Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology

Cover image for Vol. 57 Issue 9

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Peter Baxter, Bernard Dan and Peter Rosenbaum

Impact Factor: 3.51

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 8/119 (Pediatrics); 49/192 (Clinical Neurology)

Online ISSN: 1469-8749

VIEW

  1. 1 - 95
  1. Original Articles

    1. Decreasing prevalence in cerebral palsy: a multi-site European population-based study, 1980 to 2003

      Elodie Sellier, Mary Jane Platt, Guro L Andersen, Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann, Javier De La Cruz, Christine Cans and on behalf of Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy Network

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12865

      What this paper adds

      • Cerebral palsy (CP) prevalence in children born very low birthweight in 1980 to 2003 further decreased compared to 1980 to 1996.
      • CP prevalence in children born moderately low birthweight has significantly decreased.
      • The result is a significant decrease in the overall CP prevalence.
    2. Identification of joint patterns during gait in children with cerebral palsy: a Delphi consensus study

      Angela Nieuwenhuys, Sylvia Õunpuu, Anja Van Campenhout, Tim Theologis, Josse De Cat, Jean Stout, Guy Molenaers, Tinne De Laet and Kaat Desloovere

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12892

      What this paper adds

      • A new gait classification system for children with cerebral palsy.
      • Expert consensus includes lower limb joint patterns across three anatomical planes.
      • Alternative proposal for classification of stiff knee.
    3. Symptomatic treatment of children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis

      Shekeeb S Mohammad, Hannah Jones, Martin Hong, Margherita Nosadini, Cynthia Sharpe, Sekhar C Pillai, Fabienne Brilot and Russell C Dale

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12882

  2. Commentary

    1. Language and literacy in children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes

      Alexandre N Datta

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12880

      This commentary is on the original article by Smith et al.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Age at stroke onset influences the clinical outcome and health-related quality of life in pediatric ischemic stroke survivors

      Satvinder K Ghotra, Jeffrey A Johnson, Weiyu Qiu, Amanda Newton, Carmen Rasmussen and Jerome Y Yager

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12870

      What this paper adds

      • Age at stroke onset influences the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of survivors in a bimodal fashion.
      • Individuals with presumed perinatal and childhood stroke appear to have the lowest morbidity and HRQL.
      • Acute ischemic stroke in the newborn at term exhibits the best long-term HRQL.
      • Age at stroke onset is an important prognostic marker for long-term clinical outcomes.
  4. Commentary

    1. Improving prognostication in childhood stroke

      Vijeya Ganesan

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12795

      This commentary is on the original article by Ghotra et al.

    2. Filling a lacune in perinatal stroke outcomes

      Adam Kirton

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12883

      This commentary is on the original article by Ecury-Goossen et al.

  5. Reviews

    1. Use of the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination in infants with cerebral palsy: a critical review of the literature

      Domenico M Romeo, Daniela Ricci, Claudia Brogna and Eugenio Mercuri

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12876

      What this paper adds

      • Review of the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE) in the early diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP).
      • The HINE can be reliably used to assess infants at neurological risk, both preterm and term born.
      • The HINE identifies early signs of CP in infants with neonatal brain lesions.
      • Longitudinal assessments will allow differentiation of transient and more permanent abnormalities.
  6. Original Articles

    1. Randomized controlled trial of a home-visiting intervention on infant cognitive development in peri-urban South Africa

      Lynne Murray, Peter Cooper, Adriane Arteche, Alan Stein and Mark Tomlinson

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12873

      What this paper adds

      • Intervention that benefits attachment might not benefit cognition.
      • Conditions of socio-economic adversity might limit cognitive benefits of intervention.
      • In adverse conditions, psychological interventions for cognition may need augmentation.
      • Cognitive interventions might be more effective with older infants.
    2. Testing two screening instruments for autism spectrum disorder in UK community child health services

      Tony Charman, Gillian Baird, Emily Simonoff, Susie Chandler, Abi Davison-Jenkins, Ajay Sharma, Tony O'Sullivan and Andrew Pickles

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12874

      What this paper adds

      • The Social Communication Questionnaire and Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers screens performed only moderately well in accurately identifying cases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children referred to community child health services.
      • Screening information in isolation should not be used to decide whether or not to make a referral for specialized ASD assessment.
  7. Commentary

    1. Not there yet: the classification of communication in cerebral palsy

      Nancy L Potter

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12879

      This commentary is on the original article by Virella et al.

