Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society)

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Online ISSN: 1467-985X

Associated Title(s): Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology), Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series C (Applied Statistics), Significance

165:1


Multivariate multilevel analyses of examination results by M. Yang et al,
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, Statistics in Society, Volume 165 (2002), Part 1, pages 137 - 153
.

The analyses in the paper were based on A/AS level results in different mathematics papers of 52,587 individuals from 2,592 institutions in England in 1997. The data file 'RSS-A633.TXT' contains 30 fields with one blank space between two fields. The name and code of each field are listed as follows:

  FieldName  Level defined   Coding
  Gender  Individual  Male=0, Female=1
  GCSE-TOT-Score   Individual  Min=0, Max=103
  GCSE-Num-taken   Individual  Min=2, Max=13
  GCSE-MATH-Score   Individual  Min=0, Max=8
  GCSE-MATH-NUM   Individual  Min=1, Max=4
Exam Board   Individual  Associated Exam Board=1
    Cambridge Board=2
    London Board=3
    Oxford Board=5
    Joint Matriculation=6
    Oxford & Cambridge=7
  Mean-GCSEtot   Institution  Min=2.19, Max=7.41
  Mean-GCSEMaths   Institution  Min=0.5, Max=7.36
  Age-Month   Individual  Min=216, max=227
  Institution-type   Institution  LEA Maintained Comprehensive=1
    LEA Maintained Selective=2
    LEA Maintained Modern=3
    Grammar Comprehensive=4
    Grammar Selective=5
    Grammar Modern=6
    Independent Selective=7
    Independent Non-selective=8
    Six-Form College=9
    FE College=10
    Others=11
   
  Mathscore  Individual  Min=0, Max=10 (outcome variable)
  A-main-maths  Within individual  Alevel Main Maths=1, others=0
  A-pure-maths  Within individual  Alevel Pure Maths=1, others=0
  A-Applied-maths  Within individual  Alevel Applied maths=1, others=0
  A-Further-maths  Within individual  Alevel Further maths=1, others=0
  AS-main  Within individual  ASlevel main maths=1, others=0
  AS-pure  Within individual  ASlevel Pure maths=1, others=0
  AS-Applied  Within individual  ASlevel Applied maths=1, others=0
  AS-Further  Within individual  ASlevel Further maths=1, others=0
  A-combination-1  Individual  A(M)+A(F)+more=1, others=0
  A-combination-3  Individual  A(M)+AS(F)+more=1, others=0
  A-combination-2  Individual  A(M)+AS(others but F)=1, others=0
  A-combination-4  Individual  A(M)+A(others but F)=1, others=0
  A-combination-5  Individual  A(P)+A(A)+more=1, others=0
  AS-combination-6  Individual  AS(M)+more than 1A=1, others=0
  AS-combination-7  Individual  AS(A)+more than 1A=1, others=0
  School ID  School  Ranged from 1 to 2592
  Individual ID  Individual  Ranged from 1 to 245 (nested within school)
  subject level  Within individual  Alevel=1, ASlevel=2
  MathCode  Within individual  Main maths=1
    Pure maths=3
    Applied maths=5
    Further maths=13
   
   
   

All models in the paper were fitted in using the program MLwiN. Details of the program can be found at the web site (http://multilevel.ioe.ac.uk/). The full paper can also be found and down-loaded from the page (http://multilevel.ioe.ac.uk/team/project.html).

For technical questions in fitting models appeared in the paper, contact

Min Yang

Department of Mathematical Sciences

Institute of Education

20 Bedford Way

London WC1H 0AL

UK

E-mail: m.yang@ioe.ac.uk

tel: 44(0)207 612 6682

Dataset (556kb)

Ehrenberg law-like relationship and anthropometry by N. Forcheh, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, Statistics in Society, Volume 165 (2002), Part 1, pages 155 - 172.

The data and programs comprise the following files:

a) Contents

1. A627.dat Nutritional data of Ngamiland under-fives: (ASCII format)

2. zhfa.sps SPSS syntax file for computing z-scores for heigth-for-age

3. zwfa.sps SPSS syntax file for computing z-scores for weigth-for-age

4. zwfh.sps SPSS syntax file for computing z-scores for weigth-for-height

1.1 Description of A627.dat

The Data file A627.DAT contains 26 variables. The data have been written in fixed format, with the data layout and formats as follows:

