development. The findings revealed that a red-meaning association influences how children perceive targets (i.e. ambiguous emotional faces against colour backgrounds), but failed to reveal any change across development (i.e. 5- to 10 year-old children).

  39. Papers

    1. Early childhood cortisol reactivity moderates the effects of parent–child relationship quality on the development of children's temperament in early childhood

      Daniel C. Kopala-Sibley, Lea R. Dougherty, Margret W. Dyson, Rebecca S. Laptook, Thomas M. Olino, Sara J. Bufferd and Daniel N. Klein

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12378

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      In the current study, a better quality parent-child relationship predicted increases in PE in less reactive children, whereas a poorer quality relationship predicted increases in NE for more highly reactive children.

  40. Short Reports

    1. Motor training at 3 months affects object exploration 12 months later

      Klaus Libertus, Amy S. Joh and Amy Work Needham

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12370

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      Reaching experiences were systematically manipulated in 3-month-old infants using ?Sticky Mittens’. When assessed 12 months after their training, infants showed increased grasping and object directed attention skills. Early reaching experiences seem to initiate developmental cascades that facilitate subsequent learning and exploration.

  41. Papers

    1. Children with autism are impaired in the understanding of teaching

      John Knutsen, David S. Mandell and Douglas Frye

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12368

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      In this study we investigated the understanding of teaching in ASD. Compared to matched TD controls, children with ASD were impaired in their comprehension that teaching is an intentional activity that requires a knowledge difference between teacher and learner.

    2. Auditory and proprioceptive spatial impairments in blind children and adults

      Giulia Cappagli, Elena Cocchi and Monica Gori

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12374

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      There is a general consensus on the crucial role of visual experience in guiding the maturation of space cognition in the brain (Thinus-Blanc & Gaunet, 1997). We tested congenitally blind children and adults in two spatial tasks (auditory distance discrimination and proprioceptive reproduction). We found a substantial spatial impairment in congenitally blind children and adults for auditory distance discrimination and proprioceptive reproduction, but we did not observe the same trend in a small group of late blind adults. The results support the idea that vision is crucial for the development of space perception and highlight the importance of cross-sensory input for calibration of sensory systems during development.

    3. Testing enhances subsequent learning in older but not in younger elementary school children

      Alp Aslan and Karl-Heinz T. Bäuml

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12340

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      Testing of previously studied nontarget lists (Lists 1-3) enhanced recall of a subsequently studied target list (List 4), and reduced number of intrusions from the nontarget lists during recall of the target list in adults and older elementary school children, but not in younger elementary school children.

    4. Genetic associations with reflexive visual attention in infancy and childhood

      Rebecca A. Lundwall, James L. Dannemiller and H. Hill Goldsmith

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12371

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      Participants completed a moving bar task as infants and again as children. Static bars exerted a distracting effect. We found that percent and response time to look at the moving bar was associated with SLC6A3 in infants and CHRNA4, COMT, and DRD4 for children.

  42. Special Issue Articles

    1. Atypical developmental of dorsal and ventral attention networks in autism

      Kristafor Farrant and Lucina Q. Uddin

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12359

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      Individuals with autism exhibit a variety of deficits in attention processes, yet brain networks supporting attention in autism have not been systematically investigated. We examined functional connectivity of dorsal and ventral attention networks in children and adults with autism and found that compared with neurotypical individuals, functional hyper-connectivity is observed in children with ASD, whereas functional hypo-connectivity is observed in adults with the disorder.

  43. Papers

    1. Beyond naïve cue combination: salience and social cues in early word learning

      Daniel Yurovsky and Michael C. Frank

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12349

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      Over the first two years, children appear to rely more on social and less on perceptual cues to learn the meanings of words. One account of this development is that children may gradually learn that social cues are more reliable than perceptual cues. In two experiments, however, we show that these changes emerge not from learning the predictive power of social cues, but instead from the gradual development of attention, memory, and speed of information processing.

    2. Transitive inference of social dominance by human infants

      Regina Paxton Gazes, Robert R. Hampton and Stella F. Lourenco

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12367

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      We used a violation-of-expectation paradigm to compare looking time to test videos of social dominance interactions that were congruent (expected) or incongruent (unexpected) with inferred social dominance relations between three puppets. Infants as young as 10 months looked longer to the incongruent than to the congruent test trials, and control conditions (one of which is depicted here) ruled out the possibility that these differences were due to expectations about the behavior of individual puppets. These results indicate that competence with TI in the social domain emerges as early as 10 months of age and may be supported by nonverbal, phylogenetically ancient ordinal and visuospatial processes.

