Diversity and Distributions

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 6

Edited By: Janet Franklin

Impact Factor: 4.566

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 5/49 (Biodiversity Conservation); 21/150 (Ecology)

Online ISSN: 1472-4642

Associated Title(s): Global Ecology and Biogeography, Journal of Biogeography

Author Guidelines


  1. Submission
  2. Aims and Scope
  3. Manuscript Categories and Requirements
  4. Preparing Your Submission
  5. Editorial Policies and Ethical Considerations
  6. Author Licensing
  7. Publication Process After Acceptance
  8. Post Publication
  9. Editorial Office Contact Details


Authors should kindly note that submission implies that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium. All submissions must be concisely and clearly written in grammatically correct English.

Once the submission materials have been prepared in accordance with the Author Guidelines, manuscripts should be submitted online at https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/ddi

The submission system will prompt authors to use an ORCID iD (a unique author identifier) to help distinguish their work from that of other researchers. Click here to find out more.

Click here for more details on how to use ScholarOne

For help with submissions, please contact Iris and Nathan from the Editorial Office at ddioffice@wiley.com.


Diversity and Distributions publishes papers that deal with conservation biogeography which is defined as "the application of biogeographical principles, theories, and analyses to problems regarding biodiversity conservation" (Whittaker et al. 2005; Diversity and Distributions, 16, 313-320).

Authors considering submitting a paper to Diversity and Distributions are encouraged to read THIS EDITORIAL for details on topics that are appropriate for the journal.


The Journal publishes articles under the following main headers: 1) Biodiversity Research, 2) Reviews, 3) Biodiversions, 4) Biodiversity Viewpoints, 5) Biodiversity Letters. All submissions are subject to peer review.

1) and 2) Biodiversity Research and Reviews. This is the core section of the journal and presents research or review articles up to 5000 words in length, but preferably shorter (the word limit refers to text from the start of the introduction to the end of the acknowledgements - i.e. excluding the title, abstract, references, figure captions, and tables). The Editor reserves the right to publish long tables and appendices on the journal’s website, rather than in the printed version. Such a decision will only be taken after consultation with the author. The manuscript must include an abstract of no more than 300 words structured under the headings: Aim, Location, Methods, Results, Main conclusions. A biosketch entry should be included after the references section (see below).

3) Biodiversions. These are editorial items solicited directly by the Editor. Unsolicited material will not normally be considered. If you have an idea for such a contribution (up to 2000 words), please contact the Editor, who will provide you with the necessary guidance for submission.

4) Biodiversity Viewpoints. This section contains short essays (usually up to 3000 words) considering biodiversity from a particular disciplinary, regional, political, or other standpoint. If you would like to contribute such an essay, please contact the Editor outlining the distinctive character of your proposed essay, its length, the number of references, and the character of any illustrations to be used. These require a 150-word unstructured abstract, and a list of 6-10 keywords.

5) Biodiversity Letters. This section presents short items (normally less than 1000 words) of general news interest with respect to conservation biogeography, including computer hardware and software developments, films and videos, the law, and political debates. Brief letters to the editor are also welcome. Lively titles are encouraged, and material should be as topical as possible. Longer letters (up to 2500 words in total) prompted by papers previously published in this or occasionally other journals will also be considered. Such longer communications should include a one-paragraph unstructured abstract (150 word maximum), and a list of 6-10 keywords.


Cover Letters

A cover letter to the editor, indicating in less than 100 words why this paper is of interest to the readers of the Journal, can be uploaded separately.

Parts of the Manuscript

The manuscript should be submitted in separate files: main text file with embedded figures; supporting information.

LaTeX users do not have to translate their manuscripts into MSWord, but may upload them as PDF files. Any explanatory notes, companion papers etc. for the attention of reviewers should be uploaded under 'Comments to reviewers'.

Main Text File

The text file should be presented in the following order:

i. Title
ii. A short running title of less than 40 characters
iii. The full names of the authors
iv. The author's institutional affiliations where the work was carried out, with a footnote for the author’s present address if different from where the work was carried out
v. Acknowledgements
vi. Abstract and keywords
vii. Main text. The sections of the paper should be presented in the following order: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion
viii. References
ix. Data Accessibility Statement
x. Biosketch
xi. Tables (each table complete with title and footnotes)
xii. Figure legends and embedded figures
xiii. Appendices (if relevant)
xiv. Supporting information should be supplied as separate files.