  Variable  Start  End  Format
  Col Col DISTRICT  1  2  F2.0
  CHILD_NO  3  4  F2.0
  CHLD_SEX  5  5  F1.0
  WT_BIRTH  6  9  F4.0
  BRE_FED  10  10  F1.0
  NMEAL  11  11  F1.0
  AGE  12  15  F4.0
  SEX_HEAD  16  16  F1.0
  AGE_HEAD  17  18  F2.0
  MSTART  19  19  F1.0
  EDU_HEAD  20  21  F2.0
  ILL2WKS  22  22  F1.0
  ZZ  23  24  F2.0
  ZHFA  25  30  F6.2
  ZWFA  31  36  F6.2
  ZWFH  37  42  F6.2
  ZSD_WFH  43  43  F1.0
  ZSD_WFA  44  44  F1.0
  ZSD_HFA  45  45  F1.0
  LOG_WT  46  50  F5.1
  HT_METRE  51  55  F5.2
  E_LOG_WT  56  61  F6.3
  EDLEVEL  62  69  F8.0
  DSTAT  70  76  F7.3
  EH_NSTAT  77  77  F1.0
  EH_WFH1  78  78  F1.0

1.2 Variables and value Labels for A627.dat

DISTRICT - DISTRICT

51 Ngamiland West

52 Ngamiland East

CHLD_SEX - SEX OF CHILD

1 Male

2 Female

WT_BIRTH - WGT AT BIRTH OF BIRTH OF CHILD BRE_FED - CHILD BREAST FED1

Yes 2

No

NMEAL - NUMBER OF MEALS

1 1 Meal

2 2 Meals

3 3 Meals

4 4 Meals

5 5 Meals

6 Exlusively-b-fed

AGE - Age in Months of Child

SEX_HEAD - Sex of Head of House hold

1 Male

2 Female

AGE_HEAD - Age of Head of Household

0 M Less than 1 year

98 Over 97 years

99 M Not Known

MSTART - Marial Status of Head of HHold

1 Married

2 Living together

3 Never married

5 Separated

6 Divorced

7 Widowed

EDU_HEAD - Level of Education of Head of HHold

1 Primary STD 1

2 Primary STD 2

3 Primary STD 3

4 Primary STD 4

5 Primary STD 5

6 Primary STD 6

7 Primary STD 7

8 Unknown Primary

11 Secondary 1

12 Secondary 2

13 Secondary 3

14 Secondary 4

15 Secondary 5

16 Unknown Secondar

21 Post Sec. Cert.

22 Post Sec. Diplom

23 Post Sec. Degree

24 Post Degree

25 Unknwn Post Sec.

99 Never Attended

ILL2WKS - ILL 2 WEEK

1 Yes

2 No

ZZ - Cases with missing obs in one or more var.

0 1+ missing

1 No Missing

ZHFA - Standardised Z-score for Height for Age

ZWFA - Standardised Z-score for Weight for Age

ZWFH - Standardised Z-score for Weight for Height

ZSD_ WFH - Weight for Height (Wasting)

1 Severe

2 Moderate

3 Normal

ZSD_WFA - Weight for Age (Malnourished)

1 Severe

2 Moderate

3 Normal

ZSD_HFA - Height for Age (Stunting)

1 Severe

2 Moderate

3 Normal

LOG_WT - Log10(Weight in Kg)

HT_METRE - Height in Metres

E_LOG_WT - Fitted Log-Wt = 0.8h+0.39

EDLEVEL - Education Level of Head

DSTAT - Ehrenberg's Deviation Scores (Log(W) - (0.8h+0.39)

EH_NSTAT - Nutritional Status based on Ehrenbergs Adjusted Relationship

1 Severe

2 Moderate

3 Normal

EH_WFH1 - Nutritional Status based on Ehrenbergs Relationship

1 Severe

2 Moderate

3 Normal

2) A Note about the .SPS files

The files are text files and can be read and modified using any editor. These files can be used to compute the corresponding z-scores, with the names of the variables: height, weight and age changed to correspond to those used in your working data file. The means and standard deviations used are based on the NCHS/WHO recommended references discussed in the paper.

The weight-for-height program includes the variable "age" so that it can be used to compute both weight-for-length (lying height) and weight-for-stature (standing height). Here the NCHS cut-of at 24months is used, but modifications could be made if a child under 24months was measured standing, or a child over 24months was measured lying.

The programs can also be modified to compute z-scores with different means and/or standard deviations.

Consider a typical command line: IF(QF492=1 and Age = 0 ) ZHFA = (Ht_cm - 50.5 )/ 2.3.

Here, QF492 represents the variable, "Gender of child": 1=male, 2=female. The values: 50.5 and 2.3 are respectively, the expected height (cm) and standard deviation of a newborn boy.

3. Contact

Dr. N. Forcheh,

Department of Statistics,

Universtity of Botswana,

Private Bag UB00705,

Gaborone,

Botswana

E-mail: NForcheh@Excite.com

Tel: 267-355 2695

Dataset (21kb)

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