    3. Bilingual enhancements have no socioeconomic boundaries

      Jennifer Krizman, Erika Skoe and Nina Kraus

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12347

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      To understand how socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism simultaneously operate on cognitive and sensory function, we examined executive control, language skills, and subcortical neural processing of sound in adolescents who differed in language experience (i.e. English monolingual or Spanish-English bilingual) and level of maternal education (a proxy for SES). Adolescent bilinguals of both low and high SES demonstrate more stable neural responses, stronger phonemic decoding skills, and heightened executive control, relative to their monolingual peers. These results support the argument that bilingualism can bolster cognitive and neural function in adolescents regardless of SES.

    4. The origins of word learning: Brain responses of 3-month-olds indicate their rapid association of objects and words

      Manuela Friedrich and Angela D. Friederici

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12357

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      Three-month-old infants learned pairings of eight novel objects and eight novel words within only four consistent repetitions, but they did not retain them in long-term memory until the next day. In the memory test infants relearned the combinations, even though objects and words were paired consistently in only half of their overall pairings. Instead of the N400 component that evidences the learning of word meanings in the ERP of older infants, a late left-hemispheric negativity indicated the learning of object-word pairings in 3-month-olds. This result represents the first neurophysiological distinction between ‘higher’ lexical-semantic learning and associative ‘proto-word’ learning.

    5. Relation of infant motor development with nonverbal intelligence, language comprehension and neuropsychological functioning in childhood: a population-based study

      Fadila Serdarevic, Tamara van Batenburg-Eddes, Sabine E. Mous, Tonya White, Albert Hofman, Vincent W.V. Jaddoe, Frank C. Verhulst, Akhgar Ghassabian and Henning Tiemeier

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12326

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      Early infant motor development, assessed by hands-on examination at around age 3 months, predicted immediate visual memory and mental rotation in school children in a population-based study of 3356 children.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Categorization in infancy: labeling induces a persisting focus on commonalities

      Nadja Althaus and Kim Plunkett

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12358

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      Twelve-month-old infants were familiarized with a novel object category in silence or with labels. Infants succeeded in forming a new category in both conditions. However, the processes underlying category formation differ when familiarization objects are presented with or without labels. In the absence of labels infants' attention is drawn to variability in category features. The presence of labels promotes attention to the commonalities between category exemplars.

    7. On the relationship between phonological awareness, morphological awareness and Chinese literacy skills: evidence from an 8-year longitudinal study

      Jinger Pan, Shuang Song, Mengmeng Su, Catherine McBride, Hongyun Liu, Yuping Zhang, Hong Li and Hua Shu

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12356

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      This article investigates the longitudinal relationship between preliterate and post-literate phonological awareness and morphological awareness, and their contributions to Chinese literacy skills. Our results suggest the importance of preliterate syllable awareness and post-literate morphological awareness in Chinese literacy skills. These findings underscore the unique relation of syllable awareness and morphological awareness in Chinese as they are mapped onto a character, which is the basic unit in Chinese reading.

  44. Short Reports

    1. Action observation network in childhood: a comparative fMRI study with adults

      Laura Biagi, Giovanni Cioni, Leonardo Fogassi, Andrea Guzzetta, Giuseppina Sgandurra and Michela Tosetti

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12353

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      In this study, functional MRI was used to explore the activation of the action-observation network in children and adults. Respect to adults, children show a similar pattern of fMRI activation for observation of manual action, but less lateralized and with a higher inter-subject variability. Moreover, as in adults, the anterior intraparietal cortices (AIP) of children present a hand identity effect, showing higher response during observation of the contralateral hand (hand identity effect) and during the observation of complex actions relative to simple grasping acts.

    2. Longitudinal evidence linking processing speed to the development of reasoning

      Robert V. Kail, Arne Lervåg and Charles Hulme

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12352

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      This longitudinal study examined the direct effects of age-related change in processing speed on reasoning as well as indirect effects of processing speed mediated by working memory. The findings indicated that faster processing speed is associated longitudinally with improved reasoning but indirect influences via working memory were less consistent.

  45. Articles

    1. Preschool children's control of action outcomes

      Livia Freier, Richard P. Cooper and Denis Mareschal

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12354

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      Preschoolers' strategy-guided acting differed for 3- and 5-year-olds on a naturalistic colouring task. All children attained goals at subordinate levels of the goal hierarchy but only 5-year-olds monitored action outcomes in line with the overarching goal of the task.

