Diversity and Distributions

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 3

Edited By: Janet Franklin

Impact Factor: 4.566

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 5/49 (Biodiversity Conservation); 21/150 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 1472-4642

Associated Title(s): Global Ecology and Biogeography, Journal of Biogeography

Author Guidelines

Diversity and Distributions publishes papers that deal with conservation biogeography which is defined as "the application of biogeographical principles, theories, and analyses to problems regarding biodiversity conservation" (Whittaker et al. 2005; Diversity and Distributions, 16, 313-320).
Authors considering submitting a paper to Diversity and Distributions are encouraged to read THIS EDITORIAL for details on topics that are appropriate for the journal.

Requirements for Submission
1. Manuscripts submitted to Diversity and Distributions must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere.
2. The corresponding author must ensure that for each the first and final rounds of submission each author named on the manuscript has approved the final version and consented to being named as an author on the manuscript, exactly as submitted to the Journal.
3. All manuscripts submitted to the journal will be scanned using software designed to detect plagiarism. Where plagiarism is found, the submission may be rejected and/or authors' institutions may be notified.
4. Authors must disclose any conflict of interest that might be perceived as affecting the objectivity of conclusions, even if the conflict is only apparent. Corresponding authors will be asked to confirm whether or not a conflict of interest exists as part of the submission process.
5. All submissions must be concisely and clearly written in grammatically correct English.

Diversity and Distributions has five main categories of articles:

1. Biodiversions. These are editorial items solicited directly by the Editor. Unsolicited material will not normally be considered. If you have an idea for such a contribution (up to 2000 words), please contact the Editor, who will provide you with the necessary guidance for submission.

2. Biodiversity Viewpoints. This section contains short essays (usually up to 3000 words) considering biodiversity from a particular disciplinary, regional, political, or other standpoint. If you would like to contribute such an essay, please contact the Editor outlining the distinctive character of your proposed essay, its length, the number of references, and the character of any illustrations to be used. These require a 150-word unstructured abstract.

3. Biodiversity Research and Reviews  This is the core section of the journal and presents research or review articles up to 5000 words in length, but preferably shorter (the word limit refers to text from the start of the introduction to the end of the acknowledgements - i.e. excluding the title, abstract, references, figure captions, and tables). The Editor reserves the right to publish long tables and appendices on the journal’s website, rather than in the printed version. Such a decision will only be taken after consultation with the author. A short running title should be provided. The manuscript must include an abstract of no more than 300 words structured under the headings: Aim, Location, Methods, Results, Main conclusions, and ending with a list of 6-10 keywords or phrases, arranged in alphabetical order. Three different weights of headings are available: authors should indicate the relative importance of a heading by the use of ringed capital letters. i.e. (A) for main headings; (B) for secondary headings; and, (C) for tertiary headings. A biosketch entry should be included after the references section (see below).

4. Biodiversity Letters. This section presents short items (normally less than 1000 words) of general news interest with respect to biodiversity, conferences or events, computer hardware and software developments, films and videos, the law, and political debates. Brief letters to the editor are also most welcome. Lively titles are encouraged, and material should be as topical as possible. Longer letters (up to 2500 words in total) prompted by papers previously published in this or occasionally other journals are also encouraged. Such longer communications should include a one-paragraph abstract (150 word maximum), and a list of 6-10 keywords.

Pre-submission English Language editing
Only papers written in English will be accepted. The journal cannot provide detailed editing of manuscripts to correct English. Where necessary, authors should have their manuscripts checked by a native English speaker before submitting their work.

Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/english_language.asp Japanese authors can also find a list of local English improvement services at http://www.wiley.co.jp/journals/editcontribute.html.

Manuscript preparation and submission
Diversity and Distributions requires online submission of manuscripts at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/ddi. Submission online is an intuitive, step-by-step process. By submitting online, you will benefit from quicker peer-review, web-based manuscript tracking, online reviewing and faster response. You will need your manuscript and figures in a digital format. When submitting, authors should upload a single file that contains all text (including a short running title, references, tables, figure captions and appendices) and figures which should be in the same document, at the end of the document and NOT embedded in the main text.

A PDF file will be automatically created for reviewing purposes. Full instructions and support for authors can be found at the Site. To use the Site you will need a user ID and password. Go to the Journal's submission homepage (http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/ddi) and click 'Create a new account' if you have not registered before, or click 'Check for existing account' if you have submitted online or reviewed online before for the Journal (or if you have forgotten your details). If you at any time experience difficulty with your online submission, please contact the Editorial Office at ddioffice@wiley.com

You will need to approve the PDF that is created to complete the submission process. Please check the PDF carefully, especially tables and figures as these are sometimes distorted in conversion to PDF.

