Australian & New Zealand Journal of Statistics

Cover image for Vol. 56 Issue 4

Edited By: Alan Welsh, Michael Martin, Martin Hazelton, James Curran

Impact Factor: 0.42

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 106/119 (Statistics & Probability)

Online ISSN: 1467-842X

Author Guidelines




The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics (ANZJS) aims to publish papers that: (i) make a significant contribution to statistical science; and (ii) are accessible and relevant to the wide readership of ANZJS.

For the purpose of this editorial policy, ‘statistical science’ is interpreted broadly. For example, it includes statistical theory and methodology, probability theory, novel applications of statistical methods, computational statistics, econometrics, biostatistics, and other related areas such as operations research. The Journal has two main sections: Theory and Methods and Applications.

Submission of manuscripts

Method of submission: A paper for publication must be submitted electronically, as a single file via

LaTex template: A complete LATEX style file for submissions to this journal is available to download as a zip archive (92 KB) at It is not compulsory for the initial submission, but it may be helpful to you. If your paper is accepted for publication, you may be asked to use the template to prepare later versions for the production process. If you encounter any problems, please contact

Submission letter: The submission letter should include the following about your paper: (i) what is known about the topic (ii) what is new, and (iii) what is the significance and who will find it useful. Typically, one paragraph would be adequate for each of these three items. This will be used throughout the review process, particularly for the initial editorial screening.

Tables or figures from other sources: If tables or figures or any other materials have been reproduced in the paper from another source, the source must be acknowledged immediately below the table or figure, and a letter from the copyright holder (usually the Publisher) authorizing reproduction of the material, must be forwarded to the Editor at the time of submitting the paper to ANZJS. Hard-copy letters should preferably be scanned and sent in PDF form.

Data sets analysed in the paper: Unpublished data sets that are analysed in the paper must be made accessible to the reader; the editor may require that these data be published in the online section Supporting Information of ANZJS. If confidentiality issues prevent this, the fact must be drawn to the attention of the Editor upon initial submission of the paper. The Editor will determine whether the paper can be considered for publication.

Submission/publication elsewhere: The content of a paper submitted for publication in the journal must not have been published or submitted for publication elsewhere, except possibly as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium. Further, the content of the paper, fully or in part, must not be submitted for publication while it is still under consideration by ANZJS.

Review process

A manuscript submitted for publication is first screened by one or more members of the Editorial Board. If it is deemed to conform to the Content and Presentation requirements outlined below, it would be evaluated further by the Editorial Board and external reviewers. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editorial Board, which reserves the right to refuse any material for publication.


Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley’s production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley’s Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

Authors may choose to publish under the terms of the journal’s standard copyright transfer agreement (CTA), or under open access terms, made available via Wiley OnlineOpen.

Standard Copyright Transfer Agreement: FAQs about the terms and conditions of the standard (CTA) in place for the journal, including terms regarding archiving of the accepted version of the paper, are available at: CTA Terms and Conditions FAQs

OnlineOpen – Wiley’s Open Access Option: OnlineOpen is available to authors of articles who wish to make their article freely available to all on Wiley Online Library under a Creative Commons licence. In addition, authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on a website, institutional repository or other free public server, immediately on publication. With OnlineOpen the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made open access, known as ‘gold road’ open access.

OnlineOpen licenses. Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright in their article and have a choice of publishing under the following Creative Commons License terms: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY NC); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License (CC BY NC ND). For more information about the OnlineOpen license terms and conditions click here.


These content and presentation guidelines set out basic requirements for making a paper accessible. Papers which do not follow these guidelines may be returned without review to authors for amendment; papers which do follow these guidelines will be reviewed for scientific content in the usual way.


The manuscript should be typed in 1.5 line-spacing or double-spaced on A4 size paper, which is 21.0 cm by 29.7 cm (8.5 inches by 11 inches). It must be prepared in 12-point font, not more than 15 cm (6 inches) wide, and at least a 2.54 cm (1 inch) margin on all four sides.