  8. Original Articles

    1. Differences in health-related quality of life and caregiver burden after hip and spine surgery in non-ambulatory children with severe cerebral palsy

      Rachel L Difazio, Judith A Vessey, David Zurakowski and Brian D Snyder

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12872

      What this paper adds

      • Caregivers reported improvements in health-related quality of life 1 year after spinal and hip surgery.
      • No changes in caregiver burden 1 year after spinal and hip surgery.
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Morbidity and medication in a large population of individuals with Down syndrome compared to the general population

      Myriam Alexander, Hans Petri, Yingjie Ding, Christoph Wandel, Omar Khwaja and Nadia Foskett

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12868

      What this paper adds

      • Incidence of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and sleeping disorders was increased in children with Down syndrome versus control participants.
      • Incidence of ear diseases and eye disorders, autism, epilepsy, intellectual disability, hypothyroidism, diabetes, and obesity was elevated in patients with Down syndrome at all ages.
      • In adults with Down syndrome ≥30 years, the incidence of hypotension and dementia was raised; that of hypertension, depression, and anxiety was lowered.
  9. Commentary

    1. Motor development in visually impaired children

      Ann Hallemans

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12860

      This commentary is on the original article by Celano et al.

  10. Original Articles

    1. Classification systems of communication for use in epidemiological surveillance of children with cerebral palsy

      Daniel Virella, Lindsay Pennington, Guro L Andersen, Maria da Graça Andrada, Andra Greitane, Kate Himmelmann, Audrone Prasauskiene, Gija Rackauskaite, Javier De La Cruz, Allan Colver and On Behalf of Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe Network

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12866

      What this paper adds

      • Viking Speech Scale (VSS) is valid to document speech intelligibility for cerebral palsy (CP) registers.
      • Functional Communication Classification System (FCCS) and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) are valid to document communication for CP registers.
      • Parents and professionals found FCCS and CFCS more difficult to use than the VSS.
    2. Arithmetic difficulties in children with mild traumatic brain injury at the subacute stage of recovery

      Leen Van Beek, Pol Ghesquière, Bert De Smedt and Lieven Lagae

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12858

      What this paper adds

      • Children with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have difficulties with solving large arithmetic problems in the subacute phase after their injury.
      • Children with mTBI showed normal early event-related potential components and N2 during arithmetic processing immediately after their injury, indicating no difficulties with encoding or retrieving the answer.
      • Children with mTBI at the subacute stage of recovery showed a decreased late positivity component during arithmetic processing, suggesting difficulties with calculating the answer.
  11. Commentary

    1. Advanced neuroimaging of cerebral palsy following extremely preterm birth

      Ram Kumar

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12871

      This commentary is on the original article by Kelly et al

    2. Classifying communication ability in cerebral palsy

      Helen Cockerill

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12863

      This commentary is on the original article by Vander Zwart et al.

  12. Invited Reviews

    1. Mellow Parenting: systematic review and meta-analysis of an intervention to promote sensitive parenting

      Angus MacBeth, James Law, Iain McGowan, John Norrie, Lucy Thompson and Philip Wilson

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12864

      What this paper adds

      • Mellow Parenting has medium effect sizes on parent/child outcomes.
      • Data were subject to methodological limitations of small sample size.
      • Synthesizing evidence across methodologies may facilitate trials of non-commercial complex interventions.
  13. Commentary

    1. The quest for patterns in dyskinetic cerebral palsy

      Kate Himmelmann

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12869

      This commentary is on the original article by Monbaliu et al.

    2. Polymicrogyria: the common endpoint of many different aetiological processes

      Hans J Ten Donkelaar

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12861

      This commentary is on the original article by Jansen et al.

  14. Original Articles

    1. Obstetric risk factors and time trends of neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years in very-low-birthweight infants: a single institution study

      Barbara Gardella, Anna Daniela Iacobone, Stefano Bogliolo, Valentina Musacchi, Simona Orcesi, Chryssoulla Tzialla and Arsenio Spinillo

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12859

      What this paper adds

      • A reduction of perinatal mortality was achieved in all gestational age classes and birthweight.
      • Improved neurodevelopmental outcome is consistent across obstetric causes of prematurity.
      • Improved outcome is independent of use of antenatal corticosteroids.
      • Incidence of cystic periventricular leukomalacia is constant among preterm infants.
  15. Commentary

    1. Appropriate outcome measurement for children with autism spectrum disorder

      Helen McConachie

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12862

      This commentary is on the original article by Kramer et al.

