Letters in Applied Microbiology

Cover image for Vol. 58 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: J.-Y. Maillard

Impact Factor: 1.629

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 83/116 (Microbiology); 103/160 (Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology)

Online ISSN: 1472-765X

Associated Title(s): Journal of Applied Microbiology

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  1. 1 - 37
  1. Original Articles

    1. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from cultured sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicas)

      Y. Jiang, L. Yao, F. Li, Z. Tan, Y. Zhai and L. Wang

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12258

      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study is the first report on characterization of antimicrobial resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus). Our findings reveal a high level of resistance to some antimicrobials and prevalence of the resistance genes in V. parahaemolyticus isolates from sea cucumbers and underline the need for prudent use of antimicrobials in aquaculture to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant V. parahaemolyticus.

    2. Carriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococci by healthy companion animals in the US

      J.A. Davis, C.R. Jackson, P.J. Fedorka-Cray, J.B. Barrett, J.H. Brousse, J. Gustafson and M. Kucher

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12254

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: In this study, antimicrobial-resistant coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from various body sites on healthy dogs and cats. Resistance to 14 antimicrobials was observed including resistance to oxacillin; the majority of staphylococci were also multidrug resistant. Results from this study suggest that healthy dogs and cats may act as reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria that may be transferred to people by simple interaction with the animals. Such carriage poses an underlying risk of infection, which should be considered during handling of healthy dogs and cats by pet owners and veterinary personnel.

    3. Evaluation of Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 bacteriophages as novel human-associated faecal indicators in the United States

      B.R. McMinn, A. Korajkic and N.J. Ashbolt

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12252

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      Significance and Impact of the Study Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 phages appear to be restricted to human sewage sources in the United States, being absent from 264 animal faecal samples from 14 different species and present in approx. 90% (34/38) of primary sewage effluent samples collected across the country. Although somatic and F-specific coliphages were present in sewage samples at higher densities, unlike GB-124 phages, both coliphage types were also detected in animal faecal samples. Hence, GB-124 phages may prove to be a useful novel indicator group for human faecal pollution in the continental United States.

    4. Arcobacter spp. isolated from untreated domestic effluent

      J.Y. Merga, A. Royden, A.K. Pandey and N.J. Williams

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12256

      Significance and Impact of the Study: Studies have shown Arcobacter spp. to be present in domestic sewage in several European countries. This study supports previous findings with the first report of Arcobacter spp. in domestic sewage in the UK. This study suggests that Arcobacter spp. is present amongst local human populations, implicating it as an underestimated gastrointestinal pathogen in the UK and contributing to our understanding of this emerging pathogen and its presence within the UK. Providing a confirmation of the presence of Arcobacter in sewage, which supports previous studies, this paper will appeal to fellow researchers of Arcobacter, as well as healthcare and water treatment professionals concerned with microbiology, water safety and gastroenterology, potentially having a wide impact.

    5. Salmonella survival and differential expression of fatty acid biosynthesis-associated genes in a low-water-activity food

      W. Chen, D.A. Golden and F.J. Critzer

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12253

      Significance and Impact of the Study: Numerous outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with low-water-activity foods have been reported. Therefore, the adaptive mechanisms utilized by Salmonella to survive in low-water-activity foods for prolonged periods of time need to be better understood. The results in this study showed that low-water-activity environments increase expression of gene fabA, which is involved in unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis of Salmonella, while the increased expression of cfa, associated with cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis, was associated with decreased survival over 14 days.

    6. Cytotoxicity of lapachol metabolites produced by probiotics

      E.Oliveira Silva, T. Cruz de Carvalho, I.A. Parshikov, R. Alves dos Santos, F.Silva Emery and N.A.Jacometti Cardoso Furtado

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12251

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Probiotics have been used in dairy products to promote human health and have the ability to metabolize drugs and other xenobiotics. Naphthoquinones, such as lapachol, are considered privileged scaffolds due to their high propensity to interact with biological targets. The present study is the first to demonstrate that probiotics are capable of converting lapachol into the most effective cytotoxic compound against a breast cancer cell line. The developed approach highlights the importance of probiotics to assess the effects of bacterial metabolism on drug performance and toxicity.

    7. Plant lignans inhibit growth and trichothecene biosynthesis in Fusarium graminearum

      T. Kulik, M. Buśko, A. Pszczółkowska, J. Perkowski and A. Okorski

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12250

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Knowledge of the regulation of trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum by environmental cues is key to the design of novel strategies to reduce mycotoxin levels in grains. Here, we show that the lignans pinoresinol and secoisolariciresinol, which occur in wheat grains, inhibit radial growth and decrease trichothecene levels in five F. graminearum strains. RT-qPCR analysis reveals that the reduction in trichothecene level in lignan-treated fungal cultures is associated with decreased mRNA transcript levels for the tri4, tri5 and tri11 genes that are involved in the trichothecene biosynthesis pathway.

    8. Curative effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum L23 in a murine model of vaginal infection by Gardnerella vaginalis

      M. Daniele, L. Pascual and L. Barberis

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12249

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The use of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum L23 as a biotherapeutic agent can be expected to prevent and treat genital infections, particularly recurrent bacterial vaginosis, with similar concentrations to those normally used in commercial formulas. It is likely that the use of this probiotic strain for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis will provide a natural and nontoxic treatment modality.

    9. Metabolomics analysis reveals large effect of roughage types on rumen microbial metabolic profile in dairy cows

      S. Zhao, J. Zhao, D. Bu, P. Sun, J. Wang and Z. Dong

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12247

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The microbial metabolites in the rumen provide nutritional precursors that are critical for general health and milk production in dairy cows. However, studies of the effect of diet on ruminal microbial metabolism are scant. In our current study, we analysed the ruminal microbial metabolite profile of cows fed different types of roughage. We found that the ruminal microbial metabolite profile of cows fed a mixed-roughage diet differed significantly from that of cows fed a single type of roughage. Certain metabolites, such as acetate, hydrocinnamate and methylamine, were closely correlated with specific types of roughage. Our findings provide insight into the effects of different roughages on ruminal microbial fermentation in dairy cows.

    10. Seasonal and within-herd variability of E. coli concentrations in fresh dairy faeces

      D.M. Oliver

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12248

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study provides a comprehensive temporal data set of faecal indicator organism (FIO) counts (both E. coli and other coliforms) in fresh dairy faeces for Scotland. Such faecal audits for the UK are scarce which is surprising given that livestock constitute one of the largest agricultural sources of diffuse microbial pollution of surface waters and contributors to poor bathing water quality. Such FIO concentration data (and evaluation of variability across seasonal, within-herd and year-on-year counts) in fresh faeces is a fundamental precursor to the robust parameterization of models that aim to predict the fate and transfer of both FIOs and pathogens in agricultural catchments.

    11. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Pythium myriotylum

      S. Fukuta, R. Takahashi, S. Kuroyanagi, Y. Ishiguro, N. Miyake, H. Nagai, H. Suzuki, T. Tsuji, F. Hashizume, H. Watanabe and K. Kageyama

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12244

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study shows the first LAMP assay for the detection of Pythium myriotylum. The primer set designed from ITS region of P. myriotylum can detect the pathogen in field sample with a fast and convenient method. Analