Cover image for Vol. 84 Issue 335

Edited By: Nava Ashraf, Oriana Bandiera, Tim Besley, Francesco Caselli, Maitreesh Ghatak, Stephen Machin, Ian Martin, and Gianmarco Ottaviano

Impact Factor: 0.92

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2016: 176/347 (Economics)

Online ISSN: 1468-0335

Author Guidelines

Submission of Papers to Economica

Please note, papers submitted after 1st July 2015 will be assessed by the incoming Editorial Team who will take over at Economica from volume 83 (2016).

1 General procedure

Article manuscripts can be submitted for editorial consideration via Only standard documents in Portable Document Format (PDF) will be acceptable.

All submissions should include the following basic information in the body of the message:

  • name(s) of author(s)
  • title
  • an abstract of no more than 200 words
  • up to three Journal of Economic Literature subject codes
  • up to five keywords

The Editors reserve the right to make minor grammatical and other changes at any stage before publication. These are sometimes necessary to make the paper conform to the general style of Economica and should not be construed as criticism of the author's style. 

The author of a paper accepted for publication will receive proofs for correction. The correction of proofs should not be used to revise the paper. Alterations at proof stage are costly and should be minimised. A schedule of charges for offprints is sent to the author with the proofs.

Papers published in Economica become the copyright of the London School of Economics and Political Science, which will be glad to consider applications for reproduction elsewhere. Institutions with a paid subscription to Economica may make copies of articles from Economica for teaching purposes without charge. Neither the London School of Economics and Political Science nor the Editors take any responsibility for opinions or facts stated by contributors.

2. Preparation of papers

Papers should use 10 or 12 point font, on one side of the paper, with ample margins and double spacing throughout, typewritten on one side of the paper, with ample margins and double spacing throughout, quotations, references and appendices as well as text. If a paper is divided into sections, the introductory one usually requires no heading or number; subsequent sections should be given Roman numerals, and the section heading should be typed in capitals and centred. Headings of subsections should be flush with the left margin.

Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals, and a descriptive heading typed above each table. Tables should, as far as possible, be self-explanatory without reference to the text. Small tables may be typed with the text, but large tables should be typed on separate sheets and the position of each table in the text indicated by an instruction such as 'Table 2 here'. Vertical rules should not be used in tables.

Figures should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals, and should have an explanatory legend or title. Figures should be submitted on separate sheets. The use of complicated notations within the figure should be avoided. The final preparation of figures for press is done by our own artist, who would appreciate an indication of any special geometric features, such as tangencies or parallelisms.

Economica discourages the use of footnotes: the elimination of footnotes almost always improves the quality of the text. Where their use is unavoidable, notes should be placed at the end of the article. They should be consecutively numbered throughout, reference numbers in the text being typed superscript, without brackets.

Acknowledgements of financial support, technical advice, computational assistance, priority and so forth should be made in a section headed 'Acknowledgements', placed at the end of the text.

2.1 References in the text

ECONOMICA uses the standard Harvard style for references. References in the text should be by author's surname and year of publication, as in the following examples:

'Brown (2000) in a paper on....' 'Brown (2000, p.12) has shown that.....' 'This method has been criticised (Jones, 1999a,b; Brown and Smith, 2000)'. 'A proof is given by Jones et al. (1998)'.

The following points should be noted: 

  • When more than two collaborating authors are quoted the first surname only should be given followed by et al., e.g. Jones et al. (1998), not Jones, Smith and White (1998). In the list of references, however, all names should be given in full.
  • The word 'and' is used in preference to '&'.
  • When a book is quoted, reference to a particular page, section or chapter is often necessary.
  • Ibid., op. cit., loc. cit. must not be used

Where this system of citation is awkward, the Editors are prepared to consider a reasonable alternative.

2.2 List of References

References should be listed using a standard format in alphabetical order at the end of the paper. The list of references should contain only those papers referred to in the text and references to unpublished reports or to personal communications should be avoided. Please note:

  • The first and last page numbers of a paper should be given.
  • Journal titles should not be abbreviated.
  • Series and part numbers should not be used unless their omission causes ambiguity; they are rarely needed. A series number, where necessary, should precede the volume number; a part number, where necessary, should be placed in parentheses immediately after the volume number.

