Developmental Science

Cover image for Vol. 18 Issue 1

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Charles A. Nelson, Michelle de Haan, and Paul C. Quinn

Impact Factor: 4.278

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 5/65 (Psychology Developmental); 6/83 (Psychology Experimental)

Online ISSN: 1467-7687

  1. Papers

    1. The late positive potential predicts emotion regulation strategy use in school-aged children concurrently and two years later

      Sarah Babkirk, Victor Rios and Tracy A. Dennis

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12258

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      This longitudinal study examined the predictive value of the late positive potential (LPP), an ERP that has been shown to be sensitive to reappraisal, as an indicator of observed emotion regulation strategy use in children. Five- to seven- year old children completed a computerized cognitive reappraisal task while EEG was continuously recorded, as well as two emotionally challenging behavioral tasks, during which emotion regulation strategy use was observed. Two years later, the children again completed the same challenging behavioral tasks. Children who showed reappraisal-induced reductions in the LPP during the first assessment also used significantly more adaptive emotion regulation strategies, both concurrently and two years later.

    2. The lasting effects of process-specific versus stimulus-specific learning during infancy

      Hillary Hadley, Charisse B. Pickron and Lisa S. Scott

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12259

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      This study aimed to determine whether conceptual learning between 6 and 9 months leads to sustained behavioral advantages and neural changes in childhood. Here, children who received individual-level training with monkey faces (all monkey faces were individually named) from 6-9 months of age, showed an adult-like Event-related potential (ERP) inversion effect for human faces relative to children with no training, or who were trained with strollers or were trained at the category level with monkey faces.

    3. The effects of early foster care intervention on attention biases in previously institutionalized children in Romania

      Sonya Troller-Renfree, Jennifer Martin McDermott, Charles A. Nelson, Charles H. Zeanah and Nathan A. Fox

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12261

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      The current study examined visual attention biases using a dot-probe paradigm in 8-year-old children who were part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). Children in the foster care intervention had a significantly larger positive bias when compared to the care-as-usual group. The magnitude of positive bias was predicted by age of placement into foster care and was associated with reduced psychiatric and social risk for children who experienced early psychosocial deprivation.

    4. Concurrent and lasting effects of emotion regulation on amygdala response in adolescence and young adulthood

      Jennifer A. Silvers, Jocelyn Shu, Alexa D. Hubbard, Jochen Weber and Kevin N. Ochsner

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12260

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      Adults experience less variable and intense emotions than adolescents, suggesting that age predicts an improved ability to regulate one-s emotions. The present study found that adults showed greater concurrent and sustained reductions in the amygdala response during cognitive regulation of emotion relative to adolescents. These results suggest that not only are adults more successful at cognitively regulating emotional responses in the moment, but that emotion regulation has a more lasting impact for them than for adolescents as well.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Looking and touching: what extant approaches reveal about the structure of early word knowledge

      Kristi Hendrickson, Samantha Mitsven, Diane Poulin-Dubois, Pascal Zesiger and Margaret Friend

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12250

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      In this study we conducted moment-by-moment analyses of 16- 18-month-olds' looking and reaching behavior as measures of early knowledge in a two-alternative forced-choice word-picture matching task to determine the speed with which a word was processed (visual reaction time) as a function of the type of haptic response: Target, Distractor, or No Touch. Participants were significantly slower at processing a word during No Touches compared to Distractor and Target Touches. These results suggest that incorrect and absent haptic responses appear to index distinct knowledge states..

    6. Children do not recalibrate motor-sensory temporal order after exposure to delayed sensory feedback

      Tiziana Vercillo, David Burr, Giulio Sandini and Monica Gori

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12247

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      Motor-sensory recalibration is an important mechanism for the process of causal attribution. In this study we showed that this mechanism develops late in humans owing to the poor temporal resolution in motor-sensory synchronization in children younger than 12 years of age.