  16. Systematic Reviews

    1. A meta-analysis of literacy and language in children with rolandic epilepsy

      Anna B Smith, Omotomilola Bajomo and Deb K Pal

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12856

  17. Original Articles

    1. Neurodevelopmental outcome after neonatal perforator stroke

      Ginette M Ecury-Goossen, Marit van der Haer, Liesbeth S Smit, Monique Feijen-Roon, Maarten Lequin, Rogier C J de Jonge, Paul Govaert and Jeroen Dudink

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12857

      What this paper adds

      • Motor outcome is favourable in children with isolated neonatal perforator stroke(s), except when posterior limb of the internal capsule is involved.
      • In children with isolated neonatal perforator stroke(s), motor outcome is more favourable than in those with concomitant brain injury.
      • Childhood epilepsy is rare in children with isolated neonatal perforator stroke.
    2. Potential protective role of endogenous glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase against glutamate excitotoxicity in fetal hypoxic–ischaemic asphyxia

      María Pérez-Mato, Alicia Iglesias-Deus, Susana Rujido, Andrés Da Silva-Candal, Tomás Sobrino, María-Luz Couce, José María Fraga, José Castillo and Francisco Campos

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12851

      What this paper adds

      • Correlation of glutamate and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) in fetal asphyxia.
      • GOT in the control of glutamate homeostasis during development.
      • Potential use of GOT as treatment in fetal asphyxia.
  18. Commentary

    1. You have free access to this content
      Measuring gross motor activities in Rett syndrome

      Peter Humphreys

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12848

      This commentary is on the original article by Lor et al.

    2. Muscle synergies: input or output variables for neural control?

      Diane Damiano

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12843

      This commentary is on the original article by Steele et al

  19. Original Articles

    1. Brain structural and microstructural alterations associated with cerebral palsy and motor impairments in adolescents born extremely preterm and/or extremely low birthweight

      Claire E Kelly, Linda Chan, Alice C Burnett, Katherine J Lee, Alan Connelly, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Deanne K Thompson and On Behalf of the Victorian Infant Collaborative Study Group

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12854

      What this paper adds

      • Corticospinal tract microstructure is altered in extremely preterm/extremely low birthweight (ELBW) adolescents.
      • Primary motor cortical thickness is reduced in extremely preterm/ELBW adolescents.
      • Extremely preterm/ELBW adolescents with cerebral palsy exhibit altered corticospinal tract microstructure.
      • Corticospinal tract microstructure and primary motor cortical volume are interrelated.
    2. Clinical patterns of dystonia and choreoathetosis in participants with dyskinetic cerebral palsy

      Elegast Monbaliu, Paul de Cock, Els Ortibus, Lieve Heyrman, Katrijn Klingels and Hilde Feys

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12846

      What this paper adds

      • First study to analyse dystonia and choreoathetosis separately in dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP).
      • Dystonia and choreoathetosis are simultaneously present in dyskinetic CP.
      • Dystonia and choreoathetosis increase with activity.
      • Dystonia is more severe and influences function more than choreoathetosis.
      • More choreoathetosis is observed in participants with pure thalamus and basal ganglia lesions.
  20. Clinical Insight

    1. FreeSurfer is useful for early detection of Rasmussen's encephalitis prior to obvious atrophy

      Aaron D Boes, Paul Caruso, Ann-Christine Duhaime and Bruce Fischl

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12847

  21. Invited Reviews

    1. Extrapolating published survival curves to obtain evidence-based estimates of life expectancy in cerebral palsy

      Steven M Day, Robert J Reynolds and Scott J Kush

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12849

      What this paper adds

      • An explanation of life table methods for the non-statistician.
      • The application of life table methods to studies of cerebral palsy (CP) survival.
      • A heuristic explanation of one method used for reported life expectancies of persons with CP.
      • Evidence-based estimates of life expectancy for CP sub-cohorts from several studies that do not report such estimates themselves.
  22. Commentary

    1. Motor imagery in children with cerebral palsy: one step beyond with EEG dynamics

      Guy Cheron

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12842

      This commentary is on the original article by Jongsma et al.

  23. Original Articles

    1. The histopathology of polymicrogyria: a series of 71 brain autopsy studies

      Anna C Jansen, Yves Robitaille, Mrinalini Honavar, Nandini Mullatti, Richard J Leventer, Eva Andermann, Frederick Andermann and Waney Squier

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12840

      What this paper adds

      • Fetal cases allow study of the early developmental stages of polymicrogyria (PMG).
      • PMG is commonly associated with pial disruption, regardless of aetiology.
      • Abnormal festooning of the cortical neuronal band can occur well before normal cortical folding is expected to start.
      • PMG is very often associated with other brain malformations.
  24. Commentary

    1. Reduced pain threshold documented in children with Down syndrome

      Chantel C Barney

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12845

      This commentary is on the original article by Valkenburg et al.