  46. Papers

    1. Splenium development and early spoken language in human infants

      Meghan R. Swanson, Jason J. Wolff, Jed T. Elison, Hongbin Gu, Heather C. Hazlett, Kelly Botteron, Martin Styner, Sarah Paterson, Guido Gerig, John Constantino, Stephen Dager, Annette Estes, Clement Vachet, Joseph Piven and for the IBIS Network

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12360

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      The association between developmental trajectories of language-related white matter fiber pathways from 6 to 24 months of age and individual differences in language production at 24 months of age were investigated in 77 typically developing infants. The rate of change in splenium development varied significantly as a function of language production, such that children with greater change in fractional anisotropy from 6 to 24 months produced more words at 24 months (blue solid line in figure). These findings highlight the importance of tracing brain development trajectories from infancy to fully elucidate emerging brain-behavior associations while also emphasizing the role of the splenium as a key node in the structural network that supports the acquisition of spoken language.

  47. Short Reports

    1. Native Amazonian children forego egalitarianism in merit-based tasks when they learn to count

      Julian Jara-Ettinger, Edward Gibson, Celeste Kidd and Steve Piantadosi

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12351

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      In the Tsimane', a farming-foraging group from the Bolivian amazon, children who can count are more likely to take merit into account when distributing resources, compared to children who cannot count.

  48. Papers

    1. Effect of socioeconomic status (SES) disparity on neural development in female African-American infants at age 1 month

      Laura M. Betancourt, Brian Avants, Martha J. Farah, Nancy L. Brodsky, Jue Wu, Manzar Ashtari and Hallam Hurt

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12344

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      Relationships between SES and neural development have been shown in older children, however, less is known regarding the impact of SES on neural development in infants. We examined effects of SES on cortical gray, deep gray, and white matter volumes in term, healthy, appropriate for gestational age, African-American, female infants at 5 weeks of age and found that lower SES was associated with smaller cortical gray and deep gray matter volumes. These SES effects on neural outcome at such a young age build on similar studies of older children, suggesting that the biological embedding of adversity may occur very early in development.

    2. Difficult temperament and negative parenting in early childhood: a genetically informed cross-lagged analysis

      Lauren Micalizzi, Manjie Wang and Kimberly J. Saudino

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12355

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      Individual differences in difficult temperament and negative parenting in early childhood are due to genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental effects. In addition to contemporaneous associations at ages 2 and 3, there is evidence of a bidirectional association between difficult temperament and negative parenting across this period that is due to genetic and environmental influences.

    3. Facial speech gestures: the relation between visual speech processing, phonological awareness, and developmental dyslexia in 10-year-olds

      Gesa Schaadt, Claudia Männel, Elke van der Meer, Ann Pannekamp and Angela D. Friederici

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12346

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      Studies demonstrated impaired auditory speech processing in individuals with developmental dyslexia (DD), but visual aspects of speech processing have hardly been investigated. We analyzed the visual Mismatch Response (vMMR) to mouth movements silently pronouncing syllables in school children with and without DD. Children without DD show a posterior vMMR, whereas children with DD show an anterior vMMR, which was more pronounced in children with severe phonological deficits. As anterior MMR scalp distributions are typically observed for auditory speech processing, the anterior vMMR of children with DD might suggest an attempt to anticipate potentially upcoming auditory speech information in order to support phonological processing.

    4. Lexical leverage: category knowledge boosts real-time novel word recognition in 2-year-olds

      Arielle Borovsky, Erica M. Ellis, Julia L. Evans and Jeffrey L. Elman

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12343

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      We measured novel word recognition in 24 month old children as a function of whether newly learned words came from relatively dense or sparse semantic categories. Results indicated that words were recognized more reliably when words came from dense categories. The findings suggest that young children recognize links between novel and known word meanings and leverage this knowledge during word learning.

    5. Functional brain organization for number processing in pre-verbal infants

      Laura A. Edwards, Jennifer B. Wagner, Charline E. Simon and Daniel C. Hyde

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12333

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      We investigated functional brain organization for numerical processing in pre-verbal infants using fNIRS. We show that sensitivity to numerosity change is restricted to right parietal cortex and responses to number can be functionally and spatially dissociated from the broader visual-attentional response. These results suggest a strict brain lateralization and specialization for numerosity before the acquisition of a symbolic number system.

