European Journal of Neurology

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 6

Edited By: Anthony Schapira Associate Editors: Alberto Albanese, Michael Brainin, Maurizio Leone, Charles Davie, Seppo Juvela, Eng-King Tan, Zbigniew Wszolek, Pertti Saloheimo, James Meschia

Impact Factor: 4.055

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 28/192 (Clinical Neurology); 62/252 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1468-1331

Author Guidelines


General information
Author guarantee statement
Ethical principles
•  Fill in these forms
•  Provide this information
Manuscript preparation
Online submission
Copyright and Publication

General information

The European Journal of Neurology publishes papers in neurology and related areas in the following categories:
• Original Articles
• Short Communications
• Reviews
• Letters to the Editor
• Guidelines
• Editorials

Original Papers and Reviews: max. 3500 words for Original Papers and max. 4000 words for Reviews. This includes title page, structured abstract, references, legends. Six figures or tables are allowed. Additional figures may be submitted for publication online only at the discretion of the editor. This supplementary material must be clearly labelled as ‘‘online only’’ on the title page and in citations throughout the manuscript, and must be placed at the very end of the manuscript.

Short Communications: max. 1500 words, including title page, abstract, references, legends and captions. Two tables or figures are allowed.

Letters to the Editor: max. 500 words, including references. Letters express views about articles published in EJoN or present ideas or findings of scientific interest that do not constitute original research.

Case reports (to be submitted as Letters to the Editor): max.750 words, including title page and references. One figure or table is allowed. Acceptance of case reports is very limited, and only reports that make a major clinico-pathological or educational contribution or suggest a significant change of diagnosis or therapy will be accepted.

Letters to the Editor are published online only.

Guideline articles: max. 6000 words, including title page, abstract, references, legends and captions. Guidelines are prepared by task forces appointed by EFNS and reviewed by the EFNS Scientific Committee. All new Guideline articles and selected updates with substantial revision of content are published in EJoN. Due to space constraints, some updates are published only on the EFNS website.

Editorials: max. 800 words, 5–8 references. Editorials are invited by the editors-in-chief at their discretion to comment on timely and important topics. Editorials express the authors personal views and do not represent the opinions of EJoN or EFNS.

Articles on education and other matters of general interest are published online under the heading EFNS Forum. All other but educational manuscripts and editorials are peer-reviewed.

EJoN publishes supplements on topics of general interest. All manuscripts submitted for inclusion in a supplement are peer-reviewed in the same way as unsolicited submissions.

Author Guarantee Statement

Access the Author Guarantee Statement here
The journal maintains strict ethical standards. Each submitting author must fill in an Author Guarantee Statement at the time of submission. The manuscript cannot be accepted for publication until a duly completed Author Guarantee Statement has been received.

Authors must provide the following information in their Author Guarantee Statement:

1. Originality of submitted research
2. Co-authors’ contribution
3. Absence of ghost writing and other misrepresentation
4. Name of the institutional review board or ethics committee who approved the research protocol (for all studies involving even minimal intervention for research purposes or identifiable patient data)
5. Informed consent given by subjects/next-of-kin
6. An individual, completed Conflict of Interest Disclosure Form for each corresponding author and each co-author
7. Disclosure of sources of funding
8. Trial registration 

Note: Information on the items 4-8 should also be included in the body of the manuscript.

Download the Author Guarantee Statement form by clicking the ‘Instructions & Forms’ link under ‘Resources’ on the Main Menu page or by clicking here. Fill in the form, save it, and upload it along with your manuscript files, selecting the file designation ‘Author Statement’. Alternatively, you can print out the form, fill it in, scan it, and upload the scanned document.

Ethical Principles

EJoN applies the Best Practice Guidelines of Wiley Blackwell, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Code of Conduct, as well as the COPE Guidelines.

EJoN applies the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines. All persons accredited as authors must have made a substantial contribution to the design, data collection and analysis of the research and the drafting of the manuscript and must have reviewed and accepted the contents of the manuscript prior to its submission.

List all authors and their affiliations on the title page. List the people who contributed to the work but did not fulfil the authorship criteria in a section titled 'Acknowledgments'.

For research conducted by a large multi-centre group, identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript.

Originality of work
EJoN undertakes to review only manuscripts not published or submitted elsewhere. Confirm the originality of your manuscript by ticking the appropriate items of the Author Guarantee Statement. We make a special effort to detect plagiarism in our peer review process. We consider as plagiarism the presentation of data or results borrowed from published research as well as the presence of textual sections or figures/images identical to those published elsewhere. All manuscripts are run through the iThenticate plagiarism detection software before final acceptance.