  25. Original Articles

    1. Computerized working memory training has positive long-term effect in very low birthweight preschool children

      Kristine Hermansen Grunewaldt, Jon Skranes, Ann-Mari Brubakk and Gro C C Lähaugen

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12841

      What this paper adds

      • Computerized working memory training (CWMT) in very low birthweight preschool children has long-term positive effects.
      • Improvements were found on working, visual, and verbal memory.
      • There was no performance gain after training on attention and behaviour.
      • CWMT might be valuable for children born preterm before starting school.
    2. Reliability of the Dutch-language version of the Communication Function Classification System and its association with language comprehension and method of communication

      Karlijn E Vander Zwart, Joke J Geytenbeek, Maaike de Kleijn, Kim J Oostrom, Jan Willem Gorter, Mary Jo Cooley Hidecker and R Jeroen Vermeulen

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12839

      What this paper adds

      • The Dutch-language version of the Communication Function Classification System is a valid and reliable clinical tool.
      • Verbal communication is conditional to communicating effectively with unfamiliar partners.
      • Expressive forms other than verbal communication hamper functional communication.
      • Restrictions in spoken language comprehension are associated with less functional communication.
    3. You have free access to this content
      A validation study of a modified Bouchard activity record that extends the concept of ‘uptime’ to Rett syndrome

      Leon Lor, Kylie Hill, Peter Jacoby, Helen Leonard and Jenny Downs

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12838

      What this paper adds

      • Data provides evidence for the validity of a proxy-reported measure of physical activity in people with a neurodevelopmental disability.
      • For those who walked independently, time classified as standing and walking (uptime) was strongly associated with step count over a 24-hour period.
      • For individuals with Rett syndrome, daily activity programmes aimed at increasing uptime could be an effective way of increasing daily step count.
  26. Case Reports

    1. Is one motor cortex enough for two hands?

      Simona Fiori, Martin Staudt, Kerstin Pannek, Davide Borghetti, Laura Biagi, Danilo Scelfo, Stephen E Rose, Michela Tosetti, Giovanni Cioni and Andrea Guzzetta

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12817

      What this paper adds

      • Good motor control is possible with ipsilateral corticospinal reorganization.
  27. Original Articles

    1. Validity, reliability, and usability of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test for autism spectrum disorders

      Jessica M Kramer, Kendra Liljenquist and Wendy J Coster

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12837

      What this study adds

      • Parents can provide highly consistent responses to the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test for autism spectrum disorders (PEDI-CAT [ASD]).
      • The social demands implied in items across multiple Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS-II) domains may explain the strong correlations between VABS-II and the PEDI-CAT (ASD) Social/Cognitive and Responsibility domains.
      • The PEDI-CAT (ASD) may be better suited than the VABS-II instrument to addressing specific functional skills and the management of tasks essential for independent living.
  28. Case Reports

    1. Valproic acid hypersensitivity and desensitization

      Ori Toker, Yuval Tal, Liran Horev, Dorit Shmoeli and Tal Gilboa

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12835

  29. Original Articles

    1. Muscle synergies and complexity of neuromuscular control during gait in cerebral palsy

      Katherine M Steele, Adam Rozumalski and Michael H Schwartz

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12826

      What this paper adds

      • Synergies were simplified during walking for individuals with cerebral palsy compared with unimpaired individuals.
      • Synergy complexity was correlated with diagnosis, functional impairment, and selective motor control.
      • Changes in synergies were similar to previous reports from adult stroke survivors.
  30. Commentary

    1. A child is a child is a child? Paediatric terminology in a health context

      Steven Hirschfeld

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12829

      This commentary is on the systematic review by Clark et al.