Papers should not be unnecessarily long for their content, and only in exceptional situations be over 24 pages in length when typed in double-space with 27 lines per page, excluding references, tables and figures. Authors should also note that manuscripts that are unnecessarily long for their content or significance tend to receive strongly negative reports from reviewers.


All articles must have a brief, self-contained summary of fewer than 250 words, under the heading, ‘Summary’. It should state the major points and the principal conclusions of the paper in fewer than 150 words. The remaining 100 words of the summary should highlight the significance of the contribution, preferably using special cases and/or examples. The summary should not contain formulae, abbreviations or references.

Key Words

Several key words or phrases, separated by semi-colons, should be supplied below the Summary, in alphabetical order. Unless it is essential, please do not use words that are in the title. At least two key words that are part of the ANZJS key word list must be included.

Organization of the manuscript

The text should be organized into an introductory section, conveying the background and purpose of the paper, and then into sections identified with headings.


It is essential that the Introduction be accessible to the broad readership of the Journal. The Introduction should discuss the motivation and context for the paper, relate it to the literature, particularly the recent literature on the subject, and it should explain the nature of the problem studied, preferably in a nonmathematical way, using examples and special cases. It is desirable to use a real set of data to motivate the work. These data may then be used as a worked data example in a later section. Further, it is also desirable to discuss special cases of the general results for illustrative purposes. Finally, the significance of the results must be indicated briefly to place the main contribution of the article in the context of the current literature.

Main body

Theory and Methods Section: For papers in this section: (i) it must be made clear how the paper advances statistical science, (ii) the proposed new method must be evaluated and compared with competing methods, (iii) generally, the significance of the contribution must be discussed, preferably in a section under the heading ‘Discussion’, and (iv) the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed methods must be discussed. A data example will usually be needed to illustrate the new method.

Applications Section: For papers in this section, the substantive problem and the data should lead the analysis and the exposition. The steps in the analysis of the data should be carefully explained and justified. Authors should be honest about any arbitrary choices they may have made in the analysis. Where possible, the description of the analysis should be supported by carefully constructed graphics. Overall, the analysis and the presentation of the analysis should be considered, relevant and insightful. The results of the analysis should be interpreted and discussed in the context of the substantive problem under consideration. Sufficient details must be included to enable the readers to replicate the analyses on another data set. The relevance of the new ideas to empirical studies from other areas must be discussed

Related work by the authors

If any of the authors has published related work, or has other related work under consideration for publication, or submits such related work before the paper is published by ANZJS in the printed version, then the author should inform the Editor of ANZJS of this work, explaining how they differ from, and what is new in, the paper submitted to ANZJS.

Supporting information for online publication

Supporting Information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supporting Information include additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. Supporting Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format. For further information on recommended file types and requirements for submission, please visit:



The Journal uses UK spelling and authors should therefore follow the latest edition of the Concise Oxford Dictionary.

Parts of the manuscript

Manuscripts should be presented in the following order: (i) title page, (ii) summary and key words, (iii) text, (iv) references, (v) appendices, (vi) figure legends, (vii) tables (each table complete with title and footnotes) and (viii) figures. Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.

Title page

The title page should contain: (i) the title of the paper, (ii) the full names of the authors and the addresses of the institutions at which the work was carried out, (iii) the postal and email addresses of the authors, and (iv) the name of the corresponding author.

Title of the paper: The title should be short, informative and contain the major key words. Please do not use abbreviations in the title. If the title is longer than 40 characters, please provide a short running title of not more than 40 characters.

Title page footnotes

Please refer to a recent issue of the journal to see how the title page footnotes are presented and follow the same structure. The title page and only the title page may contain footnotes. These may be used in the following order to (i) give the postal addresses of the author’s institutions; (ii) indicate that the work of any author was carried out at an address different from that of the present institution of that author (which is given under the authors’ names); (iii) make acknowledgements including to the organisation that provided a grant (it is not usually necessary to give the grant number(s)). Please provide facsimile and telephone numbers of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript should be sent. These facsimile and telephone numbers are for use during the production process, and will not be published in the paper.


Citation of references in the text: In the text, please write the author’s name followed by the year in parentheses: Smith (2000). If there are two authors, use ‘&’: Smith & Jones (2001). When reference is made to a work by three or more authors, the first name followed by et al. should be used: MacDonald et al. (2002).