Some examples:

ALLEN, F. and WINTON, A. (1995). Corporate financial structure, incentives and optimal contracting. In R. A. Jarrow, V. Maksimovic and W. T. Ziemba (eds.), Handbooks in Operations research and Management Science, Vol. 9, Finance. Amsterdam and New York: Elsevier.

ATKINSON, A.B., BOURGUIGNON, F. and MORRISSON, C. (1992). Empirical Studies of Earnings
Mobility. New York: Harwood.

BERNAKE, B. and BLINDER, A. (1988). Credit, money and aggregate demand. American Economic
Review, Papers and Proceedings
, 78 , 435-9.

___ and GERTLER, M. (1995). Inside the black box: the credit channel of monetary policy transmission. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9 (4), 27-48

___, ___ and GILCHRIST, S. (1996). The financial accelerator and the flight to quality. Review of Economics and Statistics. 78, 1-152.

2.3 Mathematics

It is helpful if the word processor supports italic and bold styles. Mathematical symbols should be set in italics but certain standard abbreviations log, lim, exp, but not e, max, min, inf, var, cov, sin, cos are set in roman font. You can indicate vectors and matrices by the use of bold style if you wish.

Avoid ambiguous notation. Some Greek and Roman symbols such as upper case B are hard to distinguish, as are the numbers 0 and 1 and the letters O and l. The use of an economical, simple and descriptive notation not only makes production easier, but also improves the quality of the paper. For many problems, the definition of a good notation makes the solution transparent. Editing and improving notation will often greatly improve the quality and clarity of the argument.

Excessive use of multiple font sizes should be avoided. We would prefer authors to aim for a high quality 'typewritten' style rather than trying to produce typeset quality manuscripts. The use of small fonts should be minimised and very small fonts should be avoided. To reduce the use of small fonts:

  • avoid elaborate notations involving multiple suffices.
  • avoid the simultaneous use of both subscripts and superscripts where possible.
  • avoid using subscripts or superscripts on quantities which are limits of summation or integration, or which in turn become subscripts or superscripts; define a fresh symbol.
  • use the expression 'exp' for the exponential function when the argument is longer than a single compact group of symbols, e.g. exp(a bt ct2) but e t.  

Equations and long formulae should be displayed, shown on a separate line, where necessary being numbered at the left of the page. Short isolated formulae should usually be left in the text and then arranged so as not to be more than one line high. The solidus sign (/) should be used for fractions in the text. Bracket a group of symbols to the right of the solidus if they are to be included in the denominator; for example (a b)/(c d)(h k) is wrong, being ambiguous without a special convention.

Equations involving complicated expressions should be avoided where possible. Equations must be punctuated in the usual way.

2.4 Checklist

The submission of a well-prepared typescript which conforms as nearly as possible to the style used by Economica will speed the editorial process. Accepted Manuscripts will need to conform to the style guidelines that can be downloaded from the website. Please check:

  • is the paper in its final form?
  • are the sections, tables and figures correctly numbered and provided with suitable headings and legends?
  • has the use of footnotes been minimised?
  • does the list of references correspond to those in the text?
  • are the graphics and mathematics presented clearly?
  • has the pdf been checked for integrity?
  • has the basic information been included in the email to

3. Supporting Information

Economica is happy to receive articles with extra material such as appendices supplied for online-only publication. This supporting information will normally be posted at Wiley Online Library along with the article. The print version will have a note indicating that extra material is available online. On submission, please clearly indicate which material is for online-only publication. Note that online-only material is published as supplied by the author in the same file format and is not copyedited or typeset. Further information about this service can be found at

4. Copyright Transfer Agreement

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) on behalf of all authors on the paper. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

5. Early View

Economica is covered by Wiley-Blackwell’s Early View service. Early View articles are complete and full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors’ final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

6. Author Services

Author Services enables authors to track their article – once it has been accepted – through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.