Title. The title should be short and informative, containing major keywords related to the content. The title should not contain abbreviations (see Wiley's best practice SEO tips).

Authorship. For details on eligibility for author listing, please refer to the journal’s Authorship policy outlined in the Editorial Policies and Ethical Considerations section.

Acknowledgements. Contributions from individuals who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed, with permission from the contributor, in an Acknowledgements section. Financial and material support should also be mentioned. Thanks to anonymous reviewers are not appropriate.

Conflict of Interest Statement. Authors will be asked to provide a conflict of interest statement during the submission process. See ‘Conflict of Interest’ section in Editorial Policies and Ethical Considerations for details on what to include in this section. Authors should ensure they liaise with all co-authors to confirm agreement with the final statement.

Abstract and Keywords

Abstracts and keywords are required for some manuscript types. For details on manuscript types that require abstracts and/or keywords, as well as how to prepare them, please refer to the ‘Manuscript Categories and Requirements’ section. Please provide 6-10 keywords, arranged alphabetically, separated by commas. Note that optimally the most important keywords are repeated in the title and the keywords.

Main Text

The journal uses British spelling; however, authors may submit using either option, as spelling of accepted papers is converted during the production process.

Please ensure that this section is entitled 'METHODS', and not 'MATERIALS AND METHODS'.

References are styled according to the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. List all sources in the reference alphabetically by name.

In text citations should follow the author-date method. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

When a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in text. When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; subsequent citations include only the surname of the first author followed by et al., (not Italicized and with a period after “al.”) and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within a paragraph.

If there are two or more citations that shorten to the same lead author and date, give as many additional names as needed to identify them, e.g., (Smith, Jones, et al., 1991) and (Smith, Burke, et al., 1991).

Unpublished data, works in preparation and papers submitted but not yet accepted may be cited in the text as personal communication, giving the author's initials and surname, but should not be included in the reference list. It is the author's responsibility to obtain permission from colleagues to include their work as a personal communication. Please add the person’s initials, surname and if applicable institute for personal communications.

The basic reference form for a journal paper is: Author (date).Paper title. Journal, Volume, page; and for a book citation: Author (date). Book title. Place of publication, publisher.

Please note that for journal articles, issue numbers are not included unless each issue in the volume begins with page one. Journals names are written out in full.

Please ensure that in the paper titles only proper names are capitalized, and that all scientific binomials are in italics.

Please include up to seven authors in the list (use “&” before last author name). For eight or more authors please list the first six and then use ellipses followed by last author (do not use “&” before last author name)

Journal article:
Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73–82.

Goldstein, H. (1990). Problem-oriented policing. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Edited Book:
Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., ... Botros, N. (1983). Situational crime prevention: Its theoretical basis and practical scope. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 4, pp. 225–256). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

A Biosketch should be included: a short (30-100 words for one author, or up to 150 words for three authors) description of the research interests of the author(s). For papers with >3 authors, a biosketch should either focus on first author, or should be a general statement of the focus of the research team. Links to authors' web pages may be provided.

Citations to data sources
Some studies (e.g., meta-analyses) use data drawn from multiple published sources. If these sources are not otherwise cited in the main text, they should be listed in one or more appendices with titles similar to the following: “Appendix 1 – Data sources”. These data appendices will be printed in the main paper (so that citation indexing services will capture them), but in a reduced font. These appendices should be cited in the main text (e.g. “A list of the data sources is found in Appendix 1.”).

Tables should be self-contained and complement, not duplicate, information contained in the text. They should be supplied as editable files, not pasted as images. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the table, legend, and footnotes must be understandable without reference to the text, giving the study organism and study location and 'n' values where applicable. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses. All abbreviations must be defined in footnotes.

Figure Legends
Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text, to this end both the geographical region and the taxon should be mentioned in each caption. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.

For review purposes, figures should be embedded at the end of the text file. All illustrations (including photographs and maps) are classified as figures and they should be numbered consecutively as first cited in the text. Panels should be labelled (a), (b), (c), etc. rather than (A), (B), (C) etc. and referred to in the text as, for example, Fig. 1a. Figure legends should be listed at the end of the paper before the embedded figures. Legends should be explicit and informative and should ‘stand alone’ from the main text, giving the study organism and study location where applicable. All abbreviations should be defined.

Click here for the basic figure requirements for figures submitted with manuscripts for initial peer review, as well as the more detailed post-acceptance figure requirements.

If and when your paper is accepted for publication, the editorial office will request you to upload your figures as separate files in the format(s) specified below.

