Corporate Governance: An International Review

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 1

Edited By: Praveen Kumar and Alessandro Zattoni

Impact Factor: 2.169

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 11/94 (Business Finance); 37/120 (Business); 55/192 (Management)

Online ISSN: 1467-8683

Author Guidelines

How to Submit your Manuscript

Submissions to Corporate Governance: an International Review are made online using ScholarOne Manuscript. To submit to the journal go to  Full instructions on making your submission are provided here.  You should receive an e-mail acknowledgement within a few minutes of completing your submission. Thereafter, the system will keep you informed of the progress of your submission through refereeing, any revisions that are required, and a final decision by one of the editors. The journal strives to make constructive and developmental feedback to authors within approximately two months after submission.

Types of Manuscripts Solicited

Submissions to the journal should be original unpublished work and should not be under review with any other journal. Manuscript reviews are double-blind so authors names need to be removed from all submitted manuscripts. We solicit three types of work: empirical, conceptual, and review. Each of these types of manuscripts is described below:

  1. Empirical: These manuscripts build or test theory about the antecedents or effects of corporate governance within an international context. While multi-country studies offer the easiest path to international corporate governance insights, single-country studies will be considered if sufficient new theoretical insights are generated. For theory-testing studies, theory and/or research must be advanced that leads to some theoretical predictions about the relationship(s) between key constructs, then data is systematically collected for those constructs, and statistical analysis is performed to learn if the data supports or refutes the theoretical predictions. For theory-building studies, data is systematically collected, and theoretical insights are generated from that data that is sufficiently different from previous theory or research to yield new theoretical insights. Descriptive studies that fail to build or test theory are not appropriate.
  2. Conceptual/Theoretical: These articles seek to develop new theoretical insights and relationships about the antecedents and/or effects of corporate governance that can be empirically tested in future research. All good conceptual studies begin with a central research question and a discussion of the motivation for studying this particular issue. The new insights can be generated by: (1) combining theoretical insights that have been previously not been considered together, (2) exploring a logical paradox and/or anomaly in the theoretical literature to yield new insights, (3) challenging or clarifying existing theory, and/or (4) synthesizing recent advances and ideas into fresh new theory. These theoretical insights can done at a conceptual level or through rigorous modelling that generates clear and empirically testable predictions. All conceptual studies should specify the degree to which these ideas apply to all or some governance systems throughout the global economy and how they move the corporate governance literature forward.
  3. Review: These articles seek to summarize a stream of research that has been previously published; identify gaps in the literature, and highlight the most promising future directions for this stream. Review articles are more than literature reviews in that review articles are more comprehensive (e.g., identify all previous theoretical frameworks/ empirical approaches, and isolate all gaps in the literature), and require more seasoned scholarly judgment (e.g., clarity of insights as to the future for this particular stream). Review articles are different from conceptual articles in that the primary contribution is to summarize previous research. Qualitative and quantitative meta-analyses are particularly welcome for review articles.

Read How to Contribute to the Development of a Global Understanding of Corporate Governance? Reflections from Submitted and Published Articles in CGIR by Alessandro Zattoni and Hans Van Ees

Publishing Ethics
All authors should be listed on the title page. Any individual that has made a significant contribution to the manuscript but that does not qualify as an author should be acknowledged separately.

Individuals qualify as an author if they meet all of the following criteria:
1. He/she has made a substantial contribution to the research reported, either in design of the study, or acquisition of data, or interpretation of findings
2. He/she drafted or revised the content of the manuscript
3. He/she has given approval for the submitted version

The cover letter should include a declaration that all authors are listed and all have contributed according to the above criteria. Acquisition of funding, the collection of data or general supervision of the research group, by themselves, do not justify authorship.

The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that all authors have seen, approved and are fully conversant with the contents of the manuscript. All authors are responsible for the accuracy of the manuscript, including all statistical calculations and drug doses.

