Disasters

Cover image for Vol. 39 Issue 1

Edited By: Sara Pantuliano, Helen Young and David Alexander

Impact Factor: 1.023

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 26/55 (Planning & Development)

Online ISSN: 1467-7717

Associated Title(s): Development Policy Review

Disasters Virtual Issues


DISASTERS VIRTUAL ISSUES

We are pleased to present the following Disasters Virtual Issues on the following themes:

INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI-TEN YEARS ON
Edited by Sara Pantuliano, Andrea Ossi-Perretta and Caitlin Wake
December 2014

EBOLA
Edited by Sara Pantuliano, Andrea Ossi-Perretta and Caitlin Wake
December 2014

RESILIENCE
Edited by Sara Pantuliano, Eleanor Davey and Joel Kinahan
April 2013

FAMINE
Edited by Sara Pantuliano and Helen Young
August 2011

REFUGEES AND THE DISPLACED
Edited by Sara Pantuliano
June 2011

HAITI
Edited by Sara Pantuliano
February 2010

ETHIOPIA
Edited by Paul Harvey
September 2009

INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI
Edited by Paul Harvey
February 2009

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The Indian Ocean Tsunami – ten years on
Edited by Sara Pantuliano, Andrea Ossi-Perretta and Caitlin Wake
December 2014

This virtual issue of Disasters marks ten years since the Indian Ocean tsunami, one of the most devastating natural disasters in recent history. The tsunami, generated by an earthquake off the coast of Indonesia on 26 December 2004, displaced 1.7 million people and killed over 227,000 in 14 countries.

The disaster garnered extensive press coverage and an unprecedented outpouring of support, with an estimated $14 billion donated to organisations involved in response efforts. The sudden influx of such significant financial donations meant that some organisations struggled to allocate resources that far surpassed their operational capacity, and, in some instances, relief needs. As weak infrastructure and inadequate tsunami detection and evacuation systems in many affected countries contributed to the high loss of life, one focus became to ‘build back better’ in order to mitigate the potential impact of subsequent disasters. These efforts were subject to intense scrutiny and sustained public interest, and questions surrounding accountability, resource allocation, impact, the participation of affected populations and coordination were considered extensively, both in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and in the months and years that followed.

This virtual issue brings together articles that have made a contribution to this discourse. It begins with an article by Daly (2014), which analyses the role of local social, cultural and political institutions in post-tsunami reconstruction in Aceh, Indonesia, followed by an article by Arlikatti et al. (2010) that considers the utility of a modified domestic assets index approach in assessing the impact of the tsunami on households in India. Two articles look at the impact of the tsunami on children: Du et al. (2012) explores the association between children’s living environments and their fears following the tsunami, while Stark et al. (2014) evaluate the impact of microfinance programming on children in post-tsunami Aceh. The next four articles consider aspects of the tsunami in Sri Lanka: Kapadia (2014) analyses the performance of aid-funded livelihoods recovery efforts, Poston (2010) discusses lessons from a microfinance recapitalisation programme, Amarasiri de Silva (2009) considers post-tsunami aid distribution and Boano (2009) looks at post-tsunami shelter and housing interventions. Two articles then consider aspects of the tsunami from the perspective of survivors in Thailand: Steckley and Doberstein (2011) describe tsunami survivors’ perspectives on vulnerability and vulnerability reduction, and Varley et al. (2012) explore psychosocial health issues affecting Thai health service providers. Lastly, Waizenegger and Hyndman (2010) provide critical analysis of the tsunami as a catalyst for ‘disaster diplomacy’ in Aceh, and consider its role in generating two solitudes – the tsunami-affected and the conflict-affected – that compound challenges for sustaining peace in Aceh.

Embedded wisdom or rooted problems? Aid workers' perspectives on local social and political infrastructure in post-tsunami Aceh
Daly, P. (2014)
This paper analyses the role of local social, cultural, and political institutions in post-disaster reconstruction projects. It contends that such institutions are important considerations within community-driven reconstruction initiatives, but are often viewed with ambivalence by external aid organisations. This paper draws upon in-depth qualitative interviews with aid workers involved in the post-tsunami reconstruction in Aceh, Indonesia, to establish what roles community institutions were suited to play in the reconstruction, what were the limitations of community institutions when engaging with external aid agencies, how external aid agencies perceive and engage with local community institutions.

Assessing the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami on households: a modified domestic assets index approach
Arlikatti, S.; Peacock, WG.; Prater, CS.; Grover, H. and Sekar, G. (2010)
This paper offers a potential measurement solution for assessing disaster impacts and subsequent recovery at the household level by using a modified domestic assets index (MDAI) approach. Assessment of the utility of the domestic assets index first proposed by Bates, Killian and Peacock (1984) has been confined to earthquake areas in the Americas and southern Europe. This paper modifies and extends the approach to the Indian sub-continent and to coastal surge hazards utilizing data collected from 1,000 households impacted by the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) in the Nagapattinam district of south-eastern India. The analyses suggest that the MDAI scale is a reliable and valid measure of household living conditions and is useful in assessing disaster impacts and tracking recovery efforts over time. It can facilitate longitudinal studies, encourage cross-cultural, cross-national comparisons of disaster impacts and inform national and international donors of the itemized monetary losses from disasters at the household level.

The living environment and children's fears following the Indonesian tsunami
Du, YB.; Lee, CT.; Christina, D.; Belfer, ML.; Betancourt, TS.; O’Rourke, EJ. and Palfrey, JS. (2012)
In Aceh, Indonesia, the tsunami left more than 500,000 people homeless and displaced to temporary barracks and other communities. This study examines the associations between prolonged habitation in barracks and the nature of fears reported by school-age children and adolescents. 30 months after the tsunami, the authors interviewed 155 child and parent dyads. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the fears reported by children and adolescents living in barracks with those reported by their peers who were living in villages. After adjusting for demographic factors and tsunami exposure, the study finds that continued residence in barracks is associated with higher rates of reporting tsunami-related fears, suggesting that barracks habitation has had a significant impact on the psychological experience of children and adolescents since the tsunami.

