Cover image for Vol. 14 Issue 3

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Craig Manning, Mark Person and Richard Worden

Impact Factor: 1.431

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 18/43 (Geology); 47/79 (Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Online ISSN: 1468-8123


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  1. Special Issue: Crustal Permeability

    1. Hypocenter migration and crustal seismic velocity distribution observed for the inland earthquake swarms induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in NE Japan: implications for crustal fluid distribution and crustal permeability

      T. Okada, T. Matsuzawa, N. Umino, K. Yoshida, A. Hasegawa, H. Takahashi, T. Yamada, M. Kosuga, T. Takeda, A. Kato, T. Igarashi, K. Obara, S. Sakai, A. Saiga, T. Iidaka, T. Iwasaki, N. Hirata, N. Tsumura, Y. Yamanaka, T. Terakawa, H. Nakamichi, T. Okuda, S. Horikawa, H. Katao, T. Miura, A. Kubo, T. Matsushima, K. Goto and H. Miyamachi

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12112

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      Temporal expansion of the focal area in some earthquake swarms near Sendai (Nagamachi-Rifu fault), Moriyoshi-zan volcano, Senya fault, and the Yamagata-Fukushima border (Aizu-Kitakata area, west of Azuma volcano) induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake was observed. This temporal expansion can be explained by fluid diffusion. We found seismic low-velocity areas, which is the possible areas with fluid, beneath the swarms. From the results, the induced earthquakes are thought to be affected by the possible fluid pressure change.

    2. Normal stress-induced permeability hysteresis of a fracture in a granite cylinder

      A. P. S. Selvadurai

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12107

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      Fluid flow in fractures can be significantly influenced by the stresses that are acting both normal to and in the plane of the fracture. This experimental research illustrates the influence of normal stress-induced hydraulic closure of the fracture on the evolution of fracture permeability. Experiments conducted on a 457 mm diameter cylinder containing a planar fracture show that the permeability can exhibit a three orders of magnitude decrease as the normal stresses are increased from zero to 7.5 MPa. This change can occur without the development of gouge during the application of axial stresses.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Thermochemical and bacterial sulfate reduction in the Cambrian and Lower Ordovician carbonates in the Tazhong Area, Tarim Basin, NW China: evidence from fluid inclusions, C, S, and Sr isotopic data

      L. Jia, C. Cai, H. Yang, H. Li, T. Wang, B. Zhang, L. Jiang and X. Tao

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12105

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      Pyrites were originated from BSR and two periods of TSR with different δ34S values. Free H2S and pyrite in the Ordovician with δ34S values from 15 to 23% may have been generated from the later TSR of burial-diagenetic anhydrite by petroleum.

  3. Special Issue: Crustal Permeability

    1. Development of connected permeability in massive crystalline rocks through hydraulic fracture propagation and shearing accompanying fluid injection

      G. Preisig, E. Eberhardt, V. Gischig, V. Roche, M. van der Baan, B. Valley, P. K. Kaiser, D. Duff and R. Lowther

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12097

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      In this paper a set of distinct-element models illustrates key factors limiting the development of connected rock mass permeability by fluid injection. Stress transfer accompanying the opening of a pressurized fracture confines nearby natural and incipient fractures limiting their response. This promotes a limited development of permeability focused to a relatively thin layer of rock instead of across a large volume.

    2. The dynamic interplay between saline fluid flow and rock permeability in magmatic-hydrothermal systems

      P. Weis

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12100

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      Dynamic permeability changes in response to expulsion of magmatic fluids from an upper crustal magma chamber.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Understanding heat and groundwater flow through continental flood basalt provinces: insights gained from alternative models of permeability/depth relationships for the Columbia Plateau, USA

      E. R. Burns, C. F. Williams, S. E. Ingebritsen, C. I. Voss, F. A. Spane and J. DeAngelo

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12095

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      Regional groundwater flow can explain lower-than-expected heat flow in a thick sequence of highly anisotropic (kx/kz ~104) continental flood basalts (Columbia River Basalt Group). A steep permeability decrease (approximately 3.5 orders of magnitude) is observed at 600–900 m depth and approximately 40°C, possibly a result of low-temperature hydrothermal alteration. Substantial k decreases at similar temperatures have also been observed in the volcanic rocks of the Cascade Range and at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    4. Continental-scale water-level response to a large earthquake

      Z. Shi, G. Wang, M. Manga and C.-Y. Wang

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12099

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      We report the co-seismic groundwater level response to the M8.0 earthquake across the Chinese mainland. There is great variability in the relationship between water level changes, and epicentral distance or static strain. Permeability enhancement in the crust caused by the earthquake is a significant or dominant mechanism in causing water level changes.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Changes in hot spring temperature and hydrogeology of the Alpine Fault hanging wall, New Zealand, induced by distal South Island earthquakes