    2. Pathways to good hand function after early brain injury

      Anna P Basu

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12836

      This commentary is on the case report by Fiori et al

  31. Original Articles

    1. Motor skills of children with unilateral visual impairment in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

      Marianne Celano, E Eugenie Hartmann, Lindreth G DuBois, Carolyn Drews-Botsch and On Behalf of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12832

      What this paper adds

      • Children treated for unilateral congenital cataract had delayed motor functioning at 4 years 6 months.
      • There were no differences in motor functioning between children randomized to intraocular lens versus contact lens treatment.
      • Motor test performance was associated with best monocular visual acuity.
      • Visual acuity accounted for motor skills after controlling for demographic and medical variables.
    2. Emotional and behavioural problems in young children with autism spectrum disorder

      Susie Chandler, Patricia Howlin, Emily Simonoff, Tony O'Sullivan, Evelin Tseng, Juliet Kennedy, Tony Charman and Gillian Baird

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12830

      What this paper adds

      • Three-quarters of 4- to 8-year-olds with autism have parent-reported emotional and behavioural problems.
      • Two-thirds of these also have teacher-reported problems.
      • Problems persist over time in 80%, and identification is possible at 4 to 5 years.
      • The Developmental Behaviour Checklist assesses a wide range of difficulties in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
      • Systematic use of such a questionnaire is recommended in routine clinical care of children with ASD.
  32. Commentary

    1. Grey matter injury in cerebral palsy – pallidum for the role of the predicting severity

      Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12822

      This commentary is on the original article by Reid et al.

    2. Motor difficulties and mental health in children who are deaf

      Martin McPhillips

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12831

      This commentary is on the original article by Fellinger et al.

    3. Sydenham's chorea: beyond involuntary movements

      Antonio Lucio Teixeira

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12828

      This commentary is on the systematic review by Punukollu et al.

  33. Original Articles

    1. Understanding post-traumatic growth following pediatric-onset spinal cord injury: the critical role of coping strategies for facilitating positive psychological outcomes

      Alicia M January, Kathy Zebracki, Kathleen M Chlan and Lawrence C Vogel

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12820

      What this paper adds

      • Individuals with pediatric-onset spinal cord injuries show some positive psychological growth after injury.
      • Growth occurs at a higher rate in those injured as children than as adults.
      • Positive growth appears to be independent of psychological distress factors, such as depression and anxiety.
      • Coping strategies influence the experience of post-traumatic growth, which relates to a higher level of happiness.
    2. Children with unilateral cerebral palsy show diminished implicit motor imagery with the affected hand

      Marijtje LA Jongsma, C Marjolein Baas, Anouk FM Sangen, Pauline BM Aarts, Rob HJ van der Lubbe, Ruud GJ Meulenbroek and Bert Steenbergen

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12819

      What this paper adds

      • Implicit motor imagery was studied in unilateral cerebral palsy.
      • Behavioural data and event-related potentials quantified implicit motor imagery capacity.
      • Children with unilateral cerebral palsy engaged in implicit motor imagery.
      • However, implicit motor imagery was compromised for the affected hand.
      • These findings might increase our understanding of body schema development.
    3. Pain sensitivity of children with Down syndrome and their siblings: quantitative sensory testing versus parental reports

      Abraham J Valkenburg, Dick Tibboel and Monique van Dijk

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12823

      What this paper adds

      • Self-reporting is not an adequate pain measure for children with Down syndrome.
      • Several sensory tests are less feasible for some children with Down syndrome than for others.
      • Children with Down syndrome are less sensitive to temperature.
      • Children with Down syndrome are more sensitive to heat pain.
      • Parents rate children with Down syndrome as being less sensitive to pain than their siblings.
  34. Commentary

    1. More funding, better lives: the case for cerebral palsy research

      Julia Habiby and Mindy Aisen

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12825

      This commentary is on the original article by Wu et al.

  35. Original Articles

    1. Motor performance and correlates of mental health in children who are deaf or hard of hearing

      Matthäus J Fellinger, Daniel Holzinger, Martin Aigner, Christoph Beitel and Johannes Fellinger

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12814

      What this paper adds

      • Children with hearing impairment show motor performance deficits in all domains.
      • Motor performance problems are related to mental health problems, particularly to difficulties in peer relationships.
      • Motor performance deficits are more pronounced in older children.
      • Except for static balance, motor performance is not related to the degree of hearing impairment.
    2. Delay in auditory behaviour and preverbal vocalization in infants with unilateral hearing loss

      Liat Kishon-Rabin, Jacob Kuint, Minka Hildesheimer and Daphne Ari-Even Roth

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12812

      What this paper adds

      • Delay in auditory behaviour was four times more common in infants with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) compared to peers with bilaterally normal hearing (BNH).
      • Delay in preverbal vocalization was nine times more common in infants with UHL compared to peers with BNH.
      • Delay in auditory behaviour and preverbal vocalization were evident in infants with UHL even in the absence of additional risk factors for developmental delays.
  36. Commentary

    1. Socio-economic disparities and functional limitations of children with cerebral palsy

      Maureen S Durkin

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12821

      This commentary is on the original article by Oskoui et al.