Assessing the impact of microfinance programming on children: an evaluation from post-tsunami Aceh
Stark, L.; Kassim, N.; Sparling, T.; Buscher, D.; Yu, G. and Boothby, N. (2014)
This paper presents an evaluation of the long-term impact of microfinance programmes on Acehnese children during the post-tsunami recovery. The study sample consisted of 185 microfinance participants, with a comparison group of 192 individuals who did not participate in microfinance programmes. All respondents were parents, interviewed through a structured survey. The study used four child protection indicators—diet, health, childcare and education—in contrast to traditional repayment rate indicators. The paper concludes that with respect to all four indicators, there was no long-term difference between the impact of microfinance on beneficiaries' children and non-beneficiaries' children. It argues that these findings signify a need for microfinance actors to move beyond traditional indicators of economic success to evaluate the social changes that microfinance programmes are presumed to effect.

Sri Lankan livelihoods after the tsunami: searching for entrepreneurs, unveiling relations of power
Kapadia, K. (2014)
This paper analyses the performance of aid-funded livelihoods recovery efforts in Sri Lanka following the tsunami, with special attention to the effects on the rural poor. It argues that successful livelihoods recovery was hampered by an excessive focus by aid agencies on entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship, and by the lack of a politically informed understanding of the economy. Based on ethnographic and survey-based research, the study demonstrates that the category of ‘entrepreneur’ is misleading for large parts of the economy. Indeed, the desire to build an entrepreneurial economy actually hampered successful livelihoods recovery in Sri Lanka and, in some cases, reinforced inequitable relations of power. The paper concludes that for livelihoods recovery programmes to be effective, they must be founded on an understanding of the relations of power that constitute the economy; these relations operate across scales, and are historically and geographically specific.

Lessons from a microfinance recapitalisation programme
Poston, A. (2014)
Following a major disaster, microfinance institutions (MFIs) often face high levels of bad debt, which may require the institutions to be recapitalised. This paper describes a recapitalisation programme implemented by the SANASA movement of Sri Lanka in 390 microfinance societies following the December 2004 tsunami, and highlights lessons for other similar programmes. It argues that MFI recapitalisation is a good use of funds in post-disaster situations and that to create successful programmes, donors should expect to relax some of their usual project requirements and MFIs should focus on maintaining credit discipline.

Ethnicity, politics and inequality: post-tsunami humanitarian aid delivery in Ampara District, Sri Lanka
de Silva, MWA. (2009)
The provision of humanitarian aid at times of disaster in multi-ethnic community settings may lead to conflict, tension and even the widening of the distance between various ethnic groups. Distribution of aid directly to affected communities in order to speed up recovery may often lead to the intensification of ethnic sentiments. This paper argues that the new distribution mechanisms introduced for the delivery of tsunami aid in Ampara District, Sri Lanka, did not recognise local networks and the culture of the ethnically mixed community setting. It analyses post-tsunami aid distribution and shows how such an extemporised effort in an ethnically cognisant context increased ethnic division, inequality and disorder, while marginalising poor segments of the affected population. It recommends the inclusion of local networks in aid dissemination as a measure for improving ethnic neutrality and social harmony in disaster-hit multi-ethnic communities.

Housing anxiety and multiple geographies in post-tsunami Sri Lanka
Boano, C. (2009)
Tsunami intervention has been an extraordinary and unprecedented relief and recovery operation. This article underlines the complexities posed by shelter and housing intervention in post-tsunami Sri Lanka, revealing a pragmatic, reductionist approach to shelter and housing reconstruction in a contested and fragmented environment. Competition, housing anxiety and buffer zone implementation have resulted in compulsory villagisation inland, stirring feelings of discrimination and tension, and becoming major obstacles to equitable rebuilding of houses and livelihoods. A new tsunami geography has been imposed on an already vulnerable conflict-based geography, in which shelter has been conceived as a mono-dimensional artefact. An analysis of the process and outcomes of temporary and permanent post-tsunami housing programmes yields information about the extent to which shelter policies and programmes serve not only physical needs but ‘higher order’ objectives for a comprehensive and sustainable recovery plan.

Tsunami survivors' perspectives on vulnerability and vulnerability reduction: evidence from Koh Phi Phi Don and Khao Lak, Thailand
Steckley, M. and Doberstein, B.(2011)
This paper presents the results of primary research with 40 survivors of the tsunami in two communities: Khao Lak and Koh Phi Phi Don, Thailand. It traces tsunami survivors' perceptions of vulnerability and determines whether residents felt that the tsunami affected different communities differently. The paper goes on to identify the populations and sub-community groups that survivors distinguished as being more vulnerable than others and highlights community-generated ideas about vulnerability reduction. A range of additional vulnerability reduction actions are pinpointed. Results suggest that the two case study communities, both small, coastal, tourism-dominated communities no more than 100 kilometres apart, have differing vulnerable sub-groups and environmental vulnerabilities, requiring different post-disaster vulnerability reduction efforts.

Ocean waves and roadside spirits: Thai health service providers' post-tsunami psychosocial health
Varley, E.; Isaranuwatchai , W. and Coyte, PC. (2012)
At least five million people around the world were affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami, and the total number of deaths exceeded 280,000. In Thailand, the tsunami struck six southern provinces, where the disaster's immediate impact was catastrophic. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Phang Nga Province (2007), this paper provides an overview of the disaster's psychosocial consequences for Thai health service providers, the vast majority of whom were bypassed by regional post-tsunami mental health initiatives. The available tsunami literature only briefly attends to health providers' experience of professional ‘burn-out’, rather than explores the tsunami's wide spectrum of psychosocial effects. This research aims to remedy such oversights through ‘critical medical’ and ‘interpretive phenomenological’ analysis of the diverse and culturally-situated ways in which health providers’ experienced the tsunami. The paper concludes by arguing for disaster-related psychosocial interventions to involve health providers explicitly.