Please note that if we notice any formatting errors in the submitted PDF, the paper will be declined immediately.

Contributing authors are requested to submit, at the time of submission of their manuscripts, a list of at least five (and ideally TEN) persons that they consider well qualified to review the submitted work (e-mail addresses must be included).  The list of suggested referees should NOT include any current nor recent collaborators in work that is closely related to the topic of the submitted paper, or any persons within the same organization as any of the authors of the submitted work.

Guidelines for Cover Submissions
If you would like to send suggestions for artwork related to your manuscript to be considered to appear on the cover of the journal, please follow these general guidelines.

All enquiries should be directed to the Editorial Office at ddioffice@wiley.com

Formatting your Manuscript
The essential points of Diversity and Distribution’s format are summarized below. Please consult a recent volume of the journal for details and examples.

1. General - Please use line numbering.

2. Title page - DDI papers should begin with a title page that includes:

  • the title
  • the names of all authors
  • the postal addresses and email addresses of the authors
  • a list of 6-10 keywords
  • a short running-title
  • the name of corresponding author
  • the number of words in the Abstract
  • the number of words in main body of the paper, from the Introduction through the Biosketch (see below)
  • the number of references

3. Sections - The sections of the paper should be presented in the following order: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, List of brief titles of items in the supplementary material, Biosketch, References, Appendices containing references to data sources (see below), Tables, Figure Legends, Figures, Supporting Information (i.e., appendices to be published online).

4. A Biosketch should be included: a short (30-100 words for one author, or up to 150 words for three authors) description of the research interests of the author(s). For papers with >3 authors, a biosketch should either focus on first author, or should be a general statement of the focus of the research team. Links to authors' web pages may be provided.

5. Citations to data sources - Some studies (e.g., meta-analyses) use data drawn from multiple published sources. If these sources are not otherwise cited in the main text, they should be listed in one or more appendices with titles similar to the following: “Appendix 1 – Data sources”. These data appendices will be printed in the main paper (so that citation indexing services will capture them), but in a reduce font. The main text should cite Appendix 1 (e.g. “A list of the data sources is found in Appendix 1.”).

6. Figures and tables - Every figure and table must have a legend that makes the display piece understandable without reference to the main text. All acronyms and abbreviations used in the display piece must be defined in its legend. A casual browser of the literature should be able to easily grasp the point of the display piece. It is often worthwhile to add a sentence summarizing what conclusions the reader should draw from the display piece.

7. The correct nomenclatural authorities for all taxa must be given on the first appearance in the text, in Tables, and in the captions to Figures, unless a general reference to a standard source is provided at an appropriate place in the manuscript. Genus names should not be abbreviated in figure captions and table headings.

Conflict of Interest
Authors must disclose any conflict of interest that might be perceived as affecting the objectivity of conclusions, even if the conflict is only apparent.

Diversity and Distributions is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

Abbreviations and units
SI units (metre, kilogram, etc.) are essential. Statistics and measurements should be given in figures, i.e. 10mm, except where the number begins the paragraph. When the number does not refer to a unit of measurement, it is spelt out, except where the number is greater than 10. A list of preferred abbreviations and naming conventions is available here.

Tables must be positioned on separate sheets, numbered consecutively (Table 1, Table 2, etc.) and grouped together after the References. Column headings should be brief: with units of measurement in parentheses. Tables should be typed as text, using 'tabs' (not spaces) to align columns. The use of table editors should be avoided. Do not use graphics software to create tables.

Please ensure that this section is entitled 'METHODS', and not 'MATERIALS AND METHODS'.

Figures, Illustrations and Maps
All illustrations (including photographs) are classified as figures and should be numbered consecutively (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc.), and grouped together after the Tables – they should NOT be embedded in the text.

