World Englishes

Cover image for Vol. 34 Issue 4

Edited By: Kingsley Bolton and Daniel Davis; Review Editor: Suzanne K. Hilgendorf; Co-Founding Editors and Advisors: Braj B. Kachru and Larry E. Smith

Impact Factor: 0.419

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 105/172 (Linguistics)

Online ISSN: 1467-971X

Author Guidelines

Manuscript Submission

World Englishes has now adopted ScholarOne/Manuscript Central for online manuscript submission and peer review. From now on all submissions to the journal must be submitted online at Full instructions and support are available on the site and a user ID and password can be obtained on the first visit. If you require assistance then click the Get Help Now link which appears at the top right of every ScholarOne Manuscripts page. If you are unable to submit online, please email

Manuscript Preparation

Please format your paper using the following guidelines as a checklist. After checking your article, upload it as a Word (.doc or .docx) file. Please do not follow the example of papers published in previous years/versions in the journal. New submissions must follow the new style set out below, which largely follows the guidelines of the LSA Unified style sheet.

All manuscript pages, including the abstract, notes and reference list, should be typed double-spaced with margins of at least 2.5 cm (1 inch) on all four sides.

1 Title

1.1 The title should be centered and bold. It should not be upper case.

2 Authors' names and affiliation

2.1 The author name(s) should be below the title, centered, and all capitals. Authors' names should not be in bold.

2.2 There should be a footnote, indicated by an asterisk (*) after the author's name (or, in the case of multiple authors, there should be a footnote after each author's name, with two asterisks for the second author, three asterisks for the third author, and so on.) The footnote should contain: Author's institutional affiliation, author's institutional mailing address, including postal code and country. Following this should be full stop/period, then the word 'E-mail:' and the author's contact e-mail. For this footnote, the footnote program in Word should be used. All other endnotes should be entered manually, using the Word 'superscript' command in order to insert numbers into the text.

3 Abstract

3.1 At the point of final formatting, the abstract should be incorporated into the paper. The abstract should occur after the author's name. The word ABSTRACT should appear, in bold and upper case, left justified, followed by a colon and two spaces, immediately followed by the beginning of the abstract itself with no line break. The word ABSTRACT should not be on a separate line.

4 Sections and headings

4.1 Sections of a paper should not be numbered.

4.2 Headings within the paper should be in bold, uppercase, and centered. Headings should not be numbered.

4.3 Sub-headings (second level headings) should be left justified and italic. They should not be in bold, nor capitalized, nor underlined.

4.4 Please do not use third level headings.

4.5 Please do not pluralize the heading CONCLUSION.

4.6 Please avoid conjoined headings, such as DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION. Choose the term that best describes the section.

5 Indentation

5.1 Do not indent the very first paragraph of the first section of the paper. And please note, wherever there is a section heading (either in bold caps or italics) the following line of text should not be indented. Please check to see if this consistent throughout the whole paper. Do indent ALL paragraphs after the first one. Use tabs to indent. Do not use spaces to indent. Do not use additional line spaces in order to create paragraph breaks. Do not justify.

6 Spacing and font

6.1 Manuscripts should be double-spaced regardless of their ultimate appearance in print. However, bulleted or numbered examples may be single spaced.

6.2 Font: Please use Times New Roman 12 pt throughout, regardless of ultimate appearance in print.

6.3 Please note if you are using phonetic characters please also submit a PDF version of your manuscript together with your Word file. Please ensure that the phonetic characters are correctly embedded in the PDF version.

7 Citation of data

When citing examples of data, please use the following examples as a guide.

Examples of data

7.1 Place each numbered item on a separate line with the number in parentheses:

(1) He returned back to the office.

(2) He listed out the reasons.

(3) They discussed about the problem.

7.2 The number should be at the margin. Do not indent. Do not use italics on the text in numbered examples.

7.3 If it is necessary to gloss (translate word for word) underneath the example, please use tabs to line up example words with glossing words. Do not use spaces to line up example word and glossing word.

(4) Mae 'n ddrwg gen i.
BE pt sorry with me
'I am sorry.'

7.4 In the main text, refer to numbered items as (1), (2), (3), when discussing these examples. When citing unnumbered examples or parts of examples the main text, use italics for the citation word/s, and give the meaning in single quotation marks. So in example (4) above, ddrwg is the mutated form of drwg 'bad'. In example (1), return back can be analysed as a prepositional verb.

