Animal Conservation

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 1

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Res Altwegg, Darren Evans, John Ewen, Iain Gordon, Jeff A. Johnson, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita and Julie Young

Impact Factor: 2.788

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 10/49 (Biodiversity Conservation); 48/150 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 1469-1795

Associated Title(s): International Zoo Yearbook, Journal of Zoology, Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation

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  1. 1 - 37
  1. Original Articles

    1. Elevated temperatures alter competitive outcomes and body condition in southern Appalachian salamanders

      L. A. Liles, K. K. Cecala, J. R. Ennen and J. M. Davenport

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12342

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      This study evaluates thermal relationships with species performance in size-structured communities of aquatic ectotherms. The smaller salamander species performed better at warmer temperatures, but competitive relationships minimized this trend. Temperature is correlated with better performance in some ectothermic species, but this relationship is conditional within the community context.

    2. Adverse effects of artificial illumination on bat drinking activity

      D. Russo, L. Cistrone, N. Libralato, C. Korine, G. Jones and L. Ancillotto

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12340

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      We show that artificial illumination leads to a dramatic decrease in bat drinking activity. We found that lighting affects drinking behaviour more than foraging and that even species usually regarded as light-tolerant exhibit adverse reactions to light when drinking. Illumination of drinking sites may therefore have considerably harmful consequences for bat conservation (Image courtesy of Jens Rydell).

    3. Body condition as a quantitative tool to guide hand-rearing decisions in an endangered seabird

      J. M. Morten, N. J. Parsons, C. Schwitzer, M. W. Holderied and R. B. Sherley

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12338

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      Wildlife rehabilitation for conservation is growing, but few quantitative criteria exist to guide removal of animals from the wild. To reinforce declining populations, endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus chicks abandoned when prey is scarce are collected and hand reared to fledging. Using data from 1455 chicks, we assessed whether body condition and other structural measurements could predict release rates. Our results identify clear body condition thresholds that colony managers can use to prioritize removal of chicks and allow rehabilitators to rapidly identify animals needing critical attention. Most chicks were removed at an appropriate time, but 32% were admitted in good condition and may still have faired well in the wild, highlighting the value of using quantitative tools in wildlife rehabilitation.

    4. Identification of candidate pelagic marine protected areas through a seabird seasonal-, multispecific- and extinction risk-based approach

      L. Krüger, J. A. Ramos, J. C. Xavier, D. Grémillet, J. González-Solís, Y. Kolbeinsson, T. Militão, J. Navarro, M. V. Petry, R. A. Phillips, I. Ramírez, J. M. Reyes-González, P. G. Ryan, I. A. Sigurðsson, E. Van Sebille, R. M. Wanless and V. H. Paiva

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12339

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      Marine Protected Areas are one of the main tools used to buffer the impact of environmental change on Marine Ecosystems. In this study we used year-round tracking data of pelagic seabird communities into distribution modelling to detect key areas for conservation in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. The key marine areas were located on the southern Patagonian Shelf overlapping extensively with areas of high fishing activity, off south and southeast Brazil overlapping with areas of high plastic pollution and ocean acidification, and off northeast Brazil on an area of high biodiversity with relatively low human impacts. There was a loss in conservation value for seasonal areas off tropical waters when compared to the non-seasonal approach when using ?cost’ layers. Our approach identified additional candidate areas for incorporation in the network of pelagic MPAs.

    5. Grain spilled from moving trains create a substantial wildlife attractant in protected areas

      A. Gangadharan, S. Pollock, P. Gilhooly, A. Friesen, B. Dorsey and C. C. St. Clair

      Version of Record online: 9 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12336

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      Spillage of wildlife attractants from moving vehicles is an important but little-studied problem in areas where transportation networks pass through wildlife habitat. We demonstrate that this spillage could add up to a major food supplement to wildlife, potentially contributing to risk of wildlife–vehicle collisions.

    6. Landscape-scale effects of single- and multiple small wind turbines on bat activity

      J. Minderman, M. H. Gillis, H. F. Daly and K. J. Park

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12331

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      The number of installed small wind turbines (SWTs) is growing rapidly worldwide. Although we know that large wind farms can have significant impacts on wildlife, similar effects of SWTs are rarely studied. Here, we show that in some cases, adverse effects of SWTs on bat activity may be measurable over longer spatial scales (within 100 m) than previously thought. However, combined with earlier findings, it is likely that the bulk of such effects operate within relative close proximity of SWTs (<25 m). These findings are vital to plan sustainable deployment of renewable energy sources while minimizing adverse effects on bats on a landscape scale.