Upon your manuscript being accepted for publication, please supply separate files containing electronic versions of your figures (see File Formats, below). Please note that your paper will go through production more quickly if instructions on content and format are followed carefully. Each figure must have a legend that makes the material completely understandable. Legends should be presented separately from the figures, in a list at the end of the manuscript. Label multi-panel figures (a), (b), (c), etc., preferably in the upper left corner, and refer to them in the text as, for example, Fig. 1(a). Please ensure that electronic artwork is prepared such that, after reduction to fit across one or two columns or two-thirds width (80 mm, 169 mm or 110 mm, respectively) as required, all lettering and symbols will be clear and easy to read, i.e. no labels should be too large or too small. Prepare figures such that, after reduction to print size, all lettering and symbols will be clear and easily read, and such that each figure makes effective use of space. Font size in figures should be 8 pt. To check this, fix the image size (for example, in Illustrator) to the required column width, and check the font size. Avoid using tints if possible; if they are essential to the understanding of the figure, try to make them coarse.
Maps that display area data and organism distribution at a continental, hemispheric, or world scale must always use an equal-area map projection (e.g. Mollweide or Aitoff's). Note especially that Mercator's projection is not acceptable for such data. Please indicate the precise projection employed in the caption. On these maps, the equatorial scale should be indicated, while scale information should be provided, preferably as a scale bar within the figure, for all maps of whatever size and area.
File Formats: After acceptance of your manuscript for publication, figure files should be supplied as follows. Photographic figures should be saved in tif format at 300 d.p.i. (or failing that in jpg format with low compression). Line figures should be saved as vector graphics (i.e. composed of lines, curves, points and fonts; not pixels) in eps or pdf format, or embedded as such in Word, as this enhances their display when published online. Combination figures (those composed of vector and pixel/raster elements) should also be saved in eps or pdf format where possible (or embedded as such in Word). If line figures and combination figures cannot be saved in vector graphics format, they should be saved in tif format at high resolution (i.e. 600 d.p.i.) (do not save them in jpg format). If you are unsure about the resolution of your tif files, please zoom in and check that fonts, curves and diagonal lines are smooth-edged and do not appear blocky when viewed at high magnification. Note that line and combination figures supplied in tif format are downsampled for online publication and so authors should preferentially opt for vector graphic formats for these figure types (full resolution tif files are used for print publication).

Charges apply for the reproduction of colour figures in the hard copy of the journal. So, if your paper contains colour figures, the Colour Work Agreement form (available here), which outlines the charges, must be completed by the corresponding author and sent to Wiley Blackwell at acceptance. If using a limited colour palette we ask that authors avoid using red with green as this is a common colour-blindness combination. If you are not prepared to pay for colour in print, figures will be produced in colour in electronic versions of the paper, but black and white in the print copy. For the convenience of readers, we ask that you design your colour artwork so that it can be understood as best as possible in greyscale. Note that the same figure file must be used for both the print and online versions (we do not accept differing colour and black-and-white versions of the same figure). Authors must complete the Colour Work Agreement form even if they opt for colour online/black and white in print. Articles received by Wiley Blackwell with colour work will not be published until the form has been received. Please send a scanned copy of the form to our production editor (jbi@wiley.com) for information and, if paying for colour, post the hard copy of the form to: Customer Services (OPI), John Wiley & Sons Ltd, European Distribution Centre, New Era Estate, Oldlands Way, Bognor Regis, West Sussex, PO22 9NQ.

Appendices and Supporting Information
Appendices may be provided for important primary data, which needs to be included in the paper. If, however, these data are very extensive, or if they are of only indirect relevance to the paper, they will normally be made available in an electronic form through the Journal’s web pages. Mention of the first supporting appendix, table or figure ,etc., in the text should be in the form 'see Appendix S1 in Supporting Information' [where 'S' indicates Supporting], subsequent mention should be in the form 'see Appendix S2'. Authors should then include a Supporting Information section after the References section, which should be in the following form (text in curly brackets is for completion by the author, see instructions below):

Supporting Information

Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article:

Appendix S1 {Insert short legend to online Appendix S1}
Figure S1 {Insert short legend to online Figure S1}
Table S1 {Insert short legend to online Table S1}

As a service to our authors and readers, this journal provides supporting information supplied by the authors.  Such materials are peer-reviewed and may be re-organized for online delivery, but are not copy-edited or typeset. Technical support issues arising from supporting information (other than missing files) should be addressed to the authors.

For reasons of space, only short titles to Supporting Information should be given in this section; full titles (if different) can be given with the Supporting Information itself; full titles can include a fuller description of content, definition of abbreviations, etc. Supporting Information files are hosted by the Publisher in the format supplied by the author and are not copy-edited by the Publisher. It is the responsibility of the author to supply Supporting Information in an appropriate file format and to ensure that it is accurate and correct. Authors should therefore prepare Supporting Information with the same rigour as their main paper, including adhesion to journal style (e.g. formatting of references). Supporting Information can be provided as separate files or as one combined file. Authors are discouraged from supplying very large files or files in non-standard file formats, both of which may reduce their use to the readership. Files should be prepared without line numbers or wide line spacing, and with all track-change edits accepted. Further information on Supporting Information is available here.

At proof correction stage authors will be given access to their Supporting Information (via the web) and should check it for accuracy and updates. If changes are required corrected versions of the files received with the proof must be emailed to the Production Editor, with a brief description of the changes made. Supporting Information must be checked alongside the main proof and corrections for both returned to the Production Editor at the same time.