Group authorship
Results of multicentre studies may be reported under the name of the organizing group; however, the group should identify individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should meet the criteria for authorship described above. The individual authors who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript should list the members of the larger authorship group in an appendix to their acknowledgements.

Plagiarism & Permissions
Authors will be asked during online submission to confirm that the submitted work is not published, in press or currently being considered for publication elsewhere. For further information see our plagiarism policy

The Journal carefully scrutinizes all papers for evidence of plagiarism and falsified data using CrossCheck software. This encompasses the following:
  • multiple submission (i.e. to several journals at the same time)
  • redundant publication (i.e. when the same data are published repeatedly)
  • self-plagiarism
  • reviewer misconduct (e.g. a reviewer making use of material obtained during review)
  • changes to authorship after publication due to discovery of guest or ghost authors
  • deliberate omission of funding or competing interest information.

The Journal does not consider the following to be prior publication:
  • abstracts and posters at conferences
  • results presented at meetings (for example, to inform investigators or participants about findings)
  • results databases (data without interpretation, discussion, context or conclusions in the form of tables and text to describe data/information where this is not easily presented in tabular form)
Manuscripts that have been published previously in another language should state this on the title page of the submission.

It is the sole responsibility of the author(s) to gain and fund all necessary permissions to re-use any other works within their accepted manuscript (including quotations, poetry, song lyrics and pictures). During online submission of the manuscript, if it contains any reproduced materials, authors will be asked to tick a box to confirm that they have already sought all permissions in written form from the copyright owners. If the manuscript is accepted, authors will be asked to provide these written permissions before publication. Please ensure you obtain permission to re-use any other works immediately on acceptance, to avoid publication delays. A permissions request form can be found here.

Style Guidelines

General Format
• Length:   The editors generally look for papers between 5000-10,000 words or 25-40 typed pages in length. Word count includes everything: abstract, text, endnotes, references, tables and figures. Manuscripts must be double-spaced. 
• Margins:  one-inch margins
• Font size: 12-point Times New Roman font

Title Page
No need with the first submission.  You will be asked to provide a title page once your manuscript has been accepted.

In order to enhance both the review and eventual reading process of published manuscripts, please provide a structured abstract for each submission. Specifically, we are looking for an abstract (250 word maximum) that highlights the key features of your manuscript.

Please use the below for describing summarized highlights:
Manuscript Type: 'Conceptual', 'Empirical', 'Review' or 'Perspective' (pick one)
Research Question/Issue: In one or two sentences, summarize the focus of your study here.
Research Findings/Insights: In one to four sentences, please identify what you consider to be the most important findings from an empirical study or insights from a conceptual study in your manuscript.
Theoretical/Academic Implications: In one to four sentences, please identify what you consider to be the most important theoretical implication or implications of your study.
Practitioner/Policy Implications: In one to four sentences, please discuss what you consider to be the most important practitioner and/or policy maker implications of your study.

Abstracts should be included on the first page of the manuscript and should avoid jargon that might be unfamiliar to those outside of your discipline, or provide definitions to clarify concepts for readers outside the field.

A sample structured abstract:

Manuscript Type: Empirical
Research Question/Issue: This study seeks to understand the antecedents of corporate governance legitimacy at the national level. Corporate governance legitimacy is conceptualized as the perceived ability of a nation to constrain and direct corporate power so that it efficiently creates economic value and equitably distributes economic wealth.
Research Findings/Insights: Using archival data from a multi-national panel sample of 46 to 50 countries between 1995 and 2003, we found that the institutions of law and order as well as the national cultural view of competitiveness were positively related, and the level of national corruption was negatively related to overall corporate governance legitimacy. In order to focus on internal corporate governance legitimacy issues, we controlled for the external governance environment and the overall size of the economy.
Theoretical/Academic Implications: This study provides empirical support for the neo-institutional perspective at the national level for differences in perceived legitimacy of corporate governance practices throughout the world. As such, it suggests new avenues of research for both the comparative corporate governance literature, as well as for the neo-institutional perspective.
Practitioner/Policy Implications: This study offers insights to policy makers interested in enhancing the legitimacy of corporate governance within their nation. In addition, it provides a macro-level perspective for executives of multi-national firms to consider if they are considering making a direct investment in a foreign country.