      S. C. Cox, C. D. Menzies, R. Sutherland, P. H. Denys, C. Chamberlain and D. A. H. Teagle

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12093

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      In response to large distant earthquakes Copland hot spring cooled approximately 1°C and changed fluid chemistry. Relatively low intensity shaking induced small permanent strains across the Southern Alps – opening fractures which enhanced mixing of relatively cool near-surface groundwater with upwelling hot water. Active deformation, tectonic and topographic stress in the Alpine Fault hanging wall makes the Southern Alps hydrothermal system particularly susceptible to earthquake-induced transience.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Fractured rock stress-permeability relationships from in situ data and effects of temperature and chemical-mechanical couplings

      J. Rutqvist

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12089

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      This paper reviews stress-induced permeability changes in fractured rock observed from field data, including effects of temperature and chemically mediated fracture closure. While the stress-permeability relationship of a rock mass might be bounded from site specific field investigations, it is concluded that further laboratory and in situ experiments are needed to increase the knowledge of the true mechanisms underlying thermally driven fracture closure, and to further assess chemical-mechanical coupling effects on the long-term evolution of fractured rock permeability.

    7. Is the permeability of crystalline rock in the shallow crust related to depth, lithology or tectonic setting?

      M. Ranjram, T. Gleeson and E. Luijendijk

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12098

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      The authors present a compilation of 973 in-situ crystalline rock permeability measurements and quantitatively test potential relationships between permeability, depth, lithology, and tectonic setting in the shallow crust (<2.5 km). Results indicate that there is no consistently applicable relationship between permeability and depth in crystalline rock. Tectonic setting appears to be an important control on permeability-depth relations in the upper 100 metres of the subsurface, while lithology may be a more important control at depth.

    8. Hydraulic conductivity of fractured upper crust: insights from hydraulic tests in boreholes and fluid-rock interaction in crystalline basement rocks

      I. Stober and K. Bucher

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12104

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      The permeability of continental crust varies with depth and time. A few deep boreholes drilled to 4–5 km depth provided transmissivity data from hydraulic well tests. We discuss the surprisingly complex conversion of transmissivity to permeability. We also present unique permeability data at different depths from a single 4 km deep borehole. We use exposed hydrothermal reaction veins to assess the permeability structure of the crust at depths >5 km and its variation with time.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Low-temperature catalytic CO2 hydrogenation with geological quantities of ruthenium: a possible abiotic CH4 source in chromitite-rich serpentinized rocks

      G. Etiope and A. Ionescu

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12106

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      Methane was abiotically produced in CO2 hydrogenation experiments at temperatures from 20 to 90° using concentrations of non-pretreated ruthenium equivalent to those occurring in chromitites in ophiolites or igneous complexes. Stable C and H isotope ratios of abiotic CH4 generated below 100°C is reported for the first time. Comparative experiments at the same temperatures with iron and nichel catalysts did not generate CH4. Ru-enriched chromitites can potentially generate methane at low temperatures on Earth and on other planets.

    2. Changes in chemical composition caused by water–rock interactions across a strike-slip fault zone: case study of the Atera Fault, Central Japan

      M. Niwa, Y. Mizuochi and A. Tanase

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12096

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      Chemical composition was analyzed for well-exposed fault rocks from the strike-slip Atera Fault, Central Japan, to understand the variability and behavior of major and some selected trace elements. We identified increase of CaO, MnO, and HREEs across the fault core. The finding reflects carbonate precipitation caused by the addition of basalt fragments exposed at a nearby site to the fault core during fault activities, and subsequent sorption reactions of HREEs via processes such as complexation with the carbonates.

    3. Source and character of syntaxial hydrothermal calcite veins in Paleoproterozoic crystalline rocks revealed by fine-scale investigations

      O. M. Maskenskaya, H. Drake, C. Broman, J. K. Hogmalm, G. Czuppon and M. E. Åström

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12092

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      Geochemical data revealed that the calcite veins precipitated from brines in Paleozoic and are thus not genetic with the nearby Neoproterozoic dolerite dykes. The variation of chemical and stable isotope parameters in vein transects was complex with no systematic correlation with calcite growth zonation.

    4. Permeability changes in simulated granite faults during and after frictional sliding

      W. Tanikawa, O. Tadai and H. Mukoyoshi

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12091

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      Fault permeability should undergo dynamic change as a result of seismic slip. In this paper, we conducted laboratory experiments to investigate changes in fracture permeability of a fault in low permeable granite due to shear slip and cyclic heating. The results show low permeability is associated with high friction coefficient. High initial permeability was reduced by slip, whereas for small initial permeability, slip enhanced permeability. The production of gouge and the evolution of the geometry affect permeability.