Two solitudes: post-tsunami and post-conflict Aceh
Waizenegger , A. and Hundman, J. (2010)
In August 2005 a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for the cessation of hostilities was signed by Aceh's longstanding adversaries—the Government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement (GAM). The tsunami was a major catalyst for ‘disaster diplomacy’, and this paper argues that international political pressure was an important ingredient in creating conditions for the MoU, although the situation within Aceh also shaped the peace process. Based on interviews conducted with government officials, GAM representatives and fighters, and non-governmental organisation staff in Aceh, this paper finds that assistance for tsunami survivors far exceeds that available for conflict survivors and ex-combatants. The formation of these two solitudes—the tsunami-affected and the conflict-affected—compounds challenges for sustaining peace in Aceh. This research points to an enduring lack of livelihoods for former fighters and conflict victims that may threaten a sustainable peace.

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Planning for the immediate and post-Ebola response
Edited by Sara Pantuliano, Andrea Ossi-Perretta and Caitlin Wake
December 2014

The Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak that began in Guinea in December 2013 was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organisation (WHO) on 8 August 2014. The worst-affected countries have been Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, with reports indicating over 14,000 confirmed, probable or suspected EVD cases and over 5,000 deaths. After a slow response in the critical early months, national and international agencies are still struggling to catch up. In September the United Nations launched the UN Mission for Ebola Emergency Response (UNMEER), its first ever emergency health mission, to coordinate the response.

EVD is contagious and characterised by high fatality rates. With no approved vaccine the response has focused on supportive care and control measures, but a lack of human,financial and material resources has impeded efforts to control the outbreak.

While the outbreak is concentrated in West Africa, cases of EVD have now been detected in other African countries, as well as the United States and Spain. The outbreak has starkly exposed global inequalities in disease distribution and access to health care, with already weak health systems in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea buckling under acute shortages of trained health professionals, weak data collection mechanisms, inadequate triage and referral practices and limited capacity to respond to health issues unrelated to EVD.

The outbreak has also had a devastating impact in West Africa beyond its biomedical and health system implications. Extended closures of schools in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea will have long-term consequences for education, and the disruption of food production, transport and trade has contributed to food shortages and inflation. It is also important to recognise that the current EVD outbreak is affecting countries already suffering from low life expectancy and high rates of food insecurity, malnutrition and poverty. The current EVD outbreak has both compounded and exposed these long-standing issues, and given rise to urgent new ones.

This virtual issue of Disasters draws on the journal’s archive of epidemiological and health system articles to inform planning for both the immediate and post-Ebola response. Beginning with an account of early Ebola outbreaks by Draper (2007), the virtual edition brings together articles on measures employed in response to disease outbreaks, including evacuation and quarantine (Manuell and Cukor, 2010). Articles by Newbrander et al. (2011), Rubenstein (2011) and Pavignani (2011) explore issues related to health system recovery, and Cairns et al. (2008) consider methods to retrospectively determine mortality rates in humanitarian emergencies, a topic of particular relevance in the context of the current EVD outbreak. Also of direct relevance is the 2014 article by Derderian, which examines the complex interplay between development work and humanitarian assistance in emergency healthcare responses in West Africa. The issue closes with an article by Hunt (2011) exploring the ethics of health care for expatriate professionals working in humanitarian contexts. The article provides a framework through which to consider the ethical issues inherent in the current Ebola response, where healthcare professionals have been tasked with responding to needs that far surpass the human and material resources available to address them.

Haemorrhagic fever in Africa due to Marburg-Ebola viruses
Draper, C. C. (2007)
During the first half of October 1976 media accounts of a mysterious ‘Killer Virus’ epidemic in southern Sudan caused public concern. Over a two-week period it was reported that the virus had not been isolated, and the impression was given that the epidemic might prove uncontrollable and that disaster threatened Sudan, Zaire, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. In this paper Dr. Draper gives an account of this and previous known outbreaks, and provides the background to set media reports of the time into perspective.

Mother Nature versus human nature: public compliance with evacuation and quarantine
Manuell, M.L. and Cukor, J. (2010)
Effectively controlling the spread of contagious illnesses has become a critical focus of disaster planning. It is likely that quarantine will be a key part of the overall public health strategy during a pandemic, an act of bioterrorism or other emergencies involving contagious agents. While the United States lacks recent experience of large-scale quarantines, it has considerable accumulated experience of large-scale evacuations. Risk perception, life circumstance, work-related issues and the opinions of family, friends and credible public figures all play a role in determining compliance with an evacuation order. This review of the principal factors affecting compliance with evacuations demonstrates many similarities with those likely to occur during a quarantine. Accurate identification and understanding of barriers to compliance allows for improved planning to protect the public more effectively.

Rebuilding and strengthening health systems and providing basic health services in fragile states
Newbrander, W.; Waldman, R. and Sheperd-Banigan, M.(2011)
Effective engagement with fragile states to inform the design of health programmes and selection of interventions depends on donor coordination and an understanding of health system challenges. Planning requires consideration of allocation (services to be delivered), production (organisation of services), distribution (beneficiaries of services) and financing. The criteria for selecting interventions are: their impact on major health problems; effectiveness; the possibility of scale-up; equity; and sustainability. There are various options for financing and models of engagement, but support should always combine short-term relief with longer-term development. Stakeholders should aim not only to save lives and protect health but also to bolster countries’ ability to deliver good-quality services in the long run.

