The Modern Law Review

Cover image for Vol. 79 Issue 1

Edited By: Julia Black

Impact Factor: 0.645

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 71/143 (Law)

Online ISSN: 1468-2230

Author Guidelines

Contributions to and correspondence concerning the various sections of the Review should be sent to the relevant Section Editor as follows

Professor Andrew Lang, Law Department, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE
Professor Thomas Poole, Law Department, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE
Dr. Charlie Webb, Law Department, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE

Legislation and Reports
Professor Tanya Aplin, Tge Dickson Poon School of Law, King's College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS
Professor David Kershaw, Law Department, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE

This section publishes analysis of recent domestic or EU legislation, of international treaties and of official reports proposing legislative change, as well as reviews of the operation of an older piece of legislation. The editors also welcome more general analysis of the legislative process, or of the use of legislation, in particular areas of law.

Case Notes
Dr Jo Braithwaite, Law Department, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE
Dr Virginia Mantouvalou, Faculty of Laws, University College London, Bentham House, Endsleigh Gardens, London WC1H 0EG
All communications and submissions to be made to be made via

Books for Review, Review Articles and Reviews
Professor Michael Lobban, Law Department, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE
Dr Gregoire Webber, Law Department, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE

House Style
Manuscripts accepted for publication must be set out according to the Modern Law Review house style.

Please observe the following:

1. Submission Process
Articles should be submitted as an email attachment (please submit a word version and an anonymised pdf file) to Case comments should be submitted as an email attachment to Legislation and Report comments should be submitted as an email attachment to Book reviews and review articles should be submitted as an email attachment to;; (Note the submission of reviews and review articles should be agreed in advance with the reviews editor). In all cases both the text and the footnotes/endnotes must be double spaced, with margins on both sides. A statement of the number of words, including and excluding footnotes should be included.

Articles should not normally exceed 12,000 words (excluding footnotes), Case Comments should not normally exceed 5,000 words (excluding footnotes) and Legislation and Reports comments should not normally exceed 10,000 words (excluding footnotes). In all cases  and footnotes should be used only to make necessary citations rather than to provide additional text. All submissions should be accompanied by a statement that the material is not under consideration elsewhere, and that it has not been published or is not pending publication elsewhere.

To preserve the anonymity of the refereeing process, please could you confirm that you have removed all electronic versions of the paper from the internet, including any working papers on which the article is based, and that these will stay down for the duration of the refereeing process. This includes papers posted on SSRN. The editors reserve the right to refuse to continue with the refereeing process unless these have been taken down.

Authors will be required to sign an Exclusive Licence Form (ELF) for all papers accepted for publication. Signature of the ELF is a condition of publication and papers will not be passed to the publisher for production unless a signed form has been received. Please note that signature of the Exclusive Licence Form does not affect ownership of copyright in the material. (Government employees need to complete the Author Warranty sections, hough copyright in such cases does not need to be assigned). After submission authors will retain the right to publish their paper in various medium/circumstances (please see the form for further details). To assist authors an appropriate form will be supplied by the editorial office. Alternatively, authors may like to download a copy of the form here.

The author's name should appear under the title, and should be asterisked, with the author's designation just above the notes.

Forms, tables and diagrams should be set out as clearly as possible, and be of sufficient quality to be reproduced. We recommend that tif files of 300 dpi are used for halftones and eps or tif files of 600 dpi are used for line art. Tables can be supplied in word format.

The Modern Law Review does not generally publish more than one article from any author in a single year. Advice should be sought from editors before submission if that is likely to apply.

2. Abstracts and key words
All contributions should be preceded by a list of 5-6 keywords, eg principle subject areas, key reports, legislation and cases cited. Articles, as well as contributions to the Legislation and Reports section, should be preceded by a short abstract of 100-150 words. Abstracts will be printed in the journal, and abstracts and keywords will be posted on-line to facilitate searches by readers.

3. Review articles and book reviews
Please set out at the beginning of the review the author's name (in italics), the title of the book (in bold), the place of publication, the publisher, the number of pages, an indication of whether the book is hardback (hb) or paperback (pb) and price.

