Expert Systems

Cover image for Vol. 33 Issue 3

Edited By: Jon G. Hall

Impact Factor: 0.947

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 57/105 (Computer Science Theory & Methods); 90/130 (Computer Science Artificial Intelligence)

Online ISSN: 1468-0394

Author Guidelines

Effective with the 2014 volume, this journal will be published in an online-only format.

Print subscription and single issue sales are available from Wiley’s Print-on-Demand Partner. To order online click through to the ordering portal from the journal’s subscribe and renew page on WOL.

Expert Systems: The Journal of Knowledge Engineering is a quarterly technical journal devoted to all aspects of knowledge engineering. Within the scope of the Journal are individual methods and techniques in knowledge acquisition and representation, as well as their application and evaluation, and the construction of systems based thereon. The Journal welcomes articles on any subject within its remit. Articles should contain significant technical information that will be of general interest to people working in that field and should present information on the technical aspects of the work reported, rather than on the application domain. Any system presented should be described in useful detail with examples to illustrate its construction and use. Articles should display a well-grounded knowledge of the current scene in their field. All submitted articles are subject to refereeing

It is a condition of publication that authors grant the Publisher the Copyright Transfer to publish all articles including abstracts. Papers will not be passed to the publisher for production unless the Copyright Transfer Agreement to publish has been granted. Submission implies that the work has not been published and is not being considered for publication elsewhere.

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:
CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by certain funders [e.g. The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) or the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)] you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal's compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

All articles should be submitted in journal style. Submission copy: PDF including all figures and tables. Publisher copy: Word or Tex /LaTex plus PDF, with separate files for figures and tables. All manuscripts submitted should include a short biography of each of the authors (about one paragraph each).To submit a manuscript, please follow the instructions below.

Getting Started
Launch your web browser (Internet Explorer 5 or higher, Netscape 7 or higher, Firefox 1.0.4 or Safari 1.2.4) and go to the Expert Systems’s Scholarone Manuscripts homepage (
- Log-in or click the “Create Account” option if you are a first-time user of ScholarOne Manuscripts.If you are creating a new account.
- After clicking on “Create Account”, enter your name and e-mail information and click “Next”. Your e-mail information is very important.
- Enter your institution and address information as appropriate, and then click “Next.”
- Enter a user ID and password of your choice (we recommend using your e-mail address as your user ID), and then select your area of expertise. Click “Finish”. If you have an account but have forgotten your log in details, go to “Password Help” on the Expert System's Journal homepage and enter your email address. The system will send you an automatic user ID and password reminder. Log-in and select “Author Center.”
Submitting Your Manuscript
- After you have logged in, click the “Submit a Manuscript” link in the menu bar. Enter data and answer questions as appropriate.
- Click the “Next” button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen. You are required to upload your files. Click on the “Browse” button and locate the file on your computer.
- Select the designation of each file in the drop down next to the Browse button.
- When you have selected all files you wish to upload, click the “Upload Files” button. Review your submission (in both PDF and HTML formats) before sending to the Journal. Click the “Submit” button when you are finished reviewing. You may suspend a submission at any phase before clicking the “Submit” button and save it to submit later. After submission, you will receive a confirmation e-mail. You can also access ScholarOne Manuscripts any time to check the status of your manuscript. The Journal will inform you by e-mail once a decision has been made.
- Getting Help with Your Submission
Each page of the ScholarOne Manuscripts website has a ‘Get Help Now’ icon connecting directly to the online support system at Telephone support is available 24 hours a day, 5 days a week through the US ScholarOne Manuscripts Support Office on:
1 434 817 2040, ext 167. If you cannot submit online, please contact the Editor at

The language of publication is English. Authors for whom English is a second language must have their manuscript professionally edited by an English speaking person before submission to make sure the English is of high quality. It is preferred that manuscripts are professionally edited. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication. Units, Spelling and Measurement: System International (SI) units should be used. Spelling should conform to The Concise Oxford Dictionary.

Optimizing Your Abstract for Search Engines
Many students and researchers looking for information online will use search engines such as Google, Yahoo or similar. By optimizing your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. We have compiled these guidelines to enable you to maximize the web-friendliness of the most public part of your article.


APA – American Psychological Association

References: List all sources in the reference list alphabetically by name. In text citations should follow the author-date method. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

References are styled according to the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. A sample of the most common entries in reference lists appears below. Please note that for journal articles, issue numbers are not included unless each issue in the volume begins with page one.

Journal article:

Phelps, L. (1996). Discriminative validity of the WRAML with ADHD and LD children. Psychology in the Schools, 33, 5-12.

Book edition:

Bradley-Johnson, S. (1994). Psychoeducational assessment of students who are visually impaired or blind: Infancy through high school (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-ed.

References should refer only to material listed within the text.