References list at the end: References should be listed in alphabetical order according to the Harvard (author, date) system. Cite the names of all authors when there are six or fewer; if there are seven or more, list the first three followed by et al. Do not use ibid. or op cit. Reference to unpublished data and personal communications should not appear in the list but should be cited in the text only (e.g. A. Smith, unpubl. data, 2000). All citations mentioned in the text, tables or figures must be listed in the reference list. A work must not appear in the reference list if it is not cited in the text. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references. Please look at a recent issue to see how the Journal sets out References. Authors’ names appear in small capitals. For example, use ‘{\sc Chernoff, H. (1980)}’ in LaTeX. For journals, include only volume numbers, and not issue numbers. Please abbreviate the names of journals in accordance with the abbreviations used by Mathematical Reviews. These are available at Use an ampersand (&), not ‘and’, to separate the names of authors when citing their work. The location of the publisher of a book should appear before the publisher’s name; e.g., ‘New York: Wiley’. For the page range, use the n-dash –, as in 65–78; in LaTex this is obtained by two hyphens.

Examples of appropriate format for the References section can be found here.


These should be placed at the end of the paper before the References, numbered in Roman numerals and referred to in the text. If written by a person other than the author of the main text, the writer’s name should be included below the title.


Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Number tables consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals. Type tables on a separate page with the legend above. Table notes, which refer to notes that appear immediately below the table, not at the bottom of the page as footnotes, are encouraged to make it easier to understand the table. Legends should be concise but comprehensive - the table, legend and table-notes must be understandable without reference to the text. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses; all abbreviations must be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, ¶ should be used (in that order) and *, **, *** should be reserved for P-values. Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified in the headings. The numbers in tables should be suitably rounded. For reporting estimates, the number of digits used must be reasonable for the standard errors. For example, an estimate of 1:752417(se = 0:12567) could be presented as 1:75(se = 0:13). As a general guide, you may compute an approximate 95% confidence interval, for example ‘estimate _ 2(se)’, and use this to round the estimates. For reporting the relative efficiency of a method, two digits are adequate in most cases. For example, a relative efficiency of 0:86321 could be presented as 0:86 or 86 percent, because for most readers the efficiency in the third digit, even if it is statistically significant, is unlikely to be of practical significance. When reporting the results of a Monte Carlo simulation study, a measure of standard error must also be presented. If the required message could be conveyed by a statement such as ‘the standard error for each estimate does not exceed 2.5’, it is preferable to do so rather than including separate standard errors which in turn tends to clutter the table. The approximate positions of Tables or Figures should be indicated, for example, by



All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) are classified as figures. Figures should be cited in consecutive order in the text. Figures should be sized to fit within the column (130 mm). Line figures should be supplied as sharp, black and white graphs or diagrams, drawn professionally or with a computer graphics package. Lettering must be included and should be sized to be no larger than the journal text. All axes must be labelled. Legends should be concise but comprehensive. The figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.

For accepted papers: If a figure is supplied electronically, it must also be supplied as high resolution (at least 300 dpi) file, saved as .eps or .tif. Type the figure legends on a separate page.


Guidelines for the presentation of mathematics in papers can be found here.

Supporting Information

Supporting Information, such as appendices containing long mathematical proofs, or data sets or additional figures or tables, or computer code, that will not be published in the print edition of the journal but which will be viewable in the online edition can be submitted. There is a maximum file size limit of 5 MB except in the case of video clips which are requested to be under 10 MB. Supporting and Supplementary Material must be submitted to the Journal with the rest of the article. Any such material submitted after acceptance of the main article will be referred to the Editor for approval and may delay publication. Supporting Information will be published exactly as supplied and it is the author’s responsibility to ensure that the material is logically laid out, adequately described and is in a format that is likely to be accessible to readers. It is recommended that text and graphics are supplied in PDF format, data tables in native file formats such as Excel, and animations and other moving images or sound files in common Internet standard formats such as AVI, MPG, WAV, QuickTime, animated GIF or Flash.