We do not consider as plagiarism the inclusion of data from conference abstracts or posters, results presented at meetings or data drawn from results databases (data without interpretation, discussion, context or conclusions in the form of tables and text).

If the editors have grounds to suspect plagiarism or redundant publication, they will contact the author for an explanation. If no satisfactory explanation is given, they will contact the author's institution or other appropriate authority to establish the facts. If the grounds for suspicion appear well-founded, the editors may publish a retraction or delegate the matter to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Trial registration
We only accept clinical trials that have been appropriately registered in one of the publicly accessible trial registers, e.g. or

Research subjects' rights
For research involving human subjects, we expect compliance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.

Any funding from external sources for the study should be reported.

Disclosure of conflicts of interest
All authors should disclose any interests that might appear to affect their ability to present and interpret data objectively. These include financial (for example patent ownership, stock ownership, consultancies, speaker's fees), personal, political, academic, intellectual, or religious interests relevant to the area of research or discussion.

Informing readers of misconduct
 • We publish a retraction when there is evidence of serious misconduct or an error that threatens the integrity of the scientific literature.
 • We publish an expression of concern when there are serious suspicions or concerns about the ethical integrity of a publication, or when the investigation is not yet complete, but the editors want the alert the readers about potential misconduct.
 • We publish a correction when the text contains an error by either the author or the editorial staff.
 • We publish a notice of publication misconduct to show that the author has behaved inappropriately, but the offence is not serious enough to warrant retraction. These cases may include multiple submission, redundant publication, self-plagiarism, reviewer misconduct, dishonesty about authorship, omission of disclosure statements, etc.

European Journal of Neurology does not encourage appeal. If, however, an author presents reasonable grounds for being dissatisfied with an editorial decision, the case is discussed by the associate editor and the editor-in-chief in charge of the manuscript. Based on their consideration, the editors may invite an arbitrating third opinion. The editor-in-chief’s judgment after this process is final.

For each manuscript submission:

-Fill in these forms:

1) Author Guarantee Statement. You can download the Author Guarantee Statement form on the journal's homepage here, or by clicking the ‘Instructions & Forms’ link under ‘Resources’ on the Main Menu page of Manuscript Central. This form should be filled in and signed by the primary author of the manuscript.
2) ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. You can download the form at here, or on the journal's homepage. This form should be filled in by each co-author separately. If you have already filled in the form for submission to another journal and the contents are up-to-date, you can use that form.

-Provide this information in the body of the manuscript

In your Methods section:
• give the full name of the institutional review board or ethics committee that approved your research protocol. If no ethics board was needed, explain why it was not needed.
• indicate that the subjects or their next-on-kin gave informed consent for participation.
• if you submit personal information or identifiable images, indicate that you had the person's permission for it.
• if your study is a registered trial, give the name of trial register.

At the end of the main text:
• list the people who contributed to the work but did not fulfil the authorship criteria under 'Acknowledgments'. Such people include, for instance, technicians, statisticians and translators.
• if you had funding for any kind for your study, indicate the source under 'Funding'. Also indicate if you had no funding.
• if you reported conflicting interests on the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest, include a short disclosure statement at the end of your manuscript text file. If you have no conflicts to disclose, indicate that as 'None'.

Manuscript preparation

Provide your manuscripts with a title page, a structured abstract (Background, Methods, Results, Conclusions) of up to 250 words, an appropriate Introduction, a Methods/Patients section, Results and Discussion. Letters to the Editor need not be formally structured and do not have an abstract.

Our peer review is not blinded. Each manuscript should have a title page with the following information:

• title of the manuscript
• author's (authors’) full name (first name, middle initial, last name) and degree
• full address of the institution(s) where the work was carried out
• telephone, fax and e-mail data of the corresponding author for correspondence, proofs and reprint requests.
• total word count of the manuscript including title page, references, legends and structured abstract
• running title
• up to eight keywords
• a Disclosure of Conflict of Interest statement summarising the information from each author. This information will be included as a subsection of the published article. Please see here for an example. This is required along with a COI form for each author, as stated above

Express measurements in SI or older conventional units. Except for units of measurement, use standard abbreviations and spell them out on first use. Use generic drug names, but add brand names in parentheses if necessary.

Format your files double-spaced and use automatic word-wrap with no hard returns within paragraphs and no hyphenation. Be consistent about typing, e.g. distinguish between ’1’ (one) and ’l’ (lower-case L) and ’0’ (zero) and ’O’ (capital O), etc.

