Developing World Bioethics

Cover image for Vol. 16 Issue 2

Edited By: Debora Diniz and Udo Schüklenk

Impact Factor: 1.769

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 4/51 (Ethics); 4/17 (Medical Ethics)

Online ISSN: 1471-8847

Associated Title(s): Bioethics

Author Guidelines

In order to ensure that manuscripts are reviewed as quickly as possible, authors are requested to observe the following requirements:

  • Manuscripts should be between 5,000 and 7,000 words long (including references). Longer manuscripts should be discussed with the Editors prior to submitting them for review.
  • Please ensure that the manuscript is ANONYMOUS by putting your name, contact details (including email address), and any self-identifying references in a separate file.
  • The abstract should not exceed 250 words.
  • The biographical material should not exceed 3–4 lines.

It is intended that decisions on publication will be made within three months of receipt of a submitted manuscript.

Manuscript submission
Manuscripts should be submitted to the following website: Full submission instructions can be found on this website. If you do not have access to the internet, please contact the Developing World Bioethics office to discuss alternative means of submission.
A cover letter should be submitted with your manuscript and must include a statement that the data have not been published, and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. It will be presumed that all listed authors of a manuscript have agreed to the listing and have seen and approved the manuscript.
The journal to which you are submitting your manuscript employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements.

For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

NEW: Online production tracking is now available for your article through Wiley-Blackwell’s Author Services
Author Services enables authors to track their article – once it has been accepted – through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

NEW: Optimize your article for search engine rankings
Many readers will use search engines when looking for journal articles, but readers will often not look past the first page of results.  This is why at Developing World Bioethics we feel that it is important to help our authors to maximize their search engine rankings.  There are some simple things that you can do to improve your article’s ranking, and guidelines on these can be found at  Please review your title/abstract in the light of these and make any necessary changes as part of your final preparations.

Early View
Developing World Bioethics is covered by Wiley-Blackwell’s Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors’ final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

Pre-submission English-language editing
Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

Editorial Correspondence
All editorial correspondence should be directed to:
Andy F. Visser
Managing Editor
PO Box 249
Grafton ON KOK 2G0
Phone: 905-349-3360
Fax: 613-533-2369

(download style guide in PDF format)

Please ensure that the manuscript is ANONYMOUS by removing any link to the author(s). Remove reference material in any footnote that references the author(s) of the piece for review and replace information with ‘AUTHOR’

Contact/biographical material should be attached separately – biography should not exceed 4 lines.

An abstract should be attached – not exceeding 250 words. A total word count should also be included.

Everything should be double-spaced – this includes quotations and footnotes.

There should be margins of 1.5' (4 cm) at the left and right of the page.

To minimise publication time of your manuscript it is important that all electronic artwork is supplied to the editorial office in the correct format and resolution. We recommend that you consult the Illustration guidelines at if you need advice on any aspect of preparing your artwork.



Footnotes should be consecutively numbered and collected at the end of each page. The easiest way to do this is to use the footnote function in Word. Do not include an alphabetical list of references. Referencing in footnotes should follow this style:


Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. 1998. Code of Medical Ethics: Current Opinions with Annotations. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association: 3-7.

Edited Books:
V. Held, ed. 1995. Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Chapters/Articles in Edited Books:
V. Held. 1998. Feminist Transformations of Moral Theory. In Ethics: the Big Questions. J.P. Sterba, ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing: 331–346.

F.A. Chervenak & L.B. McCullough. Perinatal Ethics: A Practical Method of Analysis of Obligations to Mother and Foetus. Obstet Gynecol 1985; 66: 442–446.

F.A. Chervenak & L.B. McCullough. Perinatal Ethics: A Practical Method of Analysis of Obligations to Mother and Foetus. Obstet Gynecol 1985; 66: 442–446: 443. (add page number where reference refers to a direct quote)

NB: Journals must be referenced in the footnotes using their abbreviated title. Journal title abbreviations can be accessed at the NCBI site here:
Just type in journal name and press ‘go’ to access the abbreviation.

Journal references normally require only the volume number and not the issue number. They should only contain the issue number if the journal volume does not have consecutive pagination.

C. Dyer & S. Boseley. 1999. A Matter of Life and Death. The Guardian 16 July: 3.

NB: In all book/journal article/internet reference/newspaper articles, all key words should be capitalised and prepositions, pronouns and definite/indefinite articles should be in lower case.

References in Articles

Developing World Bioethics requires contributors reference journals in the footnotes using their abbreviated title, using the Vancouver referencing style; references should not be placed at the end of the article. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors provides authoritative details about this style here: Here is an example of this referencing style (taken from the British Medical Journal's advice to contributors):


The author has discussed the implications of these proposals on the National Health Service in another paper (1). Other writers have commented on related issues, notably Lane (2,3) and Lewis (4).

References in the Vancouver style would be cited in numerical order as below. Journal names are abbreviated.

(1) Annas GJ. New drugs for acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:435-9.

(2) Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB. Marijuana: the forbidden medicine. London: Yale University Press; 1993.

(3) Feinberg TE, Farah MJ, editors. Behavioural neurology and neuropsychology. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1997.

There are several software packages available to help authors manage and format the references and footnotes in their journal article. We recommend the use of a software tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting.