    7. Seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) as a case study for locating cryptic and data-poor marine fishes for conservation

      L. Aylesworth, T.-L. Loh, W. Rongrongmuang and A. C. J. Vincent

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12332

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      Our paper addresses the important conservation question of whether zeros in survey data represent true absence of species, especially those known to be rare, depleted or patchily distributed. We use field research on seahorses in Thailand to demonstrate that we can achieve more conservation relevant information if we focus on presence/absence data with detection covariates than if we emphasize analyses of relative abundance and density. The former approach helped identify sites where seahorses were found, altered the conclusions we drew and contributed to marine conservation planning, whereas searches aimed at determining relative abundance did not.

    8. Can fear conditioning repel California sea lions from fishing activities?

      Zachary A. Schakner, Thomas Götz, Vincent M. Janik and Daniel T. Blumstein

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12329

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      Marine mammal interactions with fisheries create conflicts that can threaten human safety, economic interests and marine mammal survival. Using fear conditioning may enhance deterrent success while simultaneously balancing welfare concerns and reduce noise pollution because individuals learn the cues that precede the dangerous stimuli, and respond by avoiding the painful situations. We tested the efficacy of fear conditioning using acoustic stimuli for reducing California sea lion Zalophus californianus interactions in two fishing contexts in California, USA; bait barges and recreational fishing vessels. Exposing animals to a pair of a conditioned stimulus with a startle pulse did not achieve the intended management outcome. Rather, it generated evidence (in two study contexts) of immediate learning that led to the reduction of the unconditioned response.

    9. ‘The early bird catches the nest’: possible competition between scops owls and ring-necked parakeets

      E. Mori, L. Ancillotto, M. Menchetti and D. Strubbe

      Version of Record online: 21 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12334

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      Before the invasion of ring-necked parakeets, scops owls occupied a number of breeding sites located within urban parks and green areas within the city of Follonica (Southern Tuscany). After the invasion, ring-necked parakeets took over several cavities formerly occupied by owls, forcing them to breed in suboptimal areas to avoid competition with alien parrots. Locally observed competition may occur without affecting population size of native species.

    10. An assessment of conflict areas between alien and native species richness of terrestrial vertebrates on a macro-ecological scale in a Mediterranean hotspot

      A. J. Carpio, J. A. Barasona, J. Guerrero-Casado, J. Oteros, F. S. Tortosa and P. Acevedo

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12330

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      We established the areas that had a higher risk of being colonized by alien species. We found that antropic and ecogeographical variables were the main factors to explain richness of alien species. Urban land uses and the distances to big cities were key features to predict the distribution of alien species. We also identified potential conflict areas, which have higher values for the number of both native and predicted alien species.

    11. The impact of lions on the demography and ecology of endangered African wild dogs

      R. J. Groom, K. Lannas and C. R. Jackson

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12328

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      This paper presents data from a unique natural experiment to help elucidate the mechanisms by which a (vulnerable) large carnivore (lions) impacts an endangered mesopredator (African wild dogs). This has important management implications for both species, as well as relevance to the mesopredator suppression debate in general, particularly for social species where recruitment is impacted by the superior carnivore.

    12. Local factors mediate the response of biodiversity to land use on two African mountains

      M. Jung, S. L. L. Hill, P. J. Platts, R. Marchant, S. Siebert, A. Fournier, F. B. Munyekenye, A. Purvis, N. D. Burgess and T. Newbold

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12327

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      Biodiversity models can be useful tools to predict species responses to human land use, yet they often generalize over many local factors in order to be broadly applicable. We compared estimates from an African-wide biodiversity model with new independent data. Our results show that overall biodiversity responds similarly to land use in both datasets, yet we found that certain factors of local land-use systems can lead to mismatches if they do not conform to African-wide averages. We make recommendations about additional factors to include in biodiversity models and their use in new local contexts.

    13. Modeling landscape connectivity for bobcats using expert-opinion and empirically derived models: how well do they work?