Type in-line equations as text. Do not use graphics programs or equation editors. Equations are re-keyed by our typesetter.

Provide each table with a title and, if necessary, a short legend. Identify footnotes (which should be kept to a minimum and written in bold print) by superscripts, a, b, c, etc. Do not use table editors or graphics software to create tables.

Submit your figures as EPS, TIFF or PDF files. Use 300 dpi resolution for photographic images and 600 dpi resolution for line art.

After reduction to fit across one or two columns or two-thirds width (80mm, 169mm or 110mm respectively) as required, all lettering in electronic artwork should be clear and easy to read, i.e. no labels should be too large or too small. Do not use tints, unless absolutely necessary. If they are essential to the understanding of the figure, try to make them coarse.

Full details of the submission of artwork are available here.

Authors normally need to pay the cost of reproducing illustrations in print. Contact the publishers for an estimate of this cost. If there is colour artwork in your manuscript when it is accepted for publication, Wiley Blackwell will require you to complete and return a colour work agreement (CWA) form before your paper can be published. This form can be downloaded as a PDF file from here.

If you would like to have your figures printed in colour, please complete and sign the CWA form and post or courier it to:

Customer Services (OPI)
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, European Distribution Centre
New Era Estate
Oldlands Way
Bognor Regis
West Sussex PO22 9NQ
United Kingdom

The original copy of your CWA is required in compliance with the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard.

If you are not able to cover the costs of reproducing colour figures in the printed version of the journal, it is possible to have colour figures reproduced in colour for free in the online version of the article, while they will still appear in black and white in the print version. Only one version of the figure should be supplied in colour, and the figures should be suitable for reproduction in both colour and black and white. Provide two figure legends: one for the B&W figure and another for the colour version. Indicate clearly to which figure the legend refers. 

Should you simply require your figures to be in colour online (free of charge), or If you have any problems with downloading the CWA or illustrations in general, please contact the Production Editor at

Use Vancouver referencing. Number references consecutively in the order they appear in the text using Arabic numerals enclosed in square brackets on the line (not superscript). Use [1-4] instead of [1,2,3,4]. References cited only in tables or figures should be numbered in the sequence established by the particular table's/figure's position in the text.

All references (including those in press) should be listed at the end of the text in the order they are quoted. Abstracts published in peer-reviewed journals may be quoted as references. Unpublished observations, personal communications and abstracts published in conference proceedings should be quoted in parentheses within the text of the manuscript. Information from manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted should be cited in the text as ‘unpublished observations’.

Internet sites may be quoted as references by listing them in the normal way in the text (using Arabic numerals) and in the References section. Please include the date accessed in parentheses.

List all authors unless there are more than six, in which case give the first three followed by ‘et al.’. Spell out the names of all journals in full and give the first and last numbers in full, not just the first.


1. Author AB, Author CD. Title of paper. Journal Title Written out in Full Italics 1999; 12: 123–124.
2. Author AB, Author CD, Author EF, et al. Six or more authors – what's the point? (chapter title). In: Editor GH, Editor IJ, eds. Title of Book. Place: Publisher, 1998: 345–367.
3. Author AB. Book Title, 5th edn. Place: Publisher, 2000.
4. Author(s) of website. (accessed 01/01/2005).

Supplementary information (Supporting information)
Supplementary information (Supporting Information) can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supporting Information include additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. Supporting Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format.

Full details on recommended file formats and other instructions for supplementary materials are available here.

Online submission

To submit a manuscript online, follow these instructions:

Getting started
1. Launch your web browser (for supported browsers, kindly refer to System Requirements on the Main Menu page) and go to the European Journal of Neurology's ScholarOne Manuscripts (formerly known as Manuscript Central) website here.
2. Log in if you are an old user of ScholarOne Manuscripts (formerly known as Manuscript Central). Click “Create Account” if you are a first-time user.
3. If you are creating a new account:
• After clicking “Create Account” enter your name and e-mail information and click “Next”.
Note: Your correct e-mail information is very important.
• Enter your institution and address information as prompted, then click “Next.”
• Enter a user ID (= your e-mail address) and a password of your choice and then select your key words. Click “Finish” when done.
4. Log in and select “Corresponding Author Centre.”

Submitting the first version your manuscript
5. After you have logged in, enter your Corresponding Author Centre and click the “Submit a Manuscript” link on the screen.
6. Enter data and answer questions as prompted
7. Click on the “Next” button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen.
8. You will be prompted to upload your files:
    • Click on the “Browse” button and locate the file on your computer.
    • Select the file designation in the dropdown list next to the Browse button.
    • When you have selected all files you wish to upload, click the “Upload” button.
NOTE: you have a limit of 60 MB combined for all files you upload.
9. Review your submission (in both PDF and HTML formats) before submitting. Click the “Submit” button when you are done reviewing.