Photographic figures should be saved in .tif format at 300 d.p.i. (or failing that in .jpg format with low compression). Line figures should be saved as vector graphics (i.e. composed of lines, curves, points and fonts) in .eps or .pdf format, as this enhances their display when published online. Combination figures (those composed of vector and pixel/raster elements) should also be saved in .eps or .pdf format where possible. If line figures and combination figures cannot be saved in vector graphics format, they should be saved in .tif format at high resolution (i.e. 600–800 d.p.i.) (do not save them in .jpg format). If you are unsure about the resolution of your .tif files, please zoom in and check that fonts, curves and diagonal lines are smooth-edged and do not appear blocky. Note that .tif files are downsampled for online publication and so authors should preferentially opt for vector graphic formats for line and combination figures (full resolution .tif files are used for print publication). Colour figures should be saved in CYMK rather than RGB.

Prepare figures such that, after reduction to print size, all lettering and symbols will be clear and easily read, and such that each figure makes effective use of space. Font size in figures should be 8 pt. To check this, fix the image size in Illustrator to the required column width, and check the font size. Possible figure sizes: single column = 79mm, 2/3rd column = 110mm, double column = 168mm, maximum height of figure = 230mm.

Bar scales for maps and photographs are preferred to numerical scales and must be given on all such items. Maps that display area data and organism distribution at a continental, hemispheric, or world scale must always use an equal-area map projection (e.g. Mollweide or Aitoff's). Note especially that Mercator's projection is not acceptable for such data. Please indicate the precise projection employed in the caption. On these maps, the equatorial scale should be indicated, while scale information should be provided, preferably as a scale bar within the figure, for all maps of whatever size and area; use ‘km’ or ‘kilometres’, not ‘kilometers’. Maps should include adequate geo-referencing information (preferably the latitude and longitude).

Additional Files

Supporting Information
Supporting information is information that is not essential to the article, but provides greater depth and background. It is hosted online and appears without editing or typesetting. It may include tables, figures, videos, datasets, etc. Click here for Wiley’s FAQs on supporting information.

Note: if data, scripts, or other artefacts used to generate the analyses presented in the paper are available via a publicly available data repository, authors should include a reference to the location of the material within their paper.

Such supporting information should be referred to in the text as, for example, 'see Appendix S1 in Supporting Information'; subsequent mention should be in the form 'see Appendix S2'. Figures and tables in the Supporting Information must be numbered consecutively by Appendix number and figure number: e.g. the first figure in Appendix 1 as Fig. S1.1, the first in Appendix 2 as Fig. S2.2 (if there is only one figure in Appendix 1). All appendices, figures and tables must be cited in the text.

Supporting Information files are hosted by the Publisher in the format supplied by the author and are not copy-edited by the Publisher. It is the responsibility of the author to supply Supporting Information in an appropriate file format and to ensure that it is accurate and correct. Authors should therefore prepare Supporting Information with the same rigour as their main paper, including adherence to journal style (e.g. formatting of references, figure captions, headings). Sources cited only in the Supporting Information should be listed in a reference section within the supplementary files and not with the main paper. Supporting Information can be provided as separate editable files or, preferably, as one combined file. Authors are discouraged from supplying very large files or files in non-standard file formats, both of which may reduce their use to the readership. At the point a paper is accepted, these files should be prepared without line numbers or wide line spacing, and with all track-change edits accepted.

General Style Points

The following points provide general advice on formatting and style.

  • Abbreviations: In general, terms should not be abbreviated unless they are used repeatedly and the abbreviation is helpful to the reader. Initially, use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation only. A list of preferred abbreviations can be found here.
  • Units of measurement: Measurements should be given in SI or SI-derived units. Visit the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) website at www.bipm.fr for more information about SI units.
  • Numbers: numbers under 10 are spelt out, except for: measurements with a unit (8mmol/l); age (6 weeks old), or lists with other numbers (11 dogs, 9 cats, 4 gerbils).
  • Computer programs: All software programs should be written in small caps, followed at first mention by the version number (e.g. MRBAYES 3.1.0, Geneious, MEGA, FaBox, PopArt, MrBayes, Tracer, SPaGeDi) and reference. Packages in R should be in roman and quotations (e.g. `vegan´) and the relevant reference provided.

Wiley Author Resources

Manuscript Preparation Tips: Wiley has a range of resources for authors preparing manuscripts for submission available here. In particular, authors may benefit from referring to Wiley’s best practice tips on Writing for Search Engine Optimization.