    6. Challenging gender stereotypes: Theory of mind and peer group dynamics

      Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Michael T. Rizzo and Melanie Killen

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12345

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      To investigate the social-cognitive skills related to challenging gender stereotypes, children (N = 61, 3–6 years) evaluated a peer who challenged gender stereotypic norms held by the peer's group. Participants with false belief theory of mind (FB ToM) competence were more likely than participants who did not have FB ToM to expect a peer to challenge the group's stereotypes and propose that the group engage in a non-stereotypic activity. Further, participants with FB ToM rated challenging the peer group more positively.

    7. Development of infants' segmentation of words from native speech: a meta-analytic approach

      Christina Bergmann and Alejandrina Cristia

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12341

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      In a meta-analysis, we addressed how infants across different ages segment words from continuous speech in their native language. Based on previous popular theoretical and experimental work, we expected infants to display familiarity preferences early on, with a switch to novelty preferences as infants become more proficient at processing and segmenting native speech. The combined results from 168 experiments reporting on data gathered from 3774 infants revealed a persistent familiarity preference across all ages. There was no significant effect of additional factors, including native language and experiment design. Further analyses revealed no sign of selective data collection or reporting. We conclude that models of infant information processing that are frequently cited in this domain may not, in fact, apply in the case of segmenting words from native speech.

    8. Emotional experience in music fosters 18-month-olds' emotion–action understanding: a training study

      Tik Sze Carrey Siu and Him Cheung

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12348

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      Training 15-month-olds to recognize emotions via interactive musical activities not only enhances their appreciation of musical expressiveness, but also promotes their affective interpretation of behaviour.

    9. The influence of power and reason on young Maya children's endorsement of testimony

      Thomas Castelain, Stéphane Bernard, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst and Hugo Mercier

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12336

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      Children from a traditional Maya community were more likely to endorse testimony supported by a good argument (Experiment 1), provided by a dominant (Experiment 2), and supported by a good argument provided by a subordinate (Experiments 3 and 4).

    10. Infants’ unprovoked acts of force toward others

      Audun Dahl

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12342

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      It is often thought that infants hit, bite, or kick others more often than older children merely because infants cannot regulate their frustration in response to provocation. Contrary to this view, two studies showed that a large proportion of acts of force in the second year are unprovoked and not accompanied by distress.

    11. Developmental consequences of behavioral inhibition: a model in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

      Katie Chun and John P. Capitanio

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12339

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      Although behavioral inhibition can result in an increased risk for anxiety and depression and decreased social behavior later in life, some studies have found that the stability of behavioral inhibition can be moderated by different factors. In a rhesus monkey model of behavioral inhibition, behaviorally inhibited juveniles showed increased anxious behaviors in response to relocation and decreased social behaviors in naturalistic conditions, however, as adults, behaviorally inhibited animals showed discontinuity in social behavior, which may be related to the quality of interactions early in life.

    12. Brain and behavioral inhibitory control of kindergartners facing negative emotions

      Tali Farbiash and Andrea Berger

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12330

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      Inhibitory control (IC) - one of the most critical functions underlying a child's ability to self-regulate - develops significantly throughout the kindergarten years. Experiencing negative emotions imposes challenges on executive functioning and may specifically affect IC. In this study, we examined kindergartners' IC and its related brain activity during a negative emotional situation. We found that theta power within the N2 window was increased in NoGo trials of the negative emotional block (B), compared to the non-negative emotional blocks (A and C). This increase reflects the recruitment of emotional and attentional resources needed when children were asked to cope with their negative emotions and exert inhibitory control under this challenging condition.

    13. Developmental changes between childhood and adulthood in passive observational and interactive feedback-based categorization rule learning

      Rubi Hammer, Jim Kloet and James R. Booth

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12338

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      We tested autonomous observational category learning (OCL) and feedback-based category learning (FBCL) skills of elementary school children and adults. Early-phase FBCL performances in the two age groups were matched, but the OCL performances of adults were higher than those of children. Performances in post learning categorization tasks indicated that in FBCL tasks children directly learn the associations between an object and a category label, whereas in the OCL tasks they first learn which feature-dimensions were relevant.

    14. The development of implicit gender attitudes

      Yarrow Dunham, Andrew Scott Baron and Mahzarin R. Banaji

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12321

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      Children's preference for their own gender emerges early in childhood. Thereafter, boys and girls show strikingly different patterns of development. Girls' attitudes, measured at both the implicit and explicit level, remain stable. By contrast, boys' attitudes show a marked decline in strength, ending at pro-female attitudes as measured explicitly and relative neutrality as measured implicitly.