      G. C. Reed, J. A. Litvaitis, C. Callahan, R. P. Carroll, M. K. Litvaitis and D. J. A. Broman

      Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12325

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      We used expert-opinion and empirically derived models to investigate landscape connectivity at two spatial scales among bobcats Lynx rufus. Paths of marked bobcats were compared to random movements. At the local scale (within home ranges), the empirical model performed better than the expert-opinion model. At the regional scale, both models identified urban development as a potential barrier; however, the models differed in predicting how specific natural features or some roads affected bobcat movements. When compared to bobcat population structure based on genetic information, the expert-opinion model overestimated the influence of roads, whereas the empirical model overestimated the influence of snow. Therefore, both models may be considered complementary.

    14. Biologgers reveal post-release behavioural impairments of freshwater turtles following interactions with fishing nets

      L. F. G. Gutowsky, L. J. Stoot, N. A. Cairns, J. D. Thiem, J. W. Brownscombe, A. J. Danylchuk, G. Blouin-Demers and S. J. Cooke

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12323

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      Bycatch, the incidental capture and discard of non-target organisms, occurs in most commercial fisheries. Although immediate bycatch mortality is frequently documented in fisheries, detrimental sub-lethal effects and potential post-release mortality remain largely unknown despite the potential population-level consequences. In eastern Ontario, turtles are frequently captured as bycatch in a small-scale freshwater commercial fyke-net fishery and, currently, the fate of discarded turtles is unknown. Musk and painted turtles subjected to simulated bycatch exhibit lower activity during the first 6 h following release, and their vertical distribution and temperature use differ in the first 2 h following release, but these effects disappeared after 48 h, suggesting turtles have the ability to recover.

    15. Costs are key when reintroducing threatened species to multiple release sites

      K. J. Helmstedt and H. P. Possingham

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12319

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      Multiple sites might be options for threatened species reintroductions; therefore, managers must determine when to prepare sites for new populations, release individuals into those sites, and eventually cease releases. We find optimal release schedules for bridled nailtail wallabies (Onychogalea fraenata) with three different cost scenarios: no ongoing site-management cost, a financial ongoing site-management cost, and a demographic cost of continuous releases. Our general results provide a guide for planning future reintroduction programs and illustrate the importance of categorizing and understanding ongoing costs for reintroduction planning.

    16. Social implications of a colony collapse in a highly structured vertebrate species (long-tailed bat, Chalinolobus tuberculatus)

      J. M. Monks and C. F. J. O'Donnell

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12324

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      Strong social structuring within a population can confer fitness advantages to group members, but may also impact on the ability of a population to recover from local extinctions. We used a 19-year mark-recapture dataset of long-tailed bats, in which one colony collapsed during a period of high predator numbers, to investigate the social impacts of a colony collapse. The 11 known survivors were accepted into the neighbouring colony, demonstrating resilience of highly structured vertebrate populations to local crashes.

    17. Translocation and hand-rearing result in short-tailed albatrosses returning to breed in the Ogasawara Islands 80 years after extirpation

      T. Deguchi, F. Sato, M. Eda, H. Izumi, H. Suzuki, R. M. Suryan, E. W. Lance, H. Hasegawa and K. Ozaki

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12322

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      We investigated the attendance and breeding attempts of hand-reared short-tailed albatross chicks translocated to a historic breeding island in the Ogasawara Islands, 350 km from the natal island, for 8 consecutive years after the first translocation. Thirty-nine per cent of hand-reared birds returned to the translocation site at least once per breeding season, of which 67% also visited the natal island. Our preliminary results suggest that even though more translocated and hand-reared albatrosses visited and recruited to their natal island compared to the translocation site, the early re-establishment of breeding by short-tailed albatrosses in the Ogasawara Islands 80 years after extirpation would not have occurred without the initial translocation effort.

    18. When the neighbourhood goes bad: can endangered black robins adjust nest-site selection in response to the risk of an invasive predator?

      C. Lawrence, D. Paris, J. V. Briskie and M. Massaro

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12318

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      Chatham Island black robins are subject to nest predation by invasive European starlings. Robins re-nest in safer sites following predation of an earlier nest, suggesting robins are showing adaptive behavioural responses to this novel nest predator.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Rebuilding beluga stocks in West Greenland

      M. P. Heide-Jørgensen, R. G. Hansen, S. Fossette, N. H. Nielsen, D. L. Borchers, H. Stern and L. Witting

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12315

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      Beluga whales are hunted in many Arctic communities and it is necessary to promote a scientific basis for establishing sustainable exploitation levels. This study utilizes a long-term time series of abundance estimates and data on sea ice coverage to assess future harvest levels of belugas in West Greenland.