Post-conflict health reconstruction: search for a policy
Rubenstein, L. S. (2011)
Practically by default, health programmes are seen as an element of stabilisation and security interventions in the aftermath of conflict. That perspective, however, lacks an evidence base and can skew health programmes towards short-term security and stabilisation goals that have a marginal impact and violate the principles of equity, non-discrimination and quality that are central to sound health systems and their public acceptance. A better approach is to ground policy in legitimacy, viewing health both as a core social institution and one that, if developed according to human rights principles, can advance the effectiveness and quality of governance in the emerging state.

Human resources for health through conflict and recovery: lessons from African countries
Pavignani, E. (2011)
A protracted conflict affects human resources for health (HRH) in multiple ways. However, interventions aimed at healing derelict human resources are fraught with political, technical, financial and administrative problems. The experience accumulated in past recovery processes has made important players aware of the cost of neglecting human resource development. This paper presents condensed descriptions of selected African HRH-related recovery processes. The technical work required to resuscitate a derelict health workforce is well understood; the highest hurdles lie outside of the health domain, and are of a political and administrative nature. Success stories are rare, but useful lessons are taught by failure as well as by success.

Cross-sectional survey methods to assess retrospectively mortality in humanitarian emergencies
Cairns, K. L. et al. (2009)
Since the rates and causes of mortality are critical indicators of the overall health of a population, it is important to evaluate mortality even where no complete vital statistics reporting exists. Experience in cross-sectional survey methods to retrospectively assess crude, age-specific and maternal mortality in stable settings has been gained over the past 40 years, and methods appropriate to humanitarian emergencies have been developed. In humanitarian emergencies, crude and age-specific mortality can be gauged using methods based on the enumeration of individuals resident in randomly selected households. Under-five mortality can also be assessed through a modified prior birth history method, and maternal mortality can be appraised via the initial identification of maternal deaths in the study population and a subsequent investigation to determine the cause of each death.

Changing tracks as situations change: humanitarian and health response along the Liberia–Côte d’Ivoire border
Derderian, K. (2014)
In recent years, protracted crises and fragile post-conflict settings have challenged both relief and development aid. Forced migration has tested humanitarian and development paradigms where sudden-onset emergencies, violence and displacement arise alongside ongoing development work. Drawing on Médecins Sans Frontières interventions in the region from December 2010 to May 2011, this paper examines aid and healthcare responses to displacement in Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia; it focuses on challenges to the maintenance of preparedness for such foreseeable emergencies and to adaptation in response to changing situations of displacement and insecurity. This ‘backsliding’ from development to emergency remains a substantial challenge to aid. But it also presents an opportunity to ensure access to medical care that is much more urgently needed in times of crisis, including the suspension of user fees for medical care.

Establishing moral bearings: ethics and expatriate health care professionals in humanitarian work
Hunt, M. R. (2011)
Expatriate health care professionals frequently participate in international responses to natural disasters and humanitarian emergencies. This field of practice presents important clinical, logistical and ethical challenges for clinicians. This paper considers the ethics of health care practice in humanitarian contexts. It examines features that contribute to forming the moral landscape of humanitarian work, and discusses normative guidelines and approaches that are relevant for this work. These tools and frameworks provide important ethics resources for humanitarian settings. Finally, it elaborates a set of questions that can aid health care professionals as they analyse ethical issues that they experience in the field. The proposed process can assist clinicians as they seek to establish their moral bearings in situations of ethical complexity and uncertainty. Identifying and developing ethics resources and vocabulary for clinical practice in humanitarian work will help health care professionals provide ethically sound care to patients and communities.

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Resilience
Edited by Sara Pantuliano, Eleanor Davey and Joel Kinahan
April 2013

Since its entrance into humanitarian and development discourses in the early 2000s, the concept of “resilience” has been enthusiastically adopted by a wide range of practitioners and policy makers. Resilience is now a key component of the risk reduction and disaster response strategies of the United Nations and major donors as well as other operational agencies. Yet despite the popularity of the term there is little consensus about what resilience means and how to promote it. Drawing on the Disasters archive of food security and vulnerability reduction literature, this virtual issue seeks to inform the debates surrounding resilience and demonstrate how resilience has been understood in contexts ranging from the Horn of Africa to Central America. While some of the articles in this collection may not explicitly reference resilience, the approaches and concepts they adopt all underpin the notion of resilience, which brings together thinking about coping strategies, vulnerability mitigation, social capital and risk reduction. The first set of papers summarises the history of the term and some methodological approaches to resilience (Manyena, 2006; Mustafa et al and Bosher et al, 2011), including the role of civil society (Benson et al, 2001) and gender based approaches (Enarson, 1998). This leads into a more general discussion moving thematically from food security to the role of the state and more recent debates on climate adaptation and knowledge transfers.

One of the striking features of this virtual issue is the importance of articles addressing the question of food security. Although the language of resilience may have initially come from ecology and psychology, the concept of resilience dominates the food security debates of the 1980s and 1990s and explains the strong bearing food security debates still have upon resilience frameworks. However, reflecting the heterogeneity of the debates on resilience more generally, no one methodology or approach is able to offer universal solutions. While different articles may emphasise the importance of the state (Wisner, 2001), local communities (Pyle, 1992) or international exchanges (Mercer et al, 2010) all point to the interconnected nature of resilience and the inability to reduce the responsibility for resilience to any one set of actors or space. In this view, resilience is not a static concept but a social process whereby a community or state has to continually reduce its vulnerabilities in response to environmental and socio-economic changes (Smucker and Wisner, 2008).

The key question that emerges is thus how participatory the process of vulnerability reduction and capacity building is (Warner and Ore, 2006) and the range of different understandings of resilience that can be realistically achieved. It is hoped that by demonstrating the historical embeddedness of the concept of resilience and pointing toward a multi-disciplinary approach, this virtual issue will aid in the development and implementation of programmes relevant to their context and cognisant of the potential pit falls that strategies for supporting resilience may encounter.