    15. Electrophysiological evidence of phonetic normalization across coarticulation in infants

      Karima Mersad and Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12325

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      Preverbal infants can compute automatically consonant representation, independently of the vocalic context. Infants share with adults a similar neural architecture suitable for computing phonetic representations from the first months of life.

    16. Individual differences in neural mechanisms of selective auditory attention in preschoolers from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds: an event-related potentials study

      Elif Isbell, Amanda Hampton Wray and Helen J. Neville

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12334

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      To assess neural mechanisms of selective auditory attention, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) during a dichotic listening paradigm from 124 preschoolers from lower SES backgrounds. We observed prominent individual differences in neural indices of selective attention. These individual differences were associated with nonverbal IQ performance. Children with more pronounced ERP attention effects, i.e., larger mean amplitude differences between the ERPs elicited by identical probes embedded in stories when attended versus unattended, had higher nonverbal IQ scores.

    17. Delayed Match Retrieval: a novel anticipation-based visual working memory paradigm

      Zsuzsa Kaldy, Sylvia B. Guillory and Erik Blaser

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12335

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      Here we introduce a novel eye-tracking paradigm (Delayed Match Retrieval) to test infants’ visual working memory (VWM) using anticipatory gaze responses. 10-month-olds were able to reliably maintain two object-location bindings over a 1.5-second delay. Our paradigm can be readily scaled up to test toddlers and older children as well.

    18. Relationships between event-related potentials and behavioral and scholastic measures of reading ability: A large-scale, cross-sectional study

      Negin Khalifian, Mallory C. Stites and Sarah Laszlo

      Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12329

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      This report presents the results of a very large (N > 100) developmental ERP study that aimed to link ERP component amplitudes with behavioral and scholastic measures of reading achievement. Results indicate a primacy of phonological ERP components for predicting scholastic reading success.

    19. Probing the nature of deficits in the ‘Approximate Number System’ in children with persistent Developmental Dyscalculia

      Stephanie Bugden and Daniel Ansari

      Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12324

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      In this study, children with persistent dyscalculia (DD) exhibited (a) larger Weber fraction and (b) greater error rates when the size of the individual dot stimuli were incongruent with the more numerous dot array during a non-symbolic numerical discrimination task compared to typically developing children. These findings reveal that indices commonly used to assess internal numerical representations are affected by visual perceptual variables and affects children with DD to a greater extent than their typically developing peers. Multiple explanations for the present set of findings are discussed herein.

    20. Integration of audio-visual information for spatial decisions in children and adults

      Marko Nardini, Jennifer Bales and Denis Mareschal

      Version of Record online: 17 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12327

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      Children aged 4–12 years and adults were faster at localising audio-visual targets given both senses together compared with either alone. All groups' reaction times were best explained by integration (pooling) of sensory information. These results provide new evidence for early and sustained abilities to integrate visual and auditory signals for spatial localisation from a young age.

    21. Longitudinal relations among exuberance, externalizing behaviors, and attentional bias to reward: the mediating role of effortful control

      Santiago Morales, Koraly Pérez-Edgar and Kristin Buss

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12320

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      Attention bias towards reward was positively predicted by exuberance, negatively predicted by effortful control, and positively related to externalizing problems. The longitudinal path between exuberance and attention bias to reward was mediated by effortful control.

    22. Electrophysiological correlates of observational learning in children

      Julia M. Rodriguez Buritica, Ben Eppinger, Nicolas W. Schuck, Hauke R. Heekeren and Shu-Chen Li

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12317

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      We showed that the oFRN differentiated between negative and positive observed action-outcomes of others and may serve as a measure of observational learning in school-aged children. Moreover, we found that the oFRN showed a trend of being larger when observing other children compared to observing adults.

    23. Visual size perception and haptic calibration during development

      Monica Gori, Luana Giuliana, Giulio Sandini and David Burr

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01183.x

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      It is still unclear how the visual system perceives accurately the size of objects at different distances. One suggestion, dating back to Berkeley’s famous essay, is that vision is calibrated by touch. If so, we may expect different mechanisms involved for near, reachable distances and far, unreachable distances. To study how the haptic system calibrates vision we measured size constancy in children (from 6 to 16 years of age) and adults, at various distances.

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