  • The editor and publisher recommend that citation of online published papers and other material should be done via a DOI (digital object identifier), which all reputable online published material should have - see for more information. If an author cites anything which does not have a DOI they run the risk of the cited material not being traceable.
  • We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting.
  • EndNote reference styles can be searched for here:
    Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:
  • Tables, Figures and Figure Legends
  • Tables: Charts, figures and tables should be on separate pages. Tables containing only essential data should be double-spaced and numbered separately e.g. Table 1, Table 2, and a caption for each should be provided. Only horizontal lines should be used, one above and one below the column headings and one at the table foot. All abbreviations must be defined in a footnote.
  • Figures: All graphs, drawings and photographs are considered figures and should be numbered in sequence with Arabic numerals. Each figure should have a legend and all legends should be typed together on a separate sheet and numbered correspondingly. If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author’s responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publisher. All figures and artwork must be provided in electronic format. Please save vector graphics (e.g. line artwork) in Encapsulated Postscript Format (EPS) and bitmap files (e.g. halftones) or clinical or in vitro pictures in Tagged Image Format (TIFF). Further information can be obtained at Wiley Blackwell’s guidelines for illustrations:
  • Illustrations: Illustrations must be professionally prepared, submitted in a form suitable for reproduction, and supplied on separate pages. Avoid using tints if possible, but if they are essential to the understanding of the illustration, use coarse tints. Always enclose a hard copy of a digitally supplied illustration. Computer-generated hard copy illustrations are acceptable only if they have been printed with a good quality laser printer.
  • The first 100 characters of any caption should describe key aspects of the illustration. The captions should be typed on a separate page at the end of the manuscript rather than in the text or under the illustrations. Illustrations should be provided to either single (83 mm) or double column (175mm) width. Lettering should be sans serif and of 2-3 mm height. Lines should be at least 0.33 mm wide in final size and symbols should be 2-3 mm across.
  • All illustrations including photographs should be referred to in the text as figures using Arabic numerals, e.g., Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc. in order of appearance. Any hard copy figures should be lightly marked on the back in pencil with its assigned number, together with the names of the author(s) and the title of the paper. These should be sent to the editorial office at the above address.
  • Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication
  • Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, article publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (line art) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for published pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented programmes. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size (see below). Please submit the data for figures in black and white or submit a Colour Work Agreement Form. EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible).
  • For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: line art: >600 dpi; halftones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi.
  • Further information can be obtained at Wiley Blackwell Publishing’s guidelines for figures:
  • Check your electronic artwork before submitting it:
  • Permissions: If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publisher.
  • Supporting Information: Publication in electronic formats has created opportunities for adding details or whole sections in the electronic version only. Authors need to work closely with the editors in developing or using such new publication formats.
  • Supporting Information, such as data sets or additional figures or tables, that will not be published in the print edition of the journal, but which will be viewable via the online edition, can be submitted.
  • It should be clearly stated at the time of submission that the Supporting Information is intended to be made available through the online edition. If the size or format of the Supplementary Material is such that it cannot be accommodated on the Journal's website, the author agrees to make the Supporting Information available free of charge on a permanent website, to which links will be set up from the Journal's website. The author must advise Wiley Blackwell if the URL of the website where the Supporting Information is located changes. The content of the Supporting Information must not be altered after the paper has been accepted for publication.
  • The availability of Supporting Information should be indicated in the main manuscript by a paragraph, to appear after the References, headed 'Supporting Information' and providing titles of figures, tables, etc. In order to protect reviewer anonymity, material posted on the author’s website cannot be reviewed. The Supporting Information is an integral part of the article and will be reviewed accordingly.
  • Upon acceptance of a paper for publication, the manuscript will be forwarded to the Production Editor who is responsible for the production of the journal.
  • Proof Corrections
  • The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a website. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from this site. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following website: This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. In your absence, please arrange for a colleague to access your e-mail to retrieve the proofs. Proofs must be returned to the Production Editor within three days of receipt.
  • Proofs must be returned to the proof-reader within three days of receipt. Please note that if you have registered for production tracking e-mail alerts in Author Services, there will be no e-mail for the proof corrections received stage. This will not affect e-mails alerts for any later production stages.
  • As changes to proofs are costly, we ask that you only correct typesetting errors. Excessive changes made by the author in the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately. Other than in exceptional circumstances, all illustrations are retained by the publisher. Please note that the author is responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.
  • Author Services
    Online production tracking is available for your article through Wiley Blackwell's Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.
  • For more substantial information on the services provided for authors, please see Wiley Blackwell's Author Services.
  • Author Material Archive Policy
  • Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible.
  • Offprints and Extra Copies
  • A PDF offprint of the online published article will be provided free of charge to the corresponding author, only if the author has already signed up with Author Services. Additional paper offprints may be ordered online. Please click on the following link, fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields: If you have queries about offprints please e-mail