A short Biosketch/Biosketches entry (30-100 words for one author/150 words for the first three authors, respectively) describing the research interests of the author(s) should be provided. For papers with 4 or more authors, biosketch details should be supplied for the first author only; alternatively, a general statement of the focus of the research team (a link to a group web page is encouraged) should be provided, together with a statement of author roles, e.g. Author contributions: A.S. and K.J. conceived the ideas; K.J. and R.L.M. collected the data; R.L.M. and P.A.K. analysed the data; and A.S. and K.J. led the writing.

We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote for reference management and formatting. Click here to download the most up to date EndNote reference style for Diversity and Distributions. References should be made by giving the author’s name with the year of publication in parentheses. When reference is made to a work by three authors or more, only the first name and et al. should be given in the citation. All authors’ names should be listed in the reference itself. If several papers by the same author and from the same year are cited, a, b, c, etc., should be inserted after the year of publication. References must be listed in alphabetical order at the end of the paper in the following standard form:

Cox, C. B. & Moore, P. D. (1999) Biogeography: an ecological and evolutionary approach, 6th edn. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford.

May, R.M. (1994) The effects of spatial scale on ecological questions and answers. Large-scale ecology and conservation biology (ed. by P.J. Edwards, R.M. May and N.R. Webb), pp. 1-17. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Prentice, I.C., Guiot, J., Huntley, B., Jolly, D. & Cheddadi, R. (1996) Reconstructing biomes from palaeoecological data: a general method and its application to European pollen data at 0 and 6 ka. Climate Dynamics, 12, 185-194.

Please note that titles of journals should be written in full.  Unpublished data, works in preparation and papers submitted but not yet accepted may be cited in the text, giving the author’s initials and surname, but should not be included in the reference list.

It is imperative that you follow the above format for your references. ANY deviation from the required format WILL result in the paper being RETURNED TO THE AUTHOR FOR CORRECTION.

Data Accessibility
Authors who wish to provide a consolidated statement of how other readers can access the data used in their paper may wish to refer to outside data repositories where they have deposited their data, e.g. Dryad, Pangaea, or others. If so, this statement should be included after the Supporting Information section and before the Biosketch entry. A typical entry might read as follows:

All topographic and environmental GIS layers, the habitat suitability model and BTM results generated for this study are available as raster grids from the Pangaea database: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.808540.

Copyright Transfer Agreement 
If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp.

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp and visit http://www.wileyopenaccess.com/details/content/12f25db4c87/Copyright--License.html.

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit: http://www.wiley.com/go/funderstatement.

Referrals to the Open Access Journal "Ecology and Evolution"
Diversity and Distributions works together with Wiley’s Open Access Journal, Ecology and Evolution, to enable rapid publication of good quality research that is unable to be accepted for publication by our journal. Authors will be offered the option of having the paper, along with any related reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Editor of Ecology and Evolution. Authors will not need to reformat or rewrite their manuscript at this stage, and publication decisions will be made a short time after the transfer takes place. The Editor of Ecology and Evolution will accept submissions that report well-conducted research which reaches the standard acceptable for publication. Accepted papers can be published rapidly: typically within 15 days of acceptance. Ecology and Evolution is a Wiley Open Access journal and article publication fees apply. More information can be found here.

The corresponding author will receive an email alert to download an PDF file of the proof.  Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following Web site:


This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Proofs will be posted if no e-mail address is available. The proofs should be returned to the Production Editor within two weeks of receipt. Major alterations to the text and illustrations are only accepted when absolutely necessary; the additional costs may be charged to the author.

Free access to the final PDF offprint of your article will be available via Author Services only. Please therefore sign up for Author Services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers. This free access replaces any free paper copies, and you will not be sent a PDF. You may also nominate up to 10 colleagues for free access. All accesses from Author Services count towards the usage of your article. Additional paper copies may be purchased and should be ordered when proofs are returned. Offprints are normally sent out about 3 weeks after publication.

Policy on the use of RAPD markers 
The appropriateness of RAPD markers for population genetic inference is increasingly questioned by our reviewers and editors because of concerns about reproducibility, dominance, and homology.  Given these worries, and the ready availability of other kinds of markers that do not suffer from all of these problems, studies based primarily on RAPDs only rarely pass the scrutiny of peer review in Diversity and Distributions.  Of course, there may be situations in which RAPDs are appropriate, such as in genetic mapping studies or in searches for diagnostic markers for a given species or trait.  These latter kinds of studies will continue to be reviewed by the journal.

Policy on molecular sequences 
It is a condition of publication that papers using new molecular sequences must place the sequences in an appropriate database (e.g. GenBank).  Relevant accession numbers should be provided in the final manuscript. Accession numbers are required for all sequences used in analyses, including existing sequences in databases.

Online production tracking is available for your article through Wiley Blackwell's Author Services
Author Services enables authors to track their article – once it has been accepted – through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/ for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.