8 Figures and tables

8.1 Figures and tables should be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Information presented in columns and rows should be labeled 'Tables', while graphs, photographs, line drawings, etc. should be labeled as 'Figures'.

8.2 Figure captions should appear directly below the figure; table captions should appear directly above the table. Please also use the pattern 'Figure 1.' and 'Table 1.' with a full stop after the figure or table number, followed by the figure or table title.

8.3 Figures and tables may be included in-line, within the document. They should also be attached in a separate file.

9 Acknowledgements, Notes, Appendix and References

9.1 Acknowledgements, if necessary, should be labeled ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS - in bold, upper case, and centered. Acknowledgements should appear at the end of the paper, after the concluding paragraph and before endnotes.

9.2 The endnotes section should be labeled NOTES - in bold, upper case, and centered. Notes should be placed before references. Notes should be placed before references. These notes must be inserted manually, and as mentioned above numbers for notes should be added using the Word 'superscript' command.

9.3 An appendix, if necessary, should be labeled APPENDIX - in bold, upper case, and centered. The appendix should be placed after notes and before references.

9.4 The references should be labeled REFERENCES - in bold, upper case, and centered.

9.5 Add date of access to Internet/website references. See example below.

9.6 In the references when referring to edited work, use the following abbreviations (ed.) and (eds.)

9.7 In the references, where there is a colon in the title capitalize the first letter of the word after the colon.

(See examples of in-text and final references in 12 below)

10 Quotation marks

10.1 Use single quotation marks throughout. Use double quotation marks only for a quotation within a quotation.

11 General style notes

11.1 World Englishes is the title of the journal (capitalized and in italics). When writing about world Englishes (meaning 'varieties of English throughout the world'), do not capitalize 'world'.

11.2 Do capitalize the Three Circles model, Inner Circle, Outer Circle, and Expanding Circle. Please do not use a hyphen when these terms are used attributively (as in 'Outer Circle Englishes').

11.3 Please avoid the term 'Anglo' in general, and when referring to the cultural context of Inner Circle Englishes in particular. This term is however acceptable to refer to European Americans from a Hispanic American perspective, as in the sociolinguistics of the United States, and in the term 'Anglo-Celtic' as an ethnic identifier within Australian discourse.

11.4 Please use the term 'standardized English' (or 'standardized varieties of English' or 'standardized Scottish English' or 'the standardized variety of Scottish English') in preference to the term 'Standard English' or 'Standard Scottish English'. Please use the term 'native speaker' in quotation marks. Avoid abbreviation to NS/NNS. If the term 'native speaker' or the term 'Standard English' is being discussed repeatedly and with awareness of the ideological nature of these terms, please explain early in the paper how the term is used and why it is necessary.

12 Examples of in-text and final references

12.1 In-text references

When referring to sources in the text, please follow the pattern Author + Date:

e.g. 'As Kachru (1985) points out …'

OR 'This has been discussed in some detail earlier (Kachru 1985)'

Note: Quotations should always be accompanied by a page reference (Kachru 1985: 88)

There should be a space after the colon in WE style.

12.2 Examples of the formatting for final references are set out here:


Coulmas, Florian. 1991. Writing systems of the world. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Bowern, Claire L., & Harold J. Koch (eds.). 2004. Australian languages: Classification and the comparative method. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Book in series

Kallen, Jeffrey (ed.). 1997. Focus on Ireland (Varieties of English around the World G21). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Journal articles

Sweeting, Anthony & Edward Vickers. 2005. On colonizing 'colonialism': The discourses of the history of English in Hong Kong. World Englishes 24(2). 113-130.

Tanaka, Fujimi. 2010. A survey-based study of Japanese university student attitudes toward EIL and implications for the future of English education in Japan. Asian Englishes 13(1). 48-71.

Book chapters

Whalen, Douglas H. 2004. How the study of endangered languages will revolutionize linguistics. In Piet van Sterkenburg (ed.), Linguistics today: Facing a greater challenge, 321-342. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Labov, William & Joshua Waletzky. 1967. Narrative analysis: Oral versions of personal experience. In June Helm (ed.), Essays on the verbal and visual arts, 12-44. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

References to Internet webpages

Lewis, M. Paul (ed.). 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the world. 16th edn. Dallas: SIL International. (15 June, 2013.)

Moseley, Christopher (ed.). 2010. Atlas of the world's languages in danger. Paris: UNESCO. (1 July, 2013.)

12.3 Please note that authors should utilize the command 'remove hyperlink' when adding links to Internet webpages.