  2. Letters to the Editor

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  3. Original Articles

    1. The vacant planting: limited influence of habitat restoration on patch colonization patterns by arboreal marsupials in south-eastern Australia

      D. B. Lindenmayer, A. Mortelliti, K. Ikin, J. Pierson, M. Crane, D. Michael and S. Okada

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12316

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      Remnant native vegetation cover in Australian temperate agricultural landscapes includes old growth woodland, regrowth woodland and planted (restored) woodland. We quantified occupancy and colonization probability of these kinds of woodland by arboreal marsupials over an 11-year period. Occupancy levels were highest in old growth, approached zero in plantings, with regrowth intermediate between these two vegetation types. Plantings were not occupied at the outset of our investigation and only rarely colonized throughout the subsequent 10 years, most probably as a result of a lack of shelter sites in large old hollow-bearing trees. The probability of colonization was positively related to the amount of vegetation cover in the landscape surrounding a patch, but not influenced by a temporal increase in woody vegetation cover. Our findings emphasize the value of old growth woodland for arboreal marsupials and suggest that restoration efforts be targeted around old growth and regrowth woodland patches.

    2. Predicting landscape connectivity for the Asian elephant in its largest remaining subpopulation

      J.-P. Puyravaud, S. A. Cushman, P. Davidar and D. Madappa

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12314

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      To better assess population connectivity for the Asian elephant in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, we evaluated a combination of three resistance layers and three dispersal abilities with a connectivity modeling tool over the landscape. We evaluated the optimality of 24 expert corridors and obtained a much better agreement between the calculated corridors and the expert corridors than the expert teams achieved. Our results provide the first rigorous, spatially synoptic and empirically validated evaluation of the connectivity of the elephant population across the reserve.

    3. Fishers' knowledge as an information source to investigate bycatch of marine mammals in the South China Sea

      M. Liu, M. Lin, S. T. Turvey and S. Li

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12304

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      Using fishers’ knowledge as an information source, by-catch of marine mammals in the South China Sea were investigated, including which fishing gears caused by-catch, spatial pattern and potential seasonality of by-catch, and possible relation between by-catch and fishing activities, as well as fishers’ attitudes and behaviors towards by-catch, and they perceptions about marine mammals. Based on these findings, we provide new baseline data on regional fishing methods and activities, associated geographic and seasonal patterns of by-catch for different marine mammal species around Hainan, and patterns and drivers of other interactions between marine mammals and fishers, all of which will strengthen the evidence-base for marine mammal conservation and management in the South China Sea.

    4. Mismatch between goals and the scale of actions constrains adaptive carnivore management: the case of the wolverine in Sweden

      M. Aronsson and J. Persson

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12310

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      We show how wolverines in Sweden colonize areas with low conflicts and poor snow cover where they are not monitored. Instead, management focuses on high-conflict areas and dismisses an opportunity to implement sound population-level management. This illustrates the importance of flexible management that considers the entire range of conditions under which carnivores, people and the environment interact, because the solution may be found outside areas with high management focus.

    5. Forecasting disturbance effects on wildlife: tolerance does not mitigate effects of increased recreation on wildlands

      B. P. Pauli, R. J. Spaul and J. A. Heath

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12308

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      We created TRAILS (Tolerance in Raptors and the Associated Impacts of Leisure Sports), an individual-based model that simulates the interaction between recreationists and nesting raptors, to assess the effects of human disturbance on raptor populations and test if changes in tolerance to disturbance could mitigate negative consequences of increased recreation activity. We used behavioral and demographic data from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) and recreation activity data to parameterize TRAILS and simulate the likelihood of territory occupancy, egg-laying, and nest survival of eagles in the absence of recreation, with stationary 2014 levels of recreation, and with annual increases in recreation. Recreation activity significantly lowered the population growth rates, population sizes, and territory occupancy of eagles and no simulated method of tolerance acquisition buffered eagle populations from the detrimental effects of recreational disturbance.