The concept of resilience revisited
Manyena, S. B. (2006)
This paper traces the entrance of the term resilience into the development lexicon, addressing both the philosophical and practical implications of the lack of consensus over the definition of resilience. It concludes by offering a mode of practice that will inform the way development and humanitarian practitioners prepare for disasters and allow for a practice based understanding of resilience rooted in local context.

Disaster risk reduction and ‘built-in’ resilience: towards overarching principles for construction practice
Bosher, L. and Dainty, A. (2011)
The construction of more resilient private and public structures has become increasingly central to disaster risk reduction strategies. These initiatives have, however, been beset by institutional problems that have resulted in a failure to integrate social, technical and cultural expertise together to design effective programmes. Bosher and Dainty address this fragmentation by adopting a cross-disciplinary approach and offer a set of principles that are aimed at changing the way different disciplines and experts interact.

Pinning down vulnerability: from narratives to numbers
Mustafa, D., Ahmed, S., Saroch, E. and Bell, H. (2011)
Synthesising quantitative and qualitative data has remained a challenge for those attempting to predict and analyse vulnerability. Building on a project commissioned by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) entitled from Risk to Resilience, Mustafa et al devise a model of vulnerability calculated from a set of twelve criteria that combine technical and other social measures on a micro level which can then be used to map vulnerability across a region. This paper also examines in detail the complexities of what this model means in practice, using a case study from Gujarat.

Through Women’s Eyes: A Gendered Research Agenda for Disaster Social Science
Enarson, E. (1998)
Enarson engages with the lack of focus on gender in disaster situations, arguing that understanding how vulnerabilities and how local responses are gendered is central to addressing the way women experience disasters. The paper concludes by stating that without a better understanding of how gender intersects with disaster risk reduction strategies and relief programme at the household and organisational level, women will continue to be sidelined by resilience initiatives.

NGO Initiatives in Risk Reduction: An Overview
Benson, C., Twigg, J. and Myers, M. (2001)
Historically, disaster mitigation and preparedness (DMP) has been conducted by governments and large multinational agencies. This paper argues that more attention should be paid to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) on the ground and how they can work with communities in DMP as well as the potential for NGOs and community based organisations (CBOs) to contribute to the disaster planning undertaken by governments. While not referencing the term resilience the paper does engage with DMP on a local level as well as capacity building, vulnerability and other relevant concepts.

Reducing Vulnerability to Drought and Famine: Developmental Approaches to Relief
Anderson, M. B. and Woodrow, P. J. (1991)
Anderson and Woodrow look at famine response and prevention, including the impact of global food distribution efforts on the capacities of people affected by famine, and offer criteria for planning famine relief that will promote systemic long term development of these capacities. While parts of the paper may have been overtaken by subsequent practices, it remains an important analysis that still speaks to some of the issues practitioners experience today such as how an overdependence upon internal accountability models can result in relief organisations being less able to respond to the needs of the local population

The Resilience of Households to Famine in El Fasher, Sudan 1982-89
Pyle, A. S. (1992)
One of the earliest food security analyses that directly addresses the term resilience and the importance of understanding resilience as incorporating both social and material components. Pyle describes the results of a survey of households who migrated from famine- affected rural communities in Darfur, revealing that households who were able to employ a diverse set of survival strategies coped better than households who relied solely on asset wealth. Intra-communal sharing practices and networks are shown to be vital to the resilience of householders in El Fasher

Changing household responses to drought in Tharaka, Kenya: vulnerability, persistence and challenge
Smucker, T. A. and Wisner, B. (2008)
This analysis juxtaposes coping mechanisms and resilience against changing macroeconomic fundamentals. It engages with resilience as a potentially contradictory term, recognising that what may make a community resilient to famine in the short term can lead to the long-term erosion of a community’s ability to survive. It also demonstrates that resilience is a social process that demands continual adaptation to an ever-changing environmental and political world - implicitly hinting that resilience is never simply achieved but has to be regained continuously

Conflict, the Continuum and Chronic Emergencies: A Critical Analysis of the Scope for Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and Development Planning in Sudan
Macrae, J., Bradbury, M., Jaspars, S., Johnson, D. and Duffield, M. (1997)
Macrae et al warn against the turn to using development techniques to reduce the need for relief when the underlying causes the crises have not been addressed. They argue that development strategies can be damaging and will not create resilience or reduce long term vulnerability if the political and social landscape is not first tackled. The paper does not analyse ‘positive’ resilience structures but engages with how the relief-development continuum can increase vulnerability

Food Security in Complex Emergencies: Enhancing Food System Resilience
Pingali, P., Alinovi, L. and Sutton, J. (2005)
This comparative analysis explores the resilience of food systems in contexts where conflict and violence is likely to be present. Advocating the FAO’s “Twin track approach” this paper states that it is possible to manage protracted food crises by building adaptable and flexible frameworks that are able to address both the short and long term food security needs of an at risk population.

Social Capital and the Political Economy of Violence: A Case Study of Sri Lanka
Goodhand, J., Hulme, D. and Lewer, N. (2000)
The authors of this paper begin by summarising social capital and its entrance into development, arguing that social capital does not dissipate in contexts where there is a high level of violence, and that traditional social capital approaches are preventing a detailed examination of the political and economic components of social life in complex emergency contexts. The paper observes that complex emergencies produce contradictory coping strategies that can re-affirm existing networks while simultaneously producing breaks in social arrangements that were previously essential to a community’s resilience

Land tenure, disasters and vulnerability
Reale, A. and Handmer, J. (2011)
After initially highlighting the importance of land tenure in fostering resilience, this paper compares three cases studies - Katrina, Thailand and Pakistan - to show the significance of legal frameworks and institutions in facilitating the return of evacuees. The paper argues that practitioners should understand that homes and communities are often sources of livelihoods which can be threatened if weak and dysfunctional legal institutions are not able to resolve land disputes following a disaster

Risk and the Neoliberal State: Why Post-Mitch Lessons Didn't Reduce El Salvador's Earthquake Losses
Wisner, B. (2001)
Despite the increased aid that was funnelled into El Salvador after Hurricane Mitch in 1998, El Salvador was devastated by an earthquake in 2001.Wisner argues that economic policies and unequal political enfranchisement affected the ability of the state to conduct disaster mitigation and preparedness strategies. The paper links neoliberal economic reforms and the subsequent shrinking of the reach of the state with El Salvador’s increased vulnerability to disasters.