You may stop a submission at any phase and save it to continue and submit later. After submission, you will receive a confirmation via e-mail. You can also log on to ScholarOne Manuscripts (formerly known as Manuscript Central) any time to check the status of your manuscript. The Editors will inform you via e-mail once a decision has been made.

Submitting a revised version of your manuscript
Submit two versions of your manuscript: one with the changes highlighted in bold or underline, another without highlights. Submit both tables and figures as separate files.  Note: Delete all previously submitted versions.
Submitting the final version of your manuscript
Delete all previously submitted versions of the manuscript. Ensure that all sections of the final version of the manuscript, including figure captions and tables (but not actual figures), are presented in a single file and have been updated to incorporate all revisions. In the full-text online edition of the journal, figure legends may be truncated in the abbreviated links to the full-screen version. Therefore, the first 100 characters of any legend should inform the reader of key aspects of the figure.

Author material archive policy
Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley Blackwell will dispose of all submitted material, 2 months after print publication.


If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign.  The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by certain funders [e.g. The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) or the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)], you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with your Funder requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

For RCUK, Wellcome Trust, FWF authors click on the link below to preview the terms and conditions of this license:

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

Materials copied from other sources must be accompanied by a written statement from both the author and the publisher giving permission to the EJoN for reproduction. Obtain permission in writing from at least one author of papers still in press, of unpublished data, and of personal communications. It is the author's responsibility to ensure that permissions are obtained.

Proofs and Reprints
The corresponding author will receive an email alert containing a link to an online proofing website. You should therefore provide a valid e-mail address for the corresponding author. You can download the proof as a PDF file from this link. You will need Acrobat Reader 9.0 to annotate your corrections online. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. We ask that you make the necessary corrections on the proof and finalize it online within 48 hours of proof receipt. You should make only the corrections that are absolutely necessary.

Information regarding ordering Offprints will be supplied with the proof e-mail alert. For information regarding Commercial Reprints, please contact Claire Porter (Email:

Manuscripts are accepted for publication on the understanding that exclusive copyright is assigned to the European Federation of Neurological Societies. However, this does not limit the freedom of the author(s) to use material reported in the papers in any other published works.

Early View
The EJoN is covered by Wiley Blackwell's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made to the manuscript after online publication.

Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which is a string of characters. The DOI allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article. For more information about DOIs, visit this website.

Author's Checklist

Read the checklist with care. Manuscripts not consistent with the checklist may be returned for correction.

• Have the manuscript written or proof-read by a person proficient in English. Details of Wiley recommended English language editing services can be found here.
• Make sure the manuscript complies with the maximum word count.
• Format Case Reports as Letters to the Editor.
• Enter all authors’ names and affiliations in the submission process.
• Supply all information requested in the Ethical requirements section above.
• When submitting a revision, provide two revised versions: one with the changes highlighted, the other without highlights. Delete all previous versions of the manuscript.
• Submit the manuscript text file as as editable file, such as .doc or .docx (not as .pdf).
• Submit a duly completed Author Guarantee Statement and ICJME disclosure form along with the manuscript files.

Title page
• Make sure the authors' names and affiliations are complete and individually numbered.
• Indicate the total word count.
• Give a running title.
• List up to eight keywords.
• Provide the name, address, fax and e-mail of the corresponding author.

Abstract page
• Provide a structured abstract (Background, Methods, Results, Conclusions) of up to 250 words. Letters to the Editor do not have an abstract.

Report pages and references
• Limit your acknowledgement to max. 50 words.
• Report IRB approval, informed consent and trial registration in the Methods section of your manuscript. Provide a conflict of interest statement and disclose your sources of funding at the end, if applicable.
• Use Vancouver referencing.
• Make sure each citation is present in the reference list and vice versa.

Artwork and tables
• Upload images of sufficient resolution (300 dpi for photographs, 600 dpi for line art)
• Indicate approximate positions of tables and figures in the text
• Submit the text of the manuscript, including table and figure captions, as one file and each figure/table as a separate file.
• Submit your tables as editable files, such as .doc, .docx, .xls or .xlsx files, not as scanned or image files.

Search Engine Optimization for Your Paper

By optimizing your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. Consult our SEO Tips for Authors page in order to maximize online discoverability for your published research. Included are tips for making your title and abstract SEO-friendly, choosing appropriate keywords, and promoting your research through social media.