4. Headings
Please eliminate all headings which do not add to clarity. Headings should not be numbered but should be coded in the margin A, B or C to indicate the level of importance.

5. Quotations
These should be clearly indicated by single quotation marks, with double quotation marks used for quotes within quotes. Where a quotation is more than about five lines long, it should be indented as a separate paragraph, with a line space above and below, and with no quotation marks or leader dots. All quotations should remain exactly as in the original - house style should not be employed.

6. Cross References

Cross referencing should be kept to a minimum. In manuscript, reference should be to 'text to note12' or '000', page numbers to be inserted when correcting proofs.

English terms (eg above/below) to be used rather than Latin (supra/infra, ante/post). In particular, please avoid op cit, loc cit; use 'n 4 above' rather than 'op cit n 4'.

7. Latin phrases and non-English expressions
Where these are used, they should be italicised (underlined) unless so common that they have become wholly absorbed into everyday language, such as bona fide. Examples of the normal rule:

res ipsa loquitur
amicus curiae

8. Abbreviations
These may be used provided that the name is set out in full, followed by the abbreviation in brackets, at the first usage, eg
Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS).
The abbreviation can then be used throughout. Latin abbreviations as follows:
ibid et seq - italics, no full points or comma
eg ie cf - roman, no full points

9. Full Points
No full points in acronyms, thus:

Full points are only used after initials, thus:
W. T. Murphy

10. Footnotes
Footnote numbers in text follow punctuation marks - comma, full point etc. First letter of footnote will be capital except:
i. where it is part of Latin abbreviations ibid eg ie cf
ii. where it is the letter 's' referring to a section of a statute
iii. where it is a cross reference to another footnote, eg 'n 4 above'.

11. 's' spellings rather than 'z' spellings

12. Dates
1 January 1996
1995-96 (not 1995-6 or 1995-1996)

13. Page References
These are set out in full eg 123-124 (not 123-4).
Page numbers should not be followed by ‘f’ or ‘ff’.
Page numbers should not be preceded by 'p' or 'pp'.
14. Numbers
Numbers from one to nine are spelt out in words unless they refer to section or schedule numbers in statutes. Thereafter they appear as numerals.

15. per cent not %.

16. Abbreviated plurals do not have an apostrophe before the s

1970s not 1970's
MPs not MP's

17. Headings
Only the first letter of the first word (and of proper nouns) to be capitalised.

18. Capital Letters
These are used only when referring to a specific body, organisation or office, eg:
The United Kingdom Government,  otherwise, eg: previous British governments

Used as an adjective, no capital is required for government or parliamentary

19. Cases
Case names: in italics, v in roman type without full point - eg Brown v White . Usually only one reference is necessary. For English cases, this should be the Law Reports - AC, Ch, QB - if possible. For recent cases the WLR or All ER reference should be used if there is one. A general reference is as follows:
A v B [1988] AC 123

A reference to a specific page should be made as follows, with the first page of the report always referred to first:
Re Smith [1989] AC 123, 134

Subsequent references to the same case should be:
ibid 134 (where the case is cited in the immediately preceding footnote),
otherwise n 8 above, 134

Please note the following abbreviations:
R (not Rex/Regina) Att Gen
ex p (prefaced by a comma)
Square brackets should be used around the year of the report where this is essential to find the reference. Where this is not the case because the report has a volume number, the brackets should be round. For Scottish law reports the year is not placed in brackets. Thus:

[1988] 2 WLR 456 (1986) 130 SJ 78 1984 SC 111

Judgments of the Court of Justice of the European Communities should be cited, as far as possible, by reference to either the European Court Reports (ECR) or the Common Market Law Reports (CMLR).

Thus, eg, Case 41/74 Van Duyn v Home Office [1974] ECR 1337 or [1975]1 CMLR 1.

The neutral citation system should be used for cases decided since January 2001. Thus, eg:

Brown v White [2001] EWHC 12 (Fam).

When quoting, the precise location of the quotation in the case should be indicated by providing the paragraph number(s) in square brackets. Thus:

Smith v Jones [2001] EWCA Civ 12 at [25].

Neutral citation numbers for cases should also be accompanied by a citation to an official report (if available). Thus:

Marcic v Thames Water Utilities Ltd [2002] EWCA Civ 64 ; [2002] QB 929 CA.