EndNote reference styles can be searched for here:

Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:

Internet References:
National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC). 2001. Ethical and Policy Issues in International Research: Clinical Trials in Developing Countries. Bethesada, MD: NBAC. Available at: [Accessed 12 Jan 2006].

   • Provide a ‘date last accessed’ against each website address – see above for style
   • They should be clearly laid out as shown above
   • Be sure to include the following – Author/date of publication/last update (usually there is a date on the website)/title of piece/place of publication
      either place of publication of hard copy or head office of publisher if online source only)/URL/date last accessed

For immediately repeating footnotes use:
Ibid. (Ibid: page number. - in the case of a direct quote)
    e.g. Ibid: 223.

For repeated footnotes not immediately following previous footnote use:
Author's surname, op. cit. note (give previous note number), pp. (give page numbers).
    e.g. Chervenak & McCullough, op. cit. note 1, p. 444.

Up to 3 authors - all authors should be listed in the first instance. Over 3 authors – first author plus ‘et al.’

In any repeated reference: Up to 2 authors – both authors should be listed. Over 2 authors – first author plus ‘et al.’

When linking authors in footnotes, ampersands (&) should be used rather than ‘and’.


NB: Please do not use multiple footnotes in the text (i.e. 1,2,3). Use one footnote where multiple references apply and separate references in footnotes with a semicolon. For example:

3 J. Steiner & M.A. Earnest. The Language of Medication-Taking. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 926-930; C. Cameron. Patient Compliance: Recognition of Factors Involved and Suggestions for Promoting Compliance with Therapeutic Regimens. J Adv Nurs 1996; 24: 248; D. Lowry. Issues of Noncompliance in Mental Health. J Adv Nurs 1998; 28: 280-287.


• UK and US spelling are both acceptable – must be consistent throughout
    • Retain original spelling in any quotations


    • Indent quotes of longer than three lines. Such quotations must be preceded by colon, indented left and have no quotation marks
    • Use square brackets [….] to surround text that has been inserted and does not appear in the original quote
    • Use single quotation marks throughout. (However, where double quotation marks are present within a direct quotation it is acceptable to retain
       double quotation marks.)

Type subheadings as follows:
    • First-level – ALL IN CAPITALS
    • Second-level – Sentence case (roman type)
    • Third-level – Sentence case (italic type)

Abbreviations, Acronyms and Contractions
    • Use full stop after et al., no., vol., p. and pp.
    • In footnotes, use comma before ‘e.g.’ and ‘i.e.’ but not after (in some British cities, e.g. London, Glasgow…). In text do not use these abbreviations –
       use full phrase.
    • Full stops are generally not required in abbreviations and acronyms, such as US, UK, UNESCO, WHO.

    • Must be attached as separate files – must be easily identifiable
    • Use the table facility in Word to create tables
    • Double-check totals
    • Indicate where tables should be located in body of text

    • No apostrophe in plurals of abbreviations, e.g. NGOs, or in calendar periods, e.g. 1970s

    • Use hyphen to link words
    • Use en rule for parenthetical hyphens in the text, i.e. – rather than -

Numbers and Dates
    • Spell numbers one to nine inclusive; then 10, 11……..
    • Include commas in 5 figure numbers, e.g. 21,000. This is not necessary in 4 figure numbers, e.g. 5600
    • Percentages should be written as, e.g. 5%, 37.5%
    • Dates should appear in the following form – 4 January 2006 (when located in body of text) and 4 Jan 2006 (when located in web access dates in

    • Use italics: for foreign words not in common usage; titles of published books, journals & organisational statements/declarations (e.g. Universal
      Declaration of Human Rights
    • Do not use italics for article titles, chapter titles. Enclose these in single quotation marks
    • Government Acts and Bills should be in title caps. They should not be in italics or within quotation marks
    • Italics can be used for emphasis

Further Journal Conventions:
    • ‘et al.’ should not be italicised
    • References to US towns/cities should include state, e.g. Washington, DC.
    • Standard abbreviations such as Prof, Dr, PhD, MA, BS do not require to be punctuated by full stops
    • Do not use underlining or bold type – use italics for emphasis
    • When referencing authors, their initials should be separated by a full point but no space, e.g. F.A. Chervenak
    • Terms such as, e.g. government, cabinet, the court, editors, president, should be lower case unless part of official name
    • Terms such as, e.g. north, south, enlightenment, holocaust, should not be capitalised unless used in the form of a proper noun, e.g. southern Africa;
       the disease had a greater impact on the west of the country; the effects of a nuclear holocaust; victims of the Holocaust during the period of WWII;
       the Enlightenment period that developed in the West

Some punctuation issues
    • There may not be a ‘sociology of ethics’, (comma outside quotes)
    • So it can be argued that there exists a ‘theory of social and moral development’.3 (full stop outside quote/superscript outside full stop)
    • When a quote is complete, the full stop should be inside the inverted commas. E.g. X argued that: ‘The bioethical approach to research is mandatory
       when researching HIV/AIDS.’
    • ….as a result of monitoring. (When such a circumstance occurs, it can be regarded as a direct effect of the bioethical gaze.) (full stop inside
       parenthesis when full sentence is enclosed within parenthesis)

Acknowledgements should be located at the end of the manuscript and not in the footnotes