    2. Movement observation to identify ataxia: how well do experts agree?

      Kristin E Musselman

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12824

      This commentary is on the original article by Lawerman et al.

    3. Tailoring neuromotor interventions for children with cerebral palsy

      Haim Bassan

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12815

      This commentary is on the original article by Rackauskaite et al.

  37. Systematic Reviews

    1. The effect of interventions aimed at improving participation outcomes for children with disabilities: a systematic review

      Brooke Adair, Anna Ullenhag, Deb Keen, Mats Granlund and Christine Imms

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12809

      What this paper adds

      • Individually tailored education and mentoring programmes can enhance participation outcomes.
      • Programmes targeting primary participation outcomes were most effective.
      • Clarity is needed regarding the definition of participation.
  38. Original Articles

    1. Variation in cerebral palsy profile by socio-economic status

      Maryam Oskoui, Carmen Messerlian, Alexandra Blair, Philippe Gamache and Michael Shevell

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12808

      What this paper adds

      • A socio-economic gradient in mobility was seen in our study population, above and beyond differences in maternal and perinatal factors.
      • A direct effect of area-level deprivation was seen only in children of mothers with a higher education level, with no additional risk added to children of mothers with lower education already at risk.
      • Contextual factors can affect the severity of cerebral palsy.
  39. Commentary

    1. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome and ketogenic diet therapies: missing rare but treatable diseases?

      Joerg Klepper

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12807

      This commentary is on the the original article by Schoeler et al.

  40. Original Articles

    1. Reliability of phenotypic early-onset ataxia assessment: a pilot study

      Tjitske F Lawerman, Rick Brandsma, Joke T van Geffen, Roelineke J Lunsing, Huibert Burger, Marina A J Tijssen, Jeroen J de Vries, Tom J De Koning and Deborah A Sival

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12804

      What this paper adds

      • Interobserver agreement on phenotypic early-onset ataxia (EOA) assessment is statistically significant.
      • The strength of EOA interobserver agreement is interpreted as limited.
      • Gait subscores on the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia can support phenotypic EOA assessment.
    2. Construct validity and reliability of the Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity in children with cerebral palsy

      Julia Balzer, Petra Marsico, Elena Mitteregger, Marietta L van der Linden, Thomas H Mercer and Hubertus J A van Hedel

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12805

      What this paper adds

      • The Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity (SCALE) German version is a valid and reliable assessment for children with spastic CP.
      • Total SCALE scores differed significantly between Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I versus II.
      • Minimal detectable change of the SCALE is 2 points.
  41. Commentary

  42. Original Articles

    1. Food and fluid texture consumption in a population-based cohort of preschool children with cerebral palsy: relationship to dietary intake

      Katherine A Benfer, Kelly A Weir, Kristie L Bell, Robert S Ware, Peter SW Davies and Roslyn N Boyd

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12796

      What this paper adds

      • Food/fluid texture modifications present in 39% of preschool children with cerebral palsy, based on parent reporting.
      • Children consumed equivalent amounts (grams), but energy intake decreased with poorer gross motor function.
      • Children on average had 50% of intake as fluid, which was most commonly unsafely swallowed.
      • Children with poorer gross motor function consumed less chewable items and more fluids compared to those with better gross motor function.
    2. Grey matter injury patterns in cerebral palsy: associations between structural involvement on MRI and clinical outcomes

      Susan M Reid, Charuta D Dagia, Michael R Ditchfield and Dinah S Reddihough

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12800

      What this paper adds

      • Pallidal abnormality was common and, combined with generalized cortical–subcortical injury, was the strongest predictor of poor gross motor function in children with CP and grey matter injury (GMI).
      • A non-spastic motor type was associated with non-diffuse cortical–subcortical injury, no white matter loss, and involvement of the basal ganglia.
      • The prevalence of epilepsy was highest in the context of diffuse cortical–subcortical involvement and white matter loss.
    3. Reliability and practicability of the straight leg raise test in children with cerebral palsy

      Petra Marsico, Amir Tal-Akabi and Hubertus J A Van Hedel

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12797

      What this paper adds

      • The straight leg raise (SLR) test is practicable in children with cerebral palsy.
      • The SLR hip range of motion could be measured reliably.
      • A positive SLR test indicates sciatic nerve mobility as a limiting factor.
      • Protective activity of the biceps femoris occurred during SLR testing.
  43. Systematic Reviews

    1. Paediatric terminology in the Australian health and health-education context: a systematic review

      Ramona Clark, Melissa Locke and Andrea Bialocerkowski

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12803

      What this paper adds

      • A novel search strategy identified Australian paediatric terminology from health and health-education websites.
      • Ambiguous paediatric terminology was found.
      • Four paediatric terms with distinct age ranges addressed this ambiguity.
      • Australian age ranges were broader than the US-based comparison.
  44. Commentary

    1. Understanding social development following very preterm birth

      Samantha Johnson

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12801

      This commentary is on the original article by Ritchie et al.

