Developmental Science

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Charles A. Nelson, Michelle de Haan, and Paul C. Quinn

Impact Factor: 3.982

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 5/69 (Psychology Developmental); 7/85 (Psychology Experimental)

Online ISSN: 1467-7687

  1. Special Issue Articles

    1. Bilingual children's long-term outcomes in English as a second language: language environment factors shape individual differences in catching up with monolinguals

      Johanne Paradis and Ruiting Jia

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12433

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      This longitudinal study shows that there is no straightforward answer to the question, How long does it take for English second language children to catch up to their monolingual peers? From ages 8½ to 10½, convergence on monolingual norms depended on task difficulty and linguistic sub-domain. Longer exposure time to English, a richer English environment, a mother with a higher level of education, a mother with greater fluency in English, the child using English in the home and being foreign-born all predicted stronger English second language abilities, and by extension, performance closer to monolingual norms.

  2. Papers

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Parent- and child-driven effects during the transition to adolescence: a longitudinal, genetic analysis of the home environment

      Laurie J. Hannigan, Tom A. McAdams, Robert Plomin and Thalia C. Eley

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12432

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      The home environment is shaped by parent-and child-driven processes operating interdependently. This study seeks to establish the extent to which these contribute to stability and change over the transition from childhood to adolescence.

    2. Napping reduces emotional attention bias during early childhood

      Amanda Cremone, Laura B.F. Kurdziel, Ada Fraticelli-Torres, Jennifer M. McDermott and Rebecca M.C. Spencer

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12411

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      To understand the mechanism through which sleep alters emotional processing during early childhood, we assessed attention biases following a mid-nap and an equivalent interval of wake in preschool children. Naps reduced emotional attention biases that were present following nap deprivation. Slow wave activity (SWA) may be a physiological property underlying the efficacy of emotional attention processing following sleep.

    3. Specialization of the motor system in infancy: from broad tuning to selectively specialized purposeful actions

      Hana D'Souza, Dorothy Cowie, Annette Karmiloff-Smith and Andrew J. Bremner

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12409

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      This study provides important new insights into the developmental process of motor specialization, by which motor abilities, similarly to cognitive and perceptual functions, start out broadly tuned to their goal, becoming progressively more tailored to action goals over the first year of life. Two experiments with 9- and 12-month-olds revealed gradual decreases in extraneous movements in non-acting limbs during unimanual actions. We also showed that the degree of specialization in infants’ unimanual actions is associated with individual differences in motor experience and visual attention, indicating the experience-dependent and broad functional nature of these developmental changes.

  3. Short Reports

    1. Preschoolers’ generosity increases with understanding of the affective benefits of sharing

      Markus Paulus and Chris Moore

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12417

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      This study assessed preschool children's reasoning about the affective consequences of sharing and not sharing with others. Children assumed that sharing makes them happier than not sharing. Further analyses indicated that children's own inclination to share with a stranger was related to their emotion predictions.

  4. Papers

    1. Adaptive specialization in position encoding while learning to read

      Dénes Tóth and Valéria Csépe

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12426

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      We investigated the development of the transposition effect, a widely studied phenomenon of orthographic processing. Children with better reading abilities and/or longer exposure to formal education showed larger transposition effect and this developmental pattern was specific to letter strings. A novel interpretation of the results considers the letter transposition effect a marker of adaptive specialization during reading acquisition.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The role of learning in social development: Illustrations from neglected children

      Alison B. Wismer Fries and Seth D. Pollak

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12431

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      Typically developing children were able to successfully utilize implicit information to motivate their learning behavior. In contrast, children who experienced severe early neglect did not make these associations. Children's ability to use these implicit learning cues was associated with their indiscriminate behavioral problems. These data are consistent with the view that motivated learning processes may be influenced by early caregiving and undermine children's abilities to form discriminate social relationships.

  5. Special Issue Articles

    1. Caregiver talk to young Spanish-English bilinguals: comparing direct observation and parent-report measures of dual-language exposure

      Virginia A. Marchman, Lucía Z. Martínez, Nereyda Hurtado, Theres Grüter and Anne Fernald

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12425

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      This research compared reported estimates of Spanish-English language exposure with those based on naturalistic recordings in 3-year old bilingual children. While moderately correlated, reported exposure failed to capture some variability in the number of child-directed words that children were observed to hear in each language. Moreover, observed estimates more consistently predicted children's outcomes than reported estimates. This figure plots the time course of spoken language processing, indicating faster processing speed in children who heard more vs. less child-directed speech in (a) Spanish and (b) English. Our results revealed important parallels between monolingual and bilingual language development and suggest that caregiver talk supports the development of language knowledge and also tunes up critical information-processing skills that are fundamental for language and cognitive growth.

    2. The influence of bilingualism on the preference for the mouth region of dynamic faces

      Alba Ayneto and Nuria Sebastian-Galles

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12446

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      This study explores if the increased preference for the mouth region in bilingual infants when looking at talking faces is generalized to other dynamic faces, such as emotional faces. The results show that bilingual infants look longer at the mouth as compared to monolingual infants regardless of the linguistic content of the stimuli. This indicates that the adaptations resulting from learning two languages can be generalized to non linguistic faces.

  6. Papers

    1. The development of generosity and moral cognition across five cultures

      Jason M. Cowell, Kang Lee, Susan Malcolm-Smith, Bilge Selcuk, Xinyue Zhou and Jean Decety

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12403

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      This developmental study combined measures of socioeconomic status (SES), executive function, affective sharing, empathic concern, theory of mind, and moral judgment in predicting sharing behavior in children (N = 999) from the age of 5 to 12 in five large-scale societies. Results demonstrate that age, gender, SES, culture, and social cognitive mechanisms explain over 20% of the variance worldwide in children’s resource allocation, highlighting continuities and discontinuities in children's generosity across urban contexts.