    6. Defaunation and biomass collapse of mammals in the largest Atlantic forest remnant

      M. Galetti, C. R. Brocardo, R. A. Begotti, L. Hortenci, F. Rocha-Mendes, C. S. S. Bernardo, R. S. Bueno, R. Nobre, R. S. Bovendorp, R. M. Marques, F. Meirelles, S. K. Gobbo, G. Beca, G. Schmaedecke and T. Siqueira

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12311

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      The Brazilian Atlantic forest is considered a biodiversity hotspot and although highly fragmented, it still contains large forest patches that may be important for the conservation of mammals that require large areas. Here we estimated species richness, density and biomass of medium and large sized mammals along the largest remnant of the Atlantic rainforest in Brazil. We found that the density and biomass of mammals varied 16 and 70 fold among sites, respectively. Mammalian biomass declined by up to 98% in intensively hunted sites and was 53 fold lower than in other Neotropical non-fragmented forests. Therefore, we show that hunting is depleting the mammalian biomass in the largest Atlantic forest remnant. Photo: the muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) (Pedro Jordano).

    7. In aid of (re)discovered species: maximizing conservation insights from minimal data

      T. A. Brichieri-Colombi, J. M. McPherson, D. J. Sheppard and A. Moehrenschlager

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12306

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      Species (re)discoveries often involve small, isolated populations that require urgent conservation interventions despite limited data. We use a case study of the recent rediscovery in Ghana of sitatunga Tragelaphus spekei, a cryptic wetland antelope, to illustrate how even sparse data can yield considerable, conservation-relevant insights. Our approach first paired observations of occurrence with landscape characteristics derived from open-access remote sensing and map data. The resulting habitat suitability model, a first for sitatunga, then served to: (1) elucidate habitat preferences; (2) assess possible existence and connectivity of remnant populations elsewhere in Ghana; and (3) estimate maximum total and effective population size. Our results demonstrate the conservation challenges associated with the rediscovery of relict populations, and the utility of applying tools such as habitat suitability models to sparse data. Moreover, our research stresses the need to implement immediate conservation action upon species (re)discoveries to prevent (regional) extinction.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Toll-like receptor variation in the bottlenecked population of the endangered Seychelles warbler

      D. L. Gilroy, C. van Oosterhout, J. Komdeur and D. S. Richardson

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12307

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      In small populations, drift can result in a loss of genetic variation which can reduce adaptive evolutionary potential. However, under certain circumstances, balancing selection can counteract drift and maintain variation at functional loci. Identifying these loci can have important conservation implications and give insight into how different evolutionary forces interact in small populations. Here we investigate toll-like receptor (TLR) genes that play a key role in vertebrate innate immune defence, and whether variation has been maintained at TLR loci in a bottlenecked population of the endangered Seychelles warbler. We find depauperate levels of variation that suggests drift is the dominating evolutionary force in this island population and this may well be disadvantageous for the long-term viability of this species. Although the finding of variation of specific TLR loci, in spite of the recent bottleneck event, does warrant further study.

    9. Challenges of using behavior to monitor anthropogenic impacts on wildlife: a case study on illegal killing of African elephants

      S. Z. Goldenberg, I. Douglas-Hamilton, D. Daballen and G. Wittemyer

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12309

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      Behavioral indicators are increasingly advocated as a way to monitor populations of conservation concern, but the efficacy of this approach in field settings must be investigated. In this study we use a rare combination of movement, behavior, demography, ecology, and poaching pressure from a threatened population of African elephants in northern Kenya to assess the ability of a behavioral indicator to reflect levels of human pressure. Our results suggest that behavioral indicators may not always reflect the anthropogenic impacts they are intended to measure, should be carefully tailored to systems of interest, and should incorporate non-human variables that may influence wildlife behavior.

    10. Interactions between domestic and wild carnivores around the greater Serengeti ecosystem

      M. E. Craft, F. Vial, E. Miguel, S. Cleaveland, A. Ferdinands and C. Packer

      Version of Record online: 6 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12305

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      Interactions between carnivore species have important implications for direct interference competition and cross-species transmission of shared pathogens. We asked villagers residing around a conservation area to report on the presence of wild carnivores in their village, the number of domestic dogs and cats in their household and interactions between domestic and wild carnivores. We find that wild carnivores are abundant near households surrounding the National Park, villagers would like to have more domestic dogs, interactions between wild and domestic carnivores are common and that social surveys were a useful tool for obtaining data on carnivore interactions as well as providing a direction for future targeted and in-depth research to reduce interspecific conflict. Photo credit: Andrew Ferdinands.