  45. Original Articles

    1. Impact of child and family characteristics on cerebral palsy treatment

      Gija Rackauskaite, Peter W Uldall, Bodil H Bech and John R Østergaard

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12791

      What this paper adds

      • An increased frequency of therapy and interventions was observed in higher Gross Motor Function Classification System levels in children with cerebral palsy.
      • The child's cognitive ability had an impact on the choice of treatment for motor disability.
      • Parental education level may influence the use of certain treatment modalities.
    2. Longitudinal assessment of bone growth and development in a facility-based population of young adults with cerebral palsy

      Richard Grossberg, Martha G Blackford, Heidi H Kecskemethy, Richard Henderson and Michael D Reed

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12790

      What this paper adds

      • In a cohort of patients with severe cerebral palsy, median change in bone mineral density (BMD) was less than previously described.
      • Age was negatively correlated with mean annualized percentage change in BMD.
      • Weight was positively correlated with BMD.
      • Change in weight was positively correlated with change in BMD.
  46. Commentary

    1. Assessing bone accrual in cerebral palsy: new longitudinal data and future needs

      Tishya A L Wren

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12793

      This commentary is on the original article by Grossberg et al.

  47. Original Articles

    1. Cerebral palsy research funding from the National Institutes of Health, 2001 to 2013

      Yvonne W Wu, Alison S Mehravari, Adam L Numis and Paul Gross

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12789

      What this paper adds

      • National Institutes of Health (NIH) spent $30 million per year on research related to cerebral palsy (CP).
      • Overall, NIH funding for CP research increased over the study period.
      • NIH funding for clinical intervention studies has declined.
  48. Commentary

    1. The Duncan-Ely test: time for standardization

      Susan Stott

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12794

      This commentary is on the original article by Lee et al.

    2. Measuring body composition: the limitations of body mass index

      Laura K Vogtle

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12798

      This commentary is on the original article by Gutknecht et al.

  49. Systematic Reviews

    1. The meaning of leisure for children and young people with physical disabilities: a systematic evidence synthesis

      Benita Powrie, Niina Kolehmainen, Merrill Turpin, Jenny Ziviani and Jodie Copley

      Article first published online: 4 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12788

      What this paper adds

      • Leisure for children and young people with physical disabilities is associated with fun, freedom, fulfilment, and friendship.
      • The fulfilment of psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence may explain the fun experienced during activities perceived as leisure.
  50. Original Articles

    1. Variation in kinematic and spatiotemporal gait parameters by Gross Motor Function Classification System level in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

      Sylvia Õunpuu, George Gorton, Anita Bagley, Mitell Sison-Williamson, Sahar Hassani, Barbara Johnson and Donna Oeffinger

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12766

      What this paper adds

      • Mean gait parameters for children and adolescents with Bilateral spastic cerebral palsy differ from typically developing and among Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to III.
      • Gait impairment increases with increasing GMFCS level.
      • There is substantial overlap in gait impairment among GMFCS levels.
      • GMFCS level cannot be defined by specific gait characteristics.
  51. Systematic Reviews

    1. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of Sydenham's chorea: a systematic review

      Mallika Punukollu, Nadine Mushet, Marisa Linney, Colm Hennessy and Michael Morton

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12786

      What this paper adds

      • Psychiatric disorders are common in Sydenham's chorea and should be diagnosed accordingly.
      • Obsessive-compulsive disorder, mood disorders, anxiety, attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder, and tic disorders are common comorbidities in patients with Sydenham's chorea and there is evidence that psychotic disorders may be more likely in this group.
      • There is limited but intriguing evidence of executive dysfunction in Sydenham's chorea.
      • There is currently insufficient evidence to determine the nature of the relationship between the psychiatric symptomatology and the motor manifestations of Sydenham's chorea.
  52. Commentary