Reducing hazard vulnerability: towards a common approach between disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation
Thomalla, F., Downing, T., Spanger-Siegfried, E., Han, G. and Rockström, J. (2006)
Thomalla et al address the rift between climate change adaptation and risk management and explore the failure to adequately create dialogue and shared platforms. They argue that resilience and vulnerability reduction is misunderstood conceptually, before moving on to sketch a space for a multisectoral or ‘multicommunity’ dialogue. This paper thus seeks to shift the debate from an opposition between resilience and climate adaptation to a ‘common approach’ that has yet to be realised.

Framework for integrating indigenous and scientific knowledge for disaster risk reduction
Mercer, J., Kelman, I., Taranis, L. and Suchet-Pearson, S. (2010)
While this text does not use the language of resilience it asks three questions that can help guide debates on resilience: through what process can communities synthesise indigenous and ‘scientific knowledge’ to solve their own vulnerabilities; how can we avoid top-down approaches in vulnerability reduction; and finally, how do we understand the continually changing shape of knowledge? The authors write with a close emphasis on power, knowledge transfers and the potential fragilities of bottom-up knowledge flows, using the case of Papua New Guinea to explore a participatory approach to disaster risk reduction.

Complementing institutional with localised strategies for climate change adaptation: a South–North comparison
Wamsler, C. and Lawson, N. (2012)
Concentrating on urban environments, Wamsler et al argue that those in the global North could benefit from the flexible and less expensive resilience mechanisms that are present in the global south. Instead of seeing the global north as a having a high degree of resilience due to the comparative wealth of global north governments and populations, the paper engages with some of the weaknesses of the global north’s resilience strategies.

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Famine
Edited by Sara Pantuliano and Helen Young
August 2011

Following the famine in Somalia, this virtual issue of Disasters brings together a number of seminal articles on previous famines in the Horn of Africa and elsewhere. The collection includes articles by world class scholars on early warning systems, targeting of emergency food aid, effectiveness of famine response, the interface between war and famine, malnutrition, disease and mortality in times of famine and discussion of the definition of ‘famine’. It is hoped that this rich literature, spanning almost 30 years, can be of help in informing the current response.

Markets and Famines in the Third World
John Seaman and Julius Holt

Famine forecasting; Prices and peasant behaviour in Northern Ethiopia
Peter Cutler

The African food crisis of 1982–1986†
John Borton, Edward Clay

Food acquisition during the African drought of 1983–1984: A study of Kenyan herders
Louise Sperling

Famine Early Warning Systems and the Use of Socio-Economic Data
Alex De Waal

Experiences of Non-Governmental Organisations in the Targeting of Emergency Food Aid
John Borton, Jeremy Shoham

Monitoring and Responding to Famine: Lessons from the 1984 – 85 Food Crisis in Kenya
Thomas E. Downing

From Emergency to Social Security in Sudan – Part II: The Donor Response
Mark Duffield

III A Disaster for Whom?: Local Interests and International Donors During Famine Among the Dinka of Sudan
David Keen

Reducing Vulnerability to Drought and Famine: Developmental Approaches to Relief
Mary B. Anderson, Peter J. Woodrow

Food as an Instrument of War in Contemporary African Famines: A Review of the Evidence
Joanna Macrae, Anthony B. Zwi

Malnutrition and Mortality During Recent Famines in Ethiopia: Implications for Food Aid and Rehabilitation
Helmut Kloos, Bernt Lindtjorn

Northern Sudan in 1991: Food Crisis and the International Relief Response
Marion Kelly, Margaret Buchanan-Smith

The Prevention and Mitigation of Famine: Policy Lessons from Botswana and Sudan
Tesfaye Teklu

Nutrition, Disease and Death in Times of Famine
Helen Young, Susanne Jaspars

Nutritional Assessments, Food Security and Famine
Helen Young, Susanne Jaspars

Social Contract and Deterring Famine: First Thoughts
Alex De Waal

Famine Intensity and Magnitude Scales: A Proposal for an Instrumental Definition of Famine
Paul Howe, Stephen Devereux

Archetypes of famine and response
Paul Howe

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Refugees and the Displaced
Edited by Sara Pantuliano
June 2011

To mark the 60th anniversary of the UN Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, this special issue of Disasters features a selection of the most relevant and original articles about refugee and displacement issues published by the journal over the past 35 years.

These articles provide a rich source of informed thinking on humanitarian responses to the needs of populations fleeing persecution, war and disaster, with much to contribute to our understanding of refugee and displacement crises past, present and future.

Common to all these contributions are the complexities which arise when people are forced to flee en masse, and the challenges faced by humanitarian workers in providing assistance and protection following a crisis.

Many of the articles address the immediate needs of security and shelter in situations where chaos and conflict generate such insecurity that people ‘will try to grab today what they may not find tomorrow’ (see Holt, 1981, ‘Camps as Communities’).

Other authors address the sometimes ruthless decisions which have to be made about who will and will not receive shelter and protection in the immediate aftermath of disaster (see Cuny, 1977, ‘Refugee Camps and Camp Planning: the State of the Art’).

Trends in population displacements are also explored, including the rise in the numbers of people displaced within their own country and their particular vulnerabilities compared with the decreasing numbers of refugees who flee across international borders.