Please select three to five keywords from our keyword listing and list them under the structured abstract. Please include 'Corporate Governance' as the first keyword for any submission as this is a requirement for publication. Please list keywords in upper/lower format (e.g., Agency Theory; Executive Compensation). If a particular keyword is not on our master list, you can add that keyword and it will generally be accepted by the editors.

Headings and Sections
Headings and Sections Headings should not be numbered. Major “first” headings should be centered and displayed in capital letters with bold font on a dedicated line. “Second”-level headings should be left-justified on a dedicated line with upper- and lowercase letters in bold font. Third-level headings should be indented and embedded in the paragraph with upper and lower case letters in bold font followed by a period. Example:

   INTRODUCTION First level
 Corporate Governance in China    Second level
 The Case of IBM.  Third level

Use endnotes not footnotes.  These should be listed prior to the references. They should be used only when necessary and not in place of bibliographic references.   Please note that indicators should be printed as superscript numbers. Please limit the number of endnotes to less than eight per article.

Fully and separately state each hypothesis you tested separately. Give it a distinct number (Hypothesis 1) or number-letter (Hypothesis 1a) label. Set hypotheses off in indented blocks, in italic type. Examples:

Hypothesis 1a. Clear and concise writing has a positive relationship to publication.

Hypothesis 1b. Following CGIR’s “Author Style Guidelines” has a positive relationship to publication.

For empirical papers, for all supported hypotheses, show the value for the t or β along with the p value significance in parentheses when reporting results in the text of the paper. Example: (β = .21, p .05)

These are your in-text, in parentheses, identifications of other research. Every work that has a citation needs to have a corresponding reference (see “References,” below). Examples:

Name and year - Several studies (Adams, 1994; Barry, 1988, 1992; Guar, 2000a, 2000b) support this conclusion.

Year only - But McDonald and Nye (2001) presented conflicting evidence.

Order.  Order citations alphabetically. Designate two or more works by one author (or by an identical group of authors) published in the same year by adding “a,” “b,” and so forth, after the year. See the “name and year” example above.

Multiple authors. If a work has two authors, give both names every time you cite it. For five or more authors, cite the first four authors and use ―et al. - even for the first citation. (But the corresponding reference should give all the names.)

Page numbers in citations. Use this format:

Writing a book is “a long and arduous task” (Lee, 1998:3).

Citation with no author. For an article with no author, cite the periodical as author.

Periodical as author - Analysts predicted an increase in service jobs (Wall Street Journal, 1999).

For reports, handbooks, and the like, cite the “corporate author” that produced them. Example:

Organization as author - Analysts predict an increase in service jobs in the U.S. Industrial Outlook (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1992).

Such sources can also be identified informally. No corresponding reference will then be needed.


Informal citation - According to the 1999 U.S. Industrial Outlook, published by the U.S. Department of Commerce, service jobs will increase.

CGIR uses the same reference style as the Journal of Management. References are your entries in the alphabetical list at the end of your article or research note. This list should include only work you have cited.

Order - Alphabetize references by the last name of a sole author, a first author, or an editor, or by the name of a corporate author (for instance, U.S. Census Bureau) or periodical (such as the Wall Street Journal) if there is no human author or editor. Order works by an identical author by year of publication, listing the earliest first. If the years of publication are also the same, differentiate entries by adding small letters (“a,” “b,” etc.) after the years. Repeat the author’s name for each entry.