  53. Systematic Reviews

    1. Social development of children born very preterm: a systematic review

      Kirsten Ritchie, Samudragupta Bora and Lianne J Woodward

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12783

      What this paper adds

      • Two out of seven primary social competence studies and three out of 16 with a more general focus were considered to have high quality methodology.
      • Children born very preterm are at increased risk of social competence difficulties.
      • These difficulties emerge early and persist throughout childhood.
      • Social difficulties include more peer problems and social skill deficits.
      • Predictors include extremely preterm birth, neonatal cerebral abnormalities and lower socio-economic status.
  54. Original Articles

    1. Ambulatory children with cerebral palsy do not exhibit unhealthy weight gain following selective dorsal rhizotomy

      Sarah M Gutknecht, Michael H Schwartz and Meghan E Munger

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12784

      What this paper adds

      • Body mass index increases after selective dorsal rhizotomy were appropriate based on patients’ age and sex.
  55. Commentary

  56. Original Articles

    1. Favourable response to ketogenic dietary therapies: undiagnosed glucose 1 transporter deficiency syndrome is only one factor

      Natasha E Schoeler, Judith Helen Cross, Suzanne Drury, Nicholas Lench, Jacinta M Mcmahon, Mark T Mackay, Ingrid E Scheffer, Josemir W Sander and Sanjay M Sisodiya

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12781

      What this paper adds

      • Of 246 participants, one (0.4%) had a putatively deleterious variant in SLC2A1.
      • Fewer than 8% of participants without glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) were seizure-free at each follow-up point.
      • Single-variant and gene-burden association tests gave no significant results.
      • Ketogenic dietary therapies (KDT) response is not fully explained by SLC2A1 mutation/common variation.
    2. Teaching reading to children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a clinical trial with random assignment to different approaches

      Laura A Barquero, Angela M Sefcik, Laurie E Cutting and Sheryl L Rimrodt

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12769

      What this paper adds

      • Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 and reading deficits benefit from mainstream approaches to remedial reading instruction.
      • They may benefit more from multisensory instruction that does not emphasize visual–spatial discrimination.
      • A relevant short-term learning task for testing efficacy of drug treatments for cognitive deficits in neurofibramotosis type 1.
    3. Predictors for early diagnosis of cerebral palsy from national registry data

      Jakob Bie Granild-Jensen, Gija Rackauskaite, Esben Meulengracht Flachs and Peter Uldall

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12760

      What this paper adds

      • Median diagnostic age of cerebral palsy (CP) in Denmark is 11 months.
      • Gestational age is not associated with age at diagnosis.
      • CP diagnosis is made earlier when epilepsy or intellectual disability occur.
      • Children with CP were diagnosed earlier when cerebral ultrasonography was abnormal.
  57. Systematic Reviews

    1. Adaptive seating systems in children with severe cerebral palsy across International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth version domains: a systematic review

      Mattana Angsupaisal, Carel GB Maathuis and Mijna Hadders-Algra

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12762

      What this paper adds

      • Low levels of evidence from the available studies precludes pertinent conclusions on the effectiveness of adaptive seating systems (AdSSs) in children with severe cerebral palsy.
      • Limited evidence suggests that special-purpose AdSSs may improve self-care and play behaviour.
  58. Original Articles

    1. Reliability and validity of the Duncan-Ely test for assessing rectus femoris spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy

      Seung Yeol Lee, Ki Hyuk Sung, Chin Youb Chung, Kyoung Min Lee, Soon-Sun Kwon, Tae Gyun Kim, Sang Hyeong Lee, In Hyeok Lee and Moon Seok Park

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12761

      What this paper adds

      • The interobserver reliability of the Duncan-Ely test was greatest during fast velocity.
      • The sensitivity and specificity of the Duncan-Ely test were greatest during fast velocity.
  59. Commentary

    1. Duchenne muscular dystrophy and the stomatognathic system

      Marcelo Coelho Goiato

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12755

      This commentary is on the original article by Ferreira et al.

  60. Original Articles

    1. The effects of Duchenne muscular dystrophy on the performance of the stomatognathic system: case–control study

      Bruno Ferreira, Gabriel Pádua Da Silva, Camila Rosa Gonçalves, Veridiana Wanshi Arnoni, Selma Siéssere, Marisa Semprini, Edson Donizetti Verri, Thais Cristina Chaves and Simone Cecilio Hallak Regalo

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12707

      What this paper adds

      • An assessment of the stomatognathic system not seen in the literature in individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).
      • Evaluates a comprehensive approach to the stomatognathic system in individuals with DMD.
      • Presents a considerable number of participants for the disease studied.
      • Of help to professionals working with individuals with DMD.
  61. Book Reviews

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