Other topics with contemporary resonance include the critical factors of refugee-host country relationships; overcoming the stigma and stereotyping of the destitute; the efficacy of feeding programmes; the exploitation of camp populations for military objectives and the perennial imperative to maintain order in environments where people are forced into close proximity and unified by fear and flight.

The prevalence of displacement and refugee populations in Africa is reflected in a range of contributions including ‘Rural Refugees in Africa: What the Eye Does Not See’ (Chambers, 1979), which examines the different experience of rural and urban refugees and calls for more consideration of the particular problems facing rural refugees during a period, the late 1970s, when too much attention was being paid to refugees in urban areas. This contribution is particularly interesting considering the current focus on internally displaced people and refugees in rural areas, particularly in camp settings, and the challenges faced by agencies aiming to assist these communities in urban areas. It is one of the many contributions in this special issue which I hope will inspire and inform future planning and programming efforts to assist refugees and the displaced.

Refugee Camps and Camp Planning: The State of the Art
Frederick C. Cuny

Settlement of Rural Refugees in Africa
Brian W. Neldner

Women and Men as Refugees: Differential Assimilation of Angolan Refugees in Zambia
Anita Spring

Rural Refugees in Africa: What the Eye Does Not See
Robert Chambers

Who is a Refugee? Definitions and Assistance
F. D’Souza

Camps as Communities
Julius Holt

Rural Refugees in Africa: Past Experience, Future Pointers
Robert Chambers

The Impact of Refugees on the Health Status and Health Services of Host Communities: Compounding Bad with Worse?
Bruce Dick

A Review of Feeding Programmes in Refugee Reception Centres in Eastern Sudan
Catherine Gibb

Refugee Repatriation During Conflict: Grounds for Scepticism
Enoch O. Opondo

Repatriation of 150,000 Sudanese Refugees from Ethiopia: The Manipulation of Civilians in a Situation of Civil Conflict
Alastair Scott-Villiers, Patta Scott-Villiers & Cole P. Dodge

Representing Refugees: The Role of Elites in Burundi Refugee Society
Marc Sommers

From Relief to Development: The Long-term Effects of “Temporary” Accommodation on Refugees and Displaced Persons in the Republic of Croatia
Sue Ellis, Sultan Barakat

Refugee Density and Dependence: Practical Implications of Camp Size
John Cosgrave

Internal Displacement in Burma
Steven Lanjouw, Graham Mortimer, Vicky Bamforth

Refugee Perceptions of the Quality of Healthcare: Findings from a Participatory Assessment in Ngara, Tanzania
Edmund Rutta, Holly Williams, Andwele Mwansasu, Fredrick Mung'ong'o, Heather Burke, Ramadhani Gongo, Rwegasira Veneranda, Mohamed Qassim

Tsumai Mortality and Displacement in Aceh Province, Indonesia
Abdur Rofi, Shannon Doocy, Courtland Robinson

Returning Home: Resettlement of Formerly Abducted Children in Northern Uganda
Joanne N. Corbin

Financing of Internal Displacement: Excerpts from the Sri Lankan Experience
Kopalapillai Amirthalingam, Rajith W.D. Lakshman

Forced Displacement and Women’s Security in Colombia
Donny Meertens

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Haiti
Edited by Sara Pantuliano
February 2010

In the wake of the Haiti earthquake, this virtual issue presents Disasters articles on urban disaster recovery, cost effectiveness of disaster preparedness, post-earthquake delivery of relief and livelihood support, and survivor needs and the psychological impact of earthquakes.

Urban disaster recovery: a measurement framework and its application to the 1995 Kobe earthquake
Stephanie E. Chang

Insuring against earthquakes: simulating the cost effectiveness of disaster preparedness
Ruben, Ruerd

Targeting Vulnerability after the October 2005 Earthquake: An Evaluation of Pakistan's Livelihood Support Cash Grants Program
Zaidi, Sara

In the Aftermath of the 2005 Qa'yamat: The Kashmir Earthquake Disaster in Northern Pakistan
Hamilton, Jennifer Parker

Success in Kashmir: a positive trend in civil-military integration during humanitarian assistance operations
Wiley C. Thompson

Development of urban planning guidelines for improving emergency response capacities in seismic areas of Iran
Kambod Amini Hosseini, Mohammad Kazem Jafari, Maziar Hosseini, Babak Mansouri, Solmaz Hosseinioon

Survivor needs or logistical convenience? Factors shaping decisions to deliver relief to earthquake-affected communities, Pakistan 2005-06
Aldo Benini, Charles Conley, Brody Dittemore, Zachary Waksman

Post-traumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression among survivors of the 1999 earthquake in Turkey
Ebru Salcioglu, Metin Basoglu, Maria Livanou

Post-disaster resettlement, development and change: a case study of the 1990 Manjil earthquake in Iran
S. Ali Badri, Ali Asgary, A.R. Eftekhari, Jason Levy

Restoring sanitation services after an earthquake: field experience in Bam, Iran
Jean-François Pinera, Robert A. Reed, Cyrus Njiru

A Critical Analysis of Earthquakes and Urban Planning in Turkey
Betül Sengezer, Ercan Koç

Housing Reconstruction After Two Major Earthquakes: The 1994 Northridge Earthquake in the United States and the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan
Jie Ying Wu, Michael K. Lindell

A Survey of International Urban Search-and-rescue Teams following the Ji Ji Earthquake
Wen-Ta Chiu, Jeffrey Arnold, Yaw-Tang Shih, Kuang-Hua Hsiung, Hsueh-Yun Chi, Chia-Huei Chiu, Wan-Chen Tsai, William C. Huang

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Ethiopia
Edited by Paul Harvey
September 2009

Ethiopia faced a crisis in 2008 with 12 million people needing food aid. The country has a long history of disasters and there is a rich literature that can inform new responses. This virtual issue brings together Disasters articles spanning its 32-year history.