Books - Follow this form: Last names, initials (separated by a space). Year. Title (Boldface italic, capitalize only the first letter of the first word and of the first word after a long dash or colon.) City where published: Name of publisher. (For small U.S. and Canadian cities, follow the name of the city with the postal abbreviation for the state or province; for small cities in other countries, give the full name of the country.) Examples:

            Berle, A. & Means, G. 1932. The modern corporation and private property.  New York: Macmillan.

            Freeman, R.E. 1984.  Strategic management: A stakeholder approach.  Boston: Pitman. 

            Granovetter, M. S. 1965. Getting a job: A study of contracts and careers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Periodicals - Periodicals. Follow this form: Authors’ last names, initials. Year. Title (regular type; same single- capital rule as for books). Name of Periodical (boldface italic, title-style capitalization), volume number (issue number, if needed—see below): page numbers. Examples:

Jensen, M.C. 1986. Agency costs of free cash flow, corporate finance, and takeovers, American Economic Review, 76: 323-329.

Nonaka, I. 1991. The knowledge-creating company. Harvard Business Review, 69(6): 96–104.

Shrivastava, P. 1995. The role of corporations in achieving ecological sustainability. Academy of Management Review, 20: 936–960.

Include an issue number only if every issue of the referenced periodical begins with a page numbered 1. (Look at more than one issue to check.) If an article has no author, the periodical is referenced.  Examples:

            BusinessWeek. 1998. The best B-schools. October 19: 86–94.

            Harvard Business Review. 2003. How are we doing? 81(4): 3.

Chapters in books, including annuals. Follow this form: Authors’ last names, initials. Year. Title of chapter (regular type, single-capital rule. In Editors’ initials and last names (Eds.), Title of book: Page numbers. City (same rules as above): Publisher. Examples:

            Black, B.S., 1998, Shareholder activism and corporate governance in the U.S., in: Peter Newman (Ed.), The new Palgrave dictionary of economics and the law,  Macmillan Reference, London.

            Dutton, J., Bartunek, J., & Gersick, C. 1996. Growing a personal, professional collaboration. In P. Frost & S. Taylor (Eds.), Rhythms of academic life: 239–248. London: Sage.

            Levitt, B., & March, J. G. 1988. Organizational learning. In W. R. Scott & J. F. Short (Eds.), Annual review of sociology, vol. 14: 319–340. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.

Unpublished works - These include working papers, dissertations, and papers presented at meetings. Examples:

            Duncan, R. G. 1971. Multiple decision-making structures in adapting to environmental uncertainty. Working paper no. 54-71, Northwestern University Graduate School of Management, Evanston, IL.

            Smith, M. H. 1980. A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.

            Wall, J. P. 1983. Work and nonwork correlates of the career plateau. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Dallas.

Electronic documents - Include the author’s name, if known; the full title of the document; the full title of the work it is part of; the ftp, http, or other address; and the date the document was posted or accessed.

There are several software packages available to help authors manage and format the references and footnotes in their journal article. We recommend the use of a software tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting.  Endnote reference styles can be searched for here: Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:

Tables and Figures
For each table or figure, center “TABLE” or “FIGURE” with a number (“1,” “2,” etc.) at the top of the page. Put the title under this, also centered and boldface, but in upper- and lower-case letters. Number tables and figures consecutively (one series for tables, one for figures). Place them at the end of your manuscript, but indicate the position of each in the text as follows:

Insert Table 2 about here
Each table or figure needs an introductory sentence in your text that explains what the key idea of the Table is. Please define all variables used in the table as notes, and not as a separate table altogether.

More on tables - Use more than one page if needed. Do not squeeze material onto one page by shrinking type. Use ordinary words for variable names - not code names or other abbreviations. Use the same name for the variable throughout your text, tables, figures, and appendixes. Example:

            Preferred variable name - Profitability, not PRFT

Each table should report one type of analysis (which is identified in the title), and each vertical column and horizontal row should contain only one type of data.  Report only three decimal places for all statistics.