American law reports, amongst others, have their own rules. Please follow them as far as possible.

20. Statutes
In the text, references as follows:

section 1 of the Companies Act 1985
Schedule 1 to the Companies Act 1985

In footnotes, references as follows:
Companies Act 1985, s 1
Companies Act 1985, Sched 1

Bill and Act always have capital letters.

21. Command Papers

The title should be italicised and cited as follows:
Royal Commission on Criminal Justice, Report Cm 2263 (1993)

Command papers are abbreviated as follows:
1836-1899 C 1956-1986 Cmnd
1900-1918 Cd 1986 to date Cm
1919-1956 Cmd

22. Hansard
Parliamentary debates should be cited as follows:
HC Deb vol 989 col 1472 29 July 1980
HL Deb vol 414 col 1493 13 November 1980
HC Standing Committee A col 1093 11 March 1980

23. Parliamentary papers
These should be cited as follows:
HC 44 (1989)

24. Books
These should be cited as in the following examples with the titles italicised (underlined):
H.L.A. Hart, The Concept of Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961)
O. Ogus and E. Barendt, The Law of Social Security (London: Butterworths, 3rd ed,1988)
A. Flanders and H.A. Clegg (eds), The System of Industrial Relations in Great Britain (Oxford: Blackwell, 1954)
Marx, Capital vol 1 (1867, London: Penguin, Eng tr,1976)

Specific page references should be as above followed by '123' or '123-124'.

Contributions to edited books should be cited as follows:
D. Harris, 'Ownership of Land in English Law' in N. MacCormick and P. Birks (eds),
The Legal Mind: Essays in Honour of Tony Honore (Oxford: Clarendon Press,1986)

25. Articles
References should always give the article title. Article titles, like the titles of contributions to edited books, should be in single quotation marks and not italicised. Common abbreviations of journals should be used whenever possible and should be in Roman type. Only where the entirely unabbreviated name of a journal is used should it be italicised (underlined) Thus:
R. Abel, 'Between Market and State: The Legal Profession in Turmoil' (1989) 52 MLR 285.
O. Kahn-Freund, 'The Tangle of the Truck Acts' (1949) 4 Industrial Law Review 2.

A reference to a specific page should be as follows:
(1989) 52 MLR 285, 290

Subsequent references to the same article should be
ibid 290 (where the article is cited in the immediately
preceding footnote),
otherwise n 10 above, 290
When citing books, articles and other publications, authors' first-name initials and surnames should be used, rather than first names and surnames.

26. Electronic data
URLs should be cited in accordance with the following example:

A. Aviram, 'Regulation by Networks' (University of Chicago Law School, Olin Working Paper no. 181, 2003), 14-15 at visited 15 May 2008).

27. Proofs
The corresponding author will receive an email alert containing a link to a web site. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from this site. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following web site: will enable the file to be opened, read on screen and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Hard copy proofs will be posted if no e-mail address is available. It is not possible at this stage of the production process for authors to make additional changes or edits to their paper. This part of the process is to check typesetting errors only. Excessive changes made by the author in the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately.

28. Pre-submission English-language editing
Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

29. Supplementary Material
MLR is happy to accept articles with extra material supplied for online only publication. This may include appendices, supplementary figures, sound files, videoclips etc. These will be posted online with the article. The print version will have a note indicating that extra material is available online. Please indicate clearly on submission which material is for online only publication. Please note that extra online only material is published as supplied by the author in the same file format and is not copyedited or typeset. Further information about this service can be found at

30. Author Services
Author Services enables corresponding authors to track their article – once it has been accepted – through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The corresponding author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more

31. Open Access Policy
In accordance with the Journal’s Exclusive Licence Form (see point 1 above) authors are permitted to self-archive their accepted article 12 months after publication. Please note that The Modern Law Review does not offer a Gold Open Access option at present.

32. On Publication
Authors of articles, case notes, review articles, legislation and reports will receive 10 printed offprints of their article and 1 copy print copy of the issue in which it is published. A PDF file of their contribution will also be available to download via Author Services (see point 30 above).