Research in the War Zones of Eritrea and Northern Ethiopia
Trish Silkin, Barbara Hendrie

Measuring populations' vulnerabilities for famine and food security interventions: the case of Ethiopia's Chronic Vulnerability Index
Jericho Burg

New Policy Directions in Disaster Preparedness and Response in Ethiopia
Stein Villumstad, Barbara Hendrie

Response to drought: The Mursi of Southwestern Ethiopia
David Turton

Nutritional status and pressure on populations in the Awash Valley and Hararghe Mountains, Ethiopia
Nicholas Cohen

A famine relief operation at Qorem, Ethiopia, in 1966
Mogues Azbite

Drought and famine relief in Ethiopia
International Disaster Institute

Spontaneous resettlement after drought: An Ethiopian example
David Turton, Pat Turton

Famine forecasting; Prices and peasant behaviour in Northern Ethiopia
Peter Cutler

Entitlements and the Wollo Famine of 1982–1985
Bob Baulch

Selective feeding programmes in Ethiopia and East Sudan – 1985/1986
Helen Young

Peasant Survival Strategies in Ethiopia
Dessalegn Rahmato

Cross-Border Relief Operations in Eritrea and Tigray
Barbara Hendrie

Agriculture and Food Security in Ethiopia
Nicholas Winer

Impact of a commercial destocking relief intervention in Moyale district, southern Ethiopia
Dawit Abebe, Adrian Cullis, Andy Catley, Yacob Aklilu, Gedlu Mekonnen, Yodit Ghebrechirstos

Social and Ecological Aspects of Resettlement and Villagization among the Konso of Southwestern Ethiopia
Helmut Kloos, Tufa Abate, Asrate Hailu, Teklemariam Ayele

Panafrican Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response, Addis Ababa
Mekonnen Hailu

Environmental Degradation and Political Constraints in Ethiopia
Michael Stahl

Warfare, Vulnerability and Survival: A Case from Southwestern Ethiopia
David Turton

The Structure of Regional Conflict in Northern Ethiopia
Christopher Clapham

People on the Move: Settlers Leaving Ethiopian Resettlement Villages
Alula Pankhurst

Health Impacts of War in Ethiopia
Helmut Kloos

Entitlements, Coping Mechanisms and Indicators of Access to Food: Wollo Region, Ethiopia, 1987–88
Marion Kelly

Interviews with Key Informants and Household Surveys: Central Ethiopia
Sarah J. Atkinson

Notes on the Repatriation of Somali Refugees from Ethiopia
John Ryle

Famine, Gold and Guns: The Suri of Southwestern Ethiopia, 1985–91
Jon Abbink

Repatriation of 150,000 Sudanese Refugees from Ethiopia: The Manipulation of Civilians in a Situation of Civil Conflict
Alastair Scott-Villiers, Patta Scott-Villiers, Cole P. Dodge

Operational Value of Anthropometric Surveillance in Famine Early Warning and Relief: Wollo Region, Ethiopia, 1987–88
Marion Kelly

Coping with Drought and Food Insecurity in Ethiopia
Patrick Webb

Food Security Reserve Policy in Ethiopia: A Case Study of Experience and Implications
Stephen Jones

Malnutrition and Mortality During Recent Famines in Ethiopia: Implications for Food Aid and Rehabilitation
Helmut Kloos, Bernt Lindtjorn

Local Institutional Development and Relief in Ethiopia: A Kire–based Seed Distribution Programme in North Wollo
David T. Pratten

Crop Failure in Dalocha, Ethiopia: A Participatory Emergency Response
Philippa Howell

The Political Economy of Complex Emergency and Recovery in Northern Ethiopia
Seifulaziz Milas, Jalal Abdel Latif

The Ethiopian Crisis of 1999–2000: Lessons Learned, Questions Unanswered
Laura Hammond, Daniel Maxwell

War and Food Security in Eritrea and Ethiopia, 1998–2000
Philip White

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The Indian Ocena Tsunami
Edited by Paul Harvey
February 2009

This virtual issue brings together articles on the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004, preparedness for it and efforts of the affected people, civil society, governments and international agencies to provide immediate relief and gradually rebuild.

Ethnicity, politics and inequality: post-tsunami humanitarian aid delivery in Ampara District, Sri Lanka
M.W. Amarasiri de Silva

The importance of mangrove forest in tsunami disaster mitigation
Rabindra Osti, Shigenobu Tanaka, Toshikazu Tokioka

Post-disaster community tourism recovery: the tsunami and Arugam Bay, Sri Lanka
Lyn Robinson, Jim K. Jarvie

The Philippine Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster: A Reexamination of Behavioral Propositions
J. Eugene Haas

Tsunami caused by the Japan Sea earthquake of 1983
Nobuo Shuto

The strength of networks: the local NGO response to the tsunami in India
Patrick Kilby

The impact of the 2004 tsunami on coastal Thai communities: assessing adaptive capacity
Douglas Paton, Chris E. Gregg, Bruce F. Houghton, Roy Lachman, Janet Lachman, David M. Johnston, Supin Wongbusarakum

Measuring revealed and emergent vulnerabilities of coastal communities to tsunami in Sri Lanka
Jorn Birkmann, Nishara Fernando

Tsunami mortality and displacement in Aceh province, Indonesia
Abdur Rofi, Shannon Doocy, Courtland Robinson

Implementing cash for work programmes in post-tsunami Aceh: experiences and lessons learned
Shannon Doocy, Michael Gabriel, Sean Collins, Courtland Robinson, Peter Stevenson

Effects of the tsunami on fisheries and coastal livelihood: a case study of tsunami-ravaged southern Sri Lanka
D.A.M. De Silva, Masahiro Yamao

Remote sensing-based neural network mapping of tsunami damage in Aceh, Indonesia
Matthew J. Aitkenhead, Parivash Lumsdon, David R. Miller

The international humanitarian system and the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunamis
John Telford, John Cosgrave


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