Writing style

Manuscripts should be written in clear, concise, and direct style. In general, terms should not be abbreviated unless they are used repeatedly and the abbreviation is helpful to the reader. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation only. Abbreviation of author names, for example as in Hall and Heyde (HH), should be avoided. Please use the appropriate tense. When describing something that was done in the past, including simulations, use the past tense. Use the present tense when describing a universal truth. For example, use ‘Smith (2007) showed that two plus two equals four’, not ‘Smith (2007) shows that two plus two equals four’.

In general, the phrase ‘note that’ should be avoided and the point that you wish to make must be made briefly. Similarly, rather than saying ‘it is interesting to note that’, it is better to say why it is interesting.


Please look at a recent issue of the journal before revising the manuscript and endeavour to match the journal’s style as closely as possible. Conformity to style requirements is particularly important at this stage.

Online Submission of Manuscripts There are two ways to submit your revised manuscript. You may use the revision link that would have been e-mailed to you. In this case, there is no need to enter log-in details. Alternatively, you may follow these steps: (a) go to, (b) log into your Author Center, (c) click on the revision link or on your manuscript title listed under ‘Manuscripts with Decisions’, and (d) click on ‘Create a Revision’ under ‘Actions’.

Responses to referee(s)

When submitting your revised manuscript, please attach a separate sheet(s) containing a list of itemized responses to the comments made by the referee(s). In order to expedite the processing of the revised manuscript, please be as specific as possible in your response to the referee(s). Please DO NOT upload your revised manuscript as a ‘new submission’.

Review of revised versions

The invitation to the author(s) to submit a revised version does not entail a commitment on the part of the journal or the Editors to accept the revised version. Every revised version will be reviewed, and the editorial team will make a decision based on the suitability of the revised version for publication. Please also be advised that our editorial policy is to reject a revised manuscript unless it is very close to being publishable in content, format and language.

Use of English language

The use of English language in the manuscript must be at a level suitable for ANZJS. If you are not absolutely confident that this requirement would be fully satisfied, then please have your manuscript checked and thoroughly edited by a suitably qualified person. Failure to do so may result in the paper not being evaluated any further. If you need assistance with English-language editing, please visit

Changes to reduce ambiguity

Where contributions or revised contributions are assessed acceptable for publication on the basis of scientific content, the Editor and the Publisher reserve the right to modify typescripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition and improve communication between author and reader. Any such change will be discussed with authors, where feasible. If extensive alterations are required, or if there are mathematical or statistical errors, the manuscript will be returned to the author for further revision, after which a formal decision on publication will be made.


It is essential that corresponding authors supply an email address to which correspondence can be emailed while their article is in production. Notification of the URL from where to download a PDF typeset page proof, associated forms and further instructions will be sent by email to the corresponding author. The purpose of the PDF proof is a final check of the layout, and of tables and figures. Alterations other than the essential correction of errors are unacceptable at PDF proof stage. The proof should be checked, and approval to publish the article should be emailed to the Publisher by the date indicated, otherwise, it may be approved unilaterally by the Editor or held over to the next issue.

Author material archive policy

Authors who require the return of any submitted material that is accepted for publication should inform the Editorial Office after acceptance. If no indication is given that author material should be returned, Wiley will dispose of all electronic material two months after publication.



A free PDF offprint will be supplied to the corresponding author after the issue has been published. A minimum of 25 offprints will be provided upon request, at the author’s expense. These paper offprints may be ordered online. Please visit, fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields. If you have queries about offprints, please email

Early View

The Australian & New Zealand Journal of Statistics is covered by Wiley’s Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors’ final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. Because Early View articles do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, they cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

Wiley Journals Online

The Australian & New Zealand Journal of Statistics is also available online via Wiley Online Library

Online guidelines

Authors are encouraged to visit the Wiley website ( for authors which details further information on the preparation and submission of articles and figures and gives access to the house style guide. Author Services enables authors to track their article, once it has been accepted, through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated emails at key stages of production so they do not need to contact the production editor to check on progress. Visit Author Services for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources, including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.


OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see

Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at:

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.