    11. Modelling different reintroduction strategies for the critically endangered Floreana mockingbird

      C. Bozzuto, P. E. A. Hoeck, H. C. Bagheri and L. F. Keller

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12299

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      In agreement with one of the main recommendations in reintroduction biology, we used local knowledge of species to develop quantitative advice for the planned reintroduction of the critically endangered Floreana mockingbird Mimus trifasciatus in the Galápagos Archipelago. Using population viability analysis and simulations of genetic diversity, we compared six potential reintroduction strategies that differ, among other aspects, in the use of captive breeding. Although in general our findings favour a captive breeding strategy, we discuss situations where these advantages vanish.

    12. Global representation of threatened amphibians ex situ is bolstered by non-traditional institutions, but gaps remain

      A. Biega, D. A. Greenberg, A. O. Mooers, O. R. Jones and T. E. Martin

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12297

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      We provide an analysis of amphibian ex-situ holdings by testing how eight ecological and biogeographical variables relating to extinction risk vary between amphibian species held in zoos and their close relatives not held in zoos. We find that species held in zoos are equally as threatened as their close relatives not found in zoos but that range and habitat-restricted species remain under-represented ex-situ. We highlight that the taxon specific conservation organization, Amphibian Ark, and non-traditional zoos are having an important effect on the representation of threatened species held ex-situ but also warn that species most at risk of short-term extinction (range-restricted specialists) require greater attention from the ex-situ conservation community.

    13. Estimates of avian collision with power lines and carcass disappearance across differing environments

      D. Costantini, M. Gustin, A. Ferrarini and G. Dell'Omo

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12303

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      Our article provides for the first time raw counts and estimates of bird collisions with high-voltage power lines across seven Italian areas, and estimates of carcass disappearance that will help to improve monitoring programmes of fatal collisions of birds with the power lines.

    14. Are tourism and conservation compatible for ‘island tame’ species?

      T. Worrell, R. Admiraal, P. W. Bateman and P. A. Fleming

      Version of Record online: 14 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12301

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      Island tameness can make many island species attractive for wildlife tourism. For example, Rottnest Island quokkas allow people to approach and even touch them, which can make these animals more vulnerable to malicious attention or accidental injury. We found that quokkas at tourism sites allowed a person to approach closer before moving away compared with non-tourisms sites, and spent less time being vigilant and feeding on tourism sites. Understanding the impact of ecotourism on animal behavior will help to frame conservation management actions to ensure persistence of threatened wildlife species.

    15. Noise from a phantom road experiment alters the age structure of a community of migrating birds

      C. J. W. McClure, H. E. Ware, J. D. Carlisle and J. R. Barber

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12302

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      Using a phantom road, we demonstrate experimentally that traffic noise alone can change the age structure of a community of migrating birds. We further show that the ability of both adult and hatch-year birds to gain weight during stopover is negatively affected by anthropogenic noise, although the effect is stronger for young birds. Photo credit: Ashley Jensen.

    16. Behaviour during handling predicts male natal dispersal distances in an establishing reintroduced hihi (Notiomystis cincta) population

      K. M. Richardson, J. G. Ewen, P. Brekke, L. R. Doerr, K. A. Parker and D. P. Armstrong

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12296

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      Natal dispersal is a key behaviour in reintroduced populations, as it both influences the probability of recruitment, and simultaneously dictates the spatial configuration of the reintroduced population as it establishes. We examined natal dispersal distances (NDD) in a reintroduced passerine population, and found mean NDD to be significantly higher in males than in females. Males that distress-called during handling had greater NDD than those that did not. Our results show that while clusters of individuals established across the release area due to conspecific attraction, there is still movement between these clusters, primarily a consequence of natal dispersal of males of a distinct temperament.

    17. Joint effects of rising temperature and the presence of introduced predatory fish on montane amphibian populations

      N. Polo-Cavia, L. Boyero, B. Martín-Beyer, L. A. Barmuta and J. Bosch

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/acv.12294

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      Warmer conditions might exacerbate the impact of exotic predators in montane amphibian populations. A joint effect of increasing temperatures and the presence of fish predators was observed on activity and development of larval amphibian, although predator recognition was not precluded at rising temperatures.

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