    5. Transformation of deep-water methane bubbles into hydrate

      Alexander V. Egorov, Robert I. Nigmatulin and Aleksey N. Rozhkov

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12085

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      As a result of catching of the methane bubbles by the traps in the hydrate stability zone, the bubbles can be transformed into a hydrate granular matter or form hydrate solid foam. The type of transformation depends on the competition of influential factors: the current depth and the intensity of the bubble flux.

    6. Changes in fluid pathways in a calcite vein mesh (Natih Formation, Oman Mountains): insights from stable isotopes

      M. Arndt, S. Virgo, S. F. Cox and J. L. Urai

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12083

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      Carbon and oxygen stable isotope compositions are a valuable tool to track changes in fluid flow regimes in fracture and vein meshes. During Stage 1, the formation of a strata-bound crack-seal vein mesh involved bedding-parallel flow, under near-lithostatic fluid pressures. The relative depletion of 13C composition of veins may reflect influx of low 13C CO2 derived from detrital organic matter. Stage 2 fault vein formation is associated with fault-controlled fluid flow accessing fluids from 50 m beneath the Stage 1 mesh.

    7. Temperature-dependent Li isotope ratios in Appalachian Plateau and Gulf Coast Sedimentary Basin saline water

      G. L. Macpherson, R. C. Capo, B. W. Stewart, T. T. Phan, K. Schroeder and R. W. Hammack

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12084

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      Lithium, compiled from oil and gas field fluids around the world, correlates generally with depth and with Cl, confirming water–rock interactions are its primary source. δ7Li of Appalachian Plateau and Gulf Basin (USA) water ranges from +4.4‰ to +16.6‰ and follows a coherent temperature trend, despite differences in tectonic histories of the two basins. Equilibrium isotope fractionation predicts a Li source material that is approximately 4‰ lighter than average shale δ7Li.

    8. Evolution of sediment permeability during burial and subduction

      H. Daigle and E. J. Screaton

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12090

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      We assembled a data set of 317 permeability measurements from subduction zones and reference sites worldwide. We found that permeability–porosity behavior is a function of clay-size fraction, and that structural domain is a secondary influence, while measurement type has little effect on the results. Comparison with measurements of deeper analog data show that porosity–permeability trends are maintained through burial and diagenesis to porosities <10%, suggesting that behavior observed in shallow samples is informative for predicting behavior at depth.

    9. Red calcite: an indicator of paleo-karst systems associated with bauxitic unconformities

      O. Győri, R. Orbán, A. Mindszenty, L. Fodor, Zs. Poros, A. Erőss, Zs. Benkó and F. Molnár

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12088

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      Bauxite minerals, such as hematite, gibbsite and boehmite, found as solid inclusions in red calcite, hosted by fractures and cavities in Triassic and Cretaceous carbonates of the Transdanubian Range (Hungary), indicate that the calcite represents a speleothem that precipitated in a karst system below a bauxitic unconformity. Therefore, presence or absence of this type of red calcite may be used as distinguishing criteria between karst episodes with or without bauxite formation, even if the bauxite has been later removed by erosion.

    10. A pore-scale investigation of the dynamic response of saturated porous media to transient stresses

      C. Huber and Y. Su

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12087

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      In this study, we use pore-scale flow calculations to compute the dependence between the effective permeability of porous media and frequency keff(ω). Our results are in good agreement with the theory of Johnson et al. (1987) except for the medium with the broadest pore-size distribution. It suggests that pore-scale heterogeneities can significantly influence the spectral discharge response to transient stresses.

    11. Origins of formation waters in the Llanos foreland basin of Colombia: geochemical variation and fluid flow history

      Felipe Gonzalez-Penagos, Isabelle Moretti, Christian France-Lanord and Xavier Guichet

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12086

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      Geochemical characterization of formation waters in the Foreland Llanos Basin of Colombia shows a complex mixture of low-salinity fluids. Shallow reservoirs reflex a variable influence of bicarbonate-dominated meteoric waters associated with a topography-driven recharge. Formation waters with depth show a transitional increase of δ18O associated with diagenetic reactions of the shale-dominated column and probable fluids leakage from the foothills in the basin boundary.

    12. Migration of metamorphic CO2 into a coal seam: a natural analog study to assess the long-term fate of CO2 in Coal Bed Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Projects

      L. Wang, Y. Cheng and W. Li

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/gfl.12081

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      Natural CO2 injects the coal then security sequestration over long geological periods. In the migration, the pore volumes of micropores, mecropores, macropores, and the concentration of CO2 decrease gradually due to the interaction between CO2 and coal.


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