Editing, Translation, and Formatting Support: Wiley Editing Services can greatly improve the chances of a manuscript being accepted. Offering expert help in English language editing, translation, manuscript formatting, and figure preparation, Wiley Editing Services ensures that the manuscript is ready for submission.

Guidelines for Cover Image Submissions: If you would like to send suggestions for artwork related to your manuscript to be considered to appear on the cover of the journal, please follow these general guidelines.


Editorial Review and Acceptance

The acceptance criteria for all papers are the quality and originality of the research and its significance to journal readership. Papers will only be sent to review if the Editor-in-Chief determines that the paper meets the appropriate quality and relevance requirements.

Wiley's policy on confidentiality of the review process is available here.

Referrals to the Open Access Journal "Ecology and Evolution"

This Journal works together with Wiley’s Open Access journal Ecology and Evolution, to enable rapid publication of good quality research that we are unable to accept for publication. Authors may be offered the option of having their paper, along with any related reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Editors of Ecology and Evolution. Authors will not need to reformat or rewrite their manuscript at this stage, and publication decisions will be made a short time after the transfer takes place. The Editors of Ecology and Evolution will accept submissions that report well-conducted research and which reach the standard acceptable for publication. Accepted papers can be published rapidly, typically within 15 days of acceptance. Ecology and Evolution is a Wiley Open Access journal and article publication fees apply. More information can be found here. Occasionally we refer papers to our sister journals JBI or GEB.

Data Storage and Documentation

Data are important products of the scientific enterprise, and they should be preserved and available for the scientific community. The Journal of Biogeography requires that data supporting the results in published papers will presented in Supporting Information, or be archived in an appropriate public archive, such as Dryad, TreeBASE, NERC data centre, GenBank, figshare or another archive of the author's choice that provides comparable access and guarantee of preservation. Authors may elect to have the data made publicly available at time of publication or, if the technology of the archive allows, may opt to embargo access to the data for a period of up to a year after publication. Exceptions, including longer embargoes or an exemption from the requirement, may be granted at the discretion of the editor, especially for sensitive information such as confidential social data or the location of endangered species. Authors should provide a consolidated statement of how readers can access the data used in their paper in a statement before the Biosketch entry. A typical entry might read as follows:

All topographic and environmental GIS layers, the habitat suitability model and BTM results generated for this study are available as raster grids from the Pangaea database: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.808540.

Policy on the use of RAPD Markers

The appropriateness of RAPD markers for population genetic inference is increasingly questioned by our reviewers and editors because of concerns about reproducibility, dominance, and homology. Given these worries, and the ready availability of other kinds of markers that do not suffer from all of these problems, studies based primarily on RAPDs only rarely pass the scrutiny of peer review in Diversity and Distributions. Of course, there may be situations in which RAPDs are appropriate, such as in genetic mapping studies or in searches for diagnostic markers for a given species or trait. These latter kinds of studies will continue to be reviewed by the journal.

Sequence Data

Sequence data have to be submitted in electronic form to any one of the three major collaborative databases: DDBJ, EMBL, or GenBank. The suggested wording for referring to accession-number information is: ‘These sequence data have been submitted to the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under accession number U12345’. Addresses are as follows:

Collecting permission and the Nagoya Protocol

Authors must ensure that any data utilised in the submitted manuscript have been lawfully acquired in accordance with The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity. It is recommended that it is explicitly stated that the relevant fieldwork permission was obtained, and to list the permit numbers, in Materials and Methods or the Acknowledgements.

Species Names

Upon its first use in the title, abstract, and text, the common name of a species should be followed by the scientific name (genus, species) in parentheses. For well-known species, however, scientific names may be omitted from article titles. If no common name exists in English, only the scientific name should be used. For the focal species in the study, the authority(ies) should be provided at the first mention in the main text, in the format specified by the relevant code.

Conflict of Interest

The journal requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise that might be perceived as influencing an author's objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or directly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include, but are not limited to: patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker's fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication. If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and collectively to disclose with the submission ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.