    7. Active vision in passive locomotion: real-world free viewing in infants and adults

      Kari S. Kretch and Karen E. Adolph

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12251

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      Visual exploration in infants and adults has been studied using two very different paradigms: free viewing of flat screen displays in desk-mounted eye-tracking studies and real-world visual guidance of action in head-mounted eye-tracking studies. To test whether classic findings from screen-based studies generalize to real-world visual exploration and to compare natural visual exploration in infants and adults, we tested observers in a new paradigm that combines critical aspects of both previous techniques: free viewing during real-world visual exploration. Mothers and their 9-month-old infants wore head-mounted eye trackers while mothers carried their infants in a forward-facing infant carrier through a series of indoor hallways. Results indicate that several aspects of visual exploration of a flat screen display do not generalize to visual exploration in the real world.

    8. Ensemble perception of size in 4–5-year-old children

      Timothy D. Sweeny, Nicole Wurnitsch, Alison Gopnik and David Whitney

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12239

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      How might children grasp the gist of a visual scene? We found that, even at 4-5 years-of-age, children engage a visual mechanism known as ensemble coding to summarize and perceive the average size of a group of objects.

    9. Towards a better understanding of the relationship between executive control and theory of mind: an intra-cultural comparison of three diverse samples

      Ameneh Shahaeian, Julie D. Henry, Maryam Razmjoee, Ali Teymoori and Cen Wang

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12243

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      Theory of Mind understanding (ToM) and Executive Functioning skills (EF) are compared among three diverse groups of Iranian children, including unschooled children from mountain village. While all children showed similar levels of ToM understanding, EF skills were highly related to children′s socio-economic status. The results provide support to the ‘Emergence account’ explaining the association between ToM and EF.

    10. A model to investigate the mechanisms underlying the emergence and development of independent sitting

      Kathleen M. O'Brien, Jing Zhang, Philip R. Walley, Jeffrey F. Rhoads, Jeffrey M. Haddad and Laura J. Claxton

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12238

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      We developed a single-degree-of-freedom inverted pendulum model to examine the mechanisms underlying the emergence and maturation of infant sitting. Our simulations suggest that newly sitting infants rely on passive muscle properties (e.g. muscle tone) to remain upright. However, with maturation infants begin to utilize adaptive feedback driven processes.

  2. Short Reports

    1. Mechanisms underlying accent accommodation in early word learning: evidence for general expansion

      Rachel Schmale, Amanda Seidl and Alejandrina Cristia

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12244

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      We exposed a group of 24-month-old English-learning toddlers to variability in indexical cues (very diverse voices from native English talkers), and another to variability in social cues (very diverse-looking silent actors); neither group was familiarized with the target novel accent. At test, both groups succeeded in recognizing a novel word when spoken in the novel accent. Thus, even when no lexical cues are available, variability can prepare young children for non-standard pronunciations.

  3. Papers

    1. Switching from reaching to navigation: differential cognitive strategies for spatial memory in children and adults

      Vittorio Belmonti, Giovanni Cioni and Alain Berthoz

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12240

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      The Magic Carpet (top-right) is a novel test for locomotor navigation, derived from the traditional Corsi Block-tapping Task (top-left). Spatial sequences of identical shape are retrieved differently in navigational from reaching space. The analysis of errors on the two tests reveals that school-age children, unlike adults, are unable to spontaneously select specific memory strategies for navigational space (bottom).

    2. Call me Alix, not Elix: vowels are more important than consonants in own-name recognition at 5 months

      Camillia Bouchon, Caroline Floccia, Thibaut Fux, Martine Adda-Decker and Thierry Nazzi

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12242

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      It has been proposed that consonants and vowels have different functional roles in language processing and, in particular, that consonants are more important in distinguishing words in the lexicon (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003). Many studies on French provide convrgent support for this proposal in adulthood and toddlerhood (Havy & Nazzi, 2009; Nazzi, 2005; New et al., 2014). We investigated the relative importance of consonants and vowels at the onset of lexical acquisition in French-learning 5-month-old infants. Reactions to mispronunciation in their own name were compared whether the change was consonantal (e.g. Victor/Zictor, n = 30) or vocalic (e.g. Alix/Elix, n = 30). Behavioral results indicated sensitivity to vowel changes, and not to consonant changes. Detailed acoustic analyses of THE stimuli revealed that vowels were more salient but spectrally less distinct than consonants. Lastly, vowel (but not consonant) mispronunciation detection was modulated by acoustic factors, in particular by the spectrally-based distance. This shows that the consonant bias for lexical processing observed later in development does not emerge until after 5 months of age through additional language exposure.