Figures should be supplied as high quality, original artwork and any lettering or line work should be able to sustain reduction to the final size of reproduction.   Please avoid using any tints or complex shading, and we prefer black and white. 

Statistical Significance
When statistical significance is explored, please note that p-values greater than .05 but less than .10 are considered marginally significant. P-values greater than .10 are considered insignificant. Report significance levels in separate footnotes placed in a stack under your regular table footnotes. Example:

† p .10
* p .05
** p .01
*** p .001

Please do not list or use outline format in the narrative discussion. Lists are acceptable for tables and figures, however.

Technical Terms
In order to help your work to be accessible to CGIR's wide-ranging readership, please define all key terms. A technical term is a word or a phrase that is not in a general use-dictionary with the meaning you ascribe to it.

Reporting math
Do not “talk in math” in regular text. Use words. For instance, “We surveyed 100 employees,” not “We surveyed n =100 employees” and “We used a chi-square test to evaluate fit,” not “We used a χ² test.”

Do use symbols and numbers to report results and give formulas. Italicize letters that are customarily italicized (p, r, b, F, Z, and so forth). Use boldface italic for vectors. Put spaces around equals signs, minus signs, etc.

Illustrative results within text go in parentheses. Introduce them with complete sentences. Example: One coefficient for the interaction was significant The coefficient of the interaction term between Gini index and firm size is positive and significant (Model 3: ? = 0.25, p equations in your running text unless they contain oversized symbols or division, and/or are very important in your research.


Run-in equation - We used David’s (1992: 20) distance formula (f =xyz).

Displayed equation -

 Pr= ∑Yx +bx +C(1)         
 Where Pr is …
Define each new term in all equations.

Please avoid using them for the names of concepts. Names of organizations and research instruments may be abbreviated, but give the full name the first time you mention any one of these. Names of software and some databases may be abbreviated.

Pre-submission English Language editing

Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication

Supporting Information
We can also publish supporting information. Supporting information must be important, ancillary information that is relevant to the parent article but which does not or cannot appear in the main article. Supporting Information can comprise additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. This should be submitted during manuscript submission and designated as 'Supporting Information'. Supporting information will be published as submitted, and will not be corrected or checked for scientific content, typographical errors or functionality. Like the manuscript accompanying it, it should be original and not previously published. If previously published it must be submitted with the necessary permissions.

Authors preparing supporting information for publication should read the following guidelines carefully:


Please make sure your final manuscript includes all of the following items. 

Title Page
Please list the title of your work, author names, affiliations and complete address including mailing address, phone, fax and email. 

Please list any acknowledgements you’d like to make and place acknowledgements on the bottom of the title page.

Biographical Information
Please submit a 100 word maximum biographical sketch which should include where you earned your highest degree, present affiliation and position and current research interests.

Copyright Transfer Agreement
If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement:
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen:
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

Color Agreement
Typically all of our manuscripts are printed in black and white. If you think portions of your paper need to be printed in color, you may do so, but you are responsible for the additional printing costs. If you agree to the color upgrade fee, please fill out the CGIR Color Costs and Agreement form. (Note: the majority of our papers appear in black and white and do not require a publishing fee).

Accepted Articles
Accepted Articles have been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but have not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process. Accepted Articles are published online a few days after final acceptance, appear in PDF format only, are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows them to be cited and tracked. A completed copyright form is required before a manuscript can be processed as an Accepted Article.

Proofs and the Publication Process
Accepted papers are copy edited and authors will be able to review proofs prior to publication.   Shortly after submission of your final accepted manuscript, the managing editor will be able to notify the author of the exact publishing date.   Please be sure to keep your contact information current in the ScholarOne Manuscript system

The corresponding author will receive an email alert containing a link to a web site. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author.  Further instructions will be sent with the proof.  Excessive changes made by the author in the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately.

Online Open
OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see

Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at:

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

Online production tracking through Author Services
Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript.

Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.