Authors should list all funding sources in the Acknowledgements section. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of their funder designation. If in doubt, please check the Open Funder Registry for the correct nomenclature: https://www.crossref.org/services/funder-registry/


The list of authors should accurately illustrate who contributed to the work and how. All those listed as authors should qualify for authorship according to all of the following criteria:

  1. Have made substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data;
  2. Been involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content;
  3. Given final approval of the version to be published. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content; and
  4. Agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Contributions from anyone who does not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed, with permission from the contributor, in an Acknowledgements section (for example, to recognize contributions from people who provided technical help, collation of data, writing assistance, acquisition of funding, or a department chairperson who provided general support). Prior to submitting the article all authors should agree on the order in which their names will be listed in the manuscript.

Additional Authorship Options: Joint first or senior authorship: In the case of joint first authorship, a footnote should be added to the author listing, e.g. ‘X and Y should be considered joint first author’ or ‘X and Y should be considered joint senior author.’


As part of the journal’s commitment to supporting authors at every step of the publishing process, the journal requires the submitting author (only) to provide an ORCID iD when submitting a manuscript. This takes around 2 minutes to complete. Find more information here.

Publication Ethics

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Note this journal uses iThenticate’s CrossCheck software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. Read the Top 10 Publishing Ethics Tips for Authors here. Wiley’s Publication Ethics Guidelines can be found at authorservices.wiley.com/ethics-guidelines/index.html.


If a paper is accepted for publication, the author identified as the formal corresponding author will receive an email prompting them to log in to Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be required to complete a copyright license agreement on behalf of all authors of the paper.

Authors may choose to publish under the terms of the journal’s standard copyright agreement, or OnlineOpen under the terms of a Creative Commons License.

General information regarding licensing and copyright is available here. To review the Creative Commons License options offered under OnlineOpen, please click here. (Note that certain funders mandate a particular type of CC license be used; to check this please click here.)

Self-Archiving Definitions and Policies: Note that the journal’s standard copyright agreement allows for self-archiving of different versions of the article under specific conditions. Please click here for more detailed information about self-archiving definitions and policies.

Open Access fees: Authors who choose to publish using OnlineOpen will be charged a fee. A list of Article Publication Charges for Wiley journals is available here.

Funder Open Access: Please click here for more information on Wiley’s compliance with specific Funder Open Access Policies.


Accepted Article Received in Production

When an accepted article is received by Wiley’s production team, the corresponding author will receive an email asking them to login or register with Wiley Author Services. The author will be asked to sign a publication license at this point.


Once the paper is typeset, the author will receive an email notification with the URL to download a PDF typeset page proof, as well as associated forms and full instructions on how to correct and return the file.

Please note that the author is responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made during the editorial process – authors should check proofs carefully. Note that proofs should be returned within 48 hours from receipt of first proof.

At proof correction stage authors will be given access to their Supporting Information (via the web) and should check it for accuracy and updates. If changes are required, corrected versions of the files that were received with the proof must be emailed to the Production Editor, with a brief description of the changes made. Supporting Information must be checked alongside the main proof and corrections for both returned to the Production Editor at the same time.

Publication Charges

Colour figures. Colour figures may be published online free of charge; however, the journal charges for publishing figures in colour in print. If the author supplies colour figures, they will be sent a Colour Work Agreement once the accepted paper moves to the production process. If the Colour Work Agreement is not returned by the specified date, figures will be converted to black and white for print publication.

Please note that the vast majority of readers access the digital versions of the journal; printed copies are increasingly rare. For the convenience of readers, we ask that you design your colour artwork so that it can be understood as best as possible in greyscale. Note that the same figure file must be used for both the print and online versions (we do not accept differing colour and black-and-white versions of the same figure).

Early View

The journal offers rapid publication via Wiley’s Early View service. Early View (Online Version of Record) articles are published on Wiley Online Library before inclusion in an issue. Note there may be a delay after corrections are received before the article appears online, as Editors also need to review proofs. Once the article is published on Early View, no further changes to the article are possible. The Early View article is fully citable and carries an online publication date and DOI for citations.


Access and Sharing
When the article is published online:

  • The author receives an email alert (if requested).
  • The link to the published article can be shared through social media.
  • The author will have free access to the paper (after accepting the Terms & Conditions of use, they can view the article).
  • The corresponding author and co-authors can nominate up to ten colleagues to receive a publication alert and free online access to the article.

Print copies of the article can now be ordered (instructions are sent at proofing stage or use the below contact details). Email offprint@cosprinters.com

To find out how to best promote an article, click here.

Measuring the Impact of an Article

Wiley also helps authors measure the impact of their research through specialist partnerships with Kudos and Altmetric.


Iris and Nathan


Author Guidelines updated May 2017