    3. Relation of perinatal risk and early parenting to executive control at the transition to school

      Caron A.C. Clark and Lianne J. Woodward

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12232

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      The relation of very preterm birth and early parenting to EC at age 6 was tested. VPT, higher parent intrusiveness and lower parent-child synchrony predicted lower EC, which in turn correlated with academic achievement at age 9 years.

  4. Short Reports

    1. Individuation training with other-race faces reduces preschoolers’ implicit racial bias: a link between perceptual and social representation of faces in children

      Wen S. Xiao, Genyue Fu, Paul C. Quinn, Jinliang Qin, James W. Tanaka, Olivier Pascalis and Kang Lee

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12241

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      Chinese kindergarten children are initially biased to categorize racially ambiguous faces: They categorize such faces as other-race “African” when the faces display an angry expression but the same faces as own-race “Chinese” when the faces display a happy expression. However, after learning to individuate African faces, the implicit racial bias disappears. Thus, perceptual learning of individual other-race faces can serve as an effective method to reduce implicit racial bias in young children.

    2. Pedagogical cues encourage toddlers' transmission of recently demonstrated functions to unfamiliar adults

      Christopher Vredenburgh, Tamar Kushnir and Marianella Casasola

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12233

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      We show that two-year-olds selectively enact, in a new social situation, causal functions which have been demonstrated pedagogically, even when they have learned and can produce alternate functions as well. The results have implications for how children learn conventional object functions in ambiguous contexts, as well as suggest a way which children might naturally participate in cultural transmission.

  5. Papers

    1. Preschoolers with Down syndrome do not yet show the learning and memory impairments seen in adults with Down syndrome

      Lynette V. Roberts and Jenny L. Richmond

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12225

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      Adults with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit specific deficits in learning and memory processes that depend on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, however it is largely unclear how these processes develop in young children with DS. We tested preschoolers with DS on these areas, and as shown in the figure, they performed equivalently to mental-age matched controls. This finding suggests that the additional disability-specific learning and memory deficits seen in adulthood, are not yet evident in pre-schoolers with DS and likely emerge progressively with age.

    2. The development of adaptive conformity in young children: effects of uncertainty and consensus

      Thomas J.H. Morgan, Kevin N. Laland and Paul L. Harris

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12231

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      We investigated reliance on social information, contingent on task difficulty and the consensus amongst informants, in children aged 3–7 using the “who-has-more” task. Whilst all children were sensitive to unanimity, older children were also sensitive to intermediate majorities (e.g., 8v2 informants). Children were relatively insensitive to task difficulty and older children tended to stick with their own decisions. Despite this, only the older children were able to use the social information to improve their accuracy..

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The development of route learning in Down syndrome, Williams syndrome and typical development: investigations with virtual environments

      Harry R.M. Purser, Emily K. Farran, Yannick Courbois, Axelle Lemahieu, Pascal Sockeel, Daniel Mellier and Mark Blades

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12236

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      Individuals with Williams syndrome performed better than a matched subset of typically developing children on more difficult routes. Measures of attention and long-term memory were strongly associated with route learning. All of the groups, including 5- to 6-year-old typically developing children, demonstrated the ability to make use of various landmark types to aid route learning, including distant landmarks.

    4. Imitation promotes affiliation in infant macaques at risk for impaired social behaviors

      Valentina Sclafani, Annika Paukner, Stephen J. Suomi and Pier F. Ferrari

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12237

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      We tested the effect of imitation on a population of nursery-reared infant macaques. Being imitated promotes affiliative behaviors in newborn monkeys.