  7. Special Issue Articles

    1. Segmenting words from fluent speech during infancy – challenges and opportunities in a bilingual context

      Linda Polka, Adriel John Orena, Megha Sundara and Jennifer Worrall

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12419

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      When two languages are presented in the same segmentation test session, monolingual infants segmented target words only in their native language and bilinguals infants segmented words only in French. This task reveals a distinct challenge for bilingual infants in their development of word segmentation.

  8. Papers

    1. Co-occurrence statistics as a language-dependent cue for speech segmentation

      Amanda Saksida, Alan Langus and Marina Nespor

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12390

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      Co-occurrence statistics are not equally informative about word boundaries in all languages. A possible source of statistical variance between languages is linguistic rhythm – in stress-timed languages (English, Polish, Dutch), co-occurrence statistics are more informative when an absolute threshold is selected, and in mora-timed languages (Japanese, Tamil), relative thresholding yields better word segmentation. Infants might therefore use language-specific information about rhythm to narrow down possible associative strategies to segment speech.

    2. Representations of numerical and non-numerical magnitude both contribute to mathematical competence in children

      Stella F. Lourenco and Justin W. Bonny

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12418

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      Numerical and non-numerical magnitude precision in 5- and 6-year-olds was estimated using non-symbolic number and cumulative area comparison tasks. The precision of children's magnitude representations predicted better performance on multiple measures of school-relevant mathematics, even when controlling for age and non-mathematical (verbal) intelligence. Hierarchical regression models revealed that the precision of numerical and non-numerical magnitude contributed shared and unique variance to mathematical competence. Altogether, these results suggest that math development may be rooted in a general system of magnitude representation that is not specific to numerical magnitude but that also encompasses non-numerical magnitude.

  9. Short Reports

    1. Consequences of ‘tiger’ parenting: a cross-cultural study of maternal psychological control and children's cortisol stress response

      Stacey N. Doan, Twila Tardif, Alison Miller, Sheryl Olson, Daniel Kessler, Barbara Felt and Li Wang

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12404

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      Maternal psychological control mediates cultural differences in children's cortisol stress response.

  10. Papers

    1. The organization of exploratory behaviors in infant locomotor planning

      Kari S. Kretch and Karen E. Adolph

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12421

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      When deciding whether to cross bridges varying in width, 13–14-month-old infants displayed an organized, efficient sequence of visual and haptic exploratory behaviors.

    2. To trust or not to trust: social decision-making in post-institutionalized, internationally adopted youth

      Clio E. Pitula, Jennifer A. Wenner, Megan R. Gunnar and Kathleen M. Thomas

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12375

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      Using a developmentally appropriate trust game, trust behavior was examined in post-institutionalized (PI) adolescents internationally adopted as infants or young children. As shown here, in contrast with non-adopted comparison youth, PI youth, particularly those who were adopted over a year of age, were more mistrusting of peers at baseline (i.e., no feedback) and more sensitive to both defection (i.e., low reciprocation) and high reciprocation. Findings suggest that conditions early in life may set long-term biases in decision-making.

  11. Short Reports

    1. Eye blink rate predicts reward decisions in adolescents

      Emily Barkley-Levenson and Adriana Galván

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12412

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      Measurement of spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR) can be used as a proxy for dopamine in healthy adolescents in whom direct measurements of dopamine are prohibitively invasive. EBR correlates with reward-seeking decisions in adolescents but not adults, suggesting a role for dopamine receptor availability in previously observed adolescent behavioral and neural hypersensitivity to reward.

  12. Special Issue Articles

    1. Second label learning in bilingual and monolingual infants

      Padmapriya Kandhadai, D. Geoffrey Hall and Janet F. Werker

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12429

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      This research shows that linguistic experience shapes word-learning strategies even at the onset of lexical development. While bilingual infants interpreted a novel label that is applied to a familiar object as a second category label (another label for the familiar category), monolingual infants interpreted the novel word as a property (color) term for the familiar object. These findings show that growing up bilingual can influence word learning strategies even in infancy, and more generally underscores the need for theories of word learning to take into consideration the role of early linguistic experience.

  13. Papers

    1. Preliminary evidence of the impact of early childhood maltreatment and a preventive intervention on neural patterns of response inhibition in early adolescence

      Kathryn F. Jankowski, Jacqueline Bruce, Kathryn G. Beauchamp, Leslie E. Roos, William E. Moore III and Philip A. Fisher

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12413

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      The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Go/NoGo task to explore the impact of early childhood maltreatment and a preventive intervention on response inhibition in nonmaltreated adolescents who were raised by their biological parents, maltreated adolescents who were in foster care as preschoolers and were randomly assigned to receive services as usual, and maltreated adolescents who were in foster care as preschoolers and were randomly assigned to receive the intervention. These groups of adolescents demonstrated similar behavioral performance but significantly different neural patterns. For example, the maltreated adolescents who received the intervention recruited greater lingual gyral activity during successful response inhibition than the maltreated adolescents who received services as usual.

  14. Short Reports

    1. Infant learning is influenced by local spurious generalizations

      LouAnn Gerken and Carolyn Quam

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12410

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      Infants failed to generalize one of two phonotactic rules from 24 randomly-ordered words (Exp. 1). They succeeded in generalizing the same rules when the stimuli were re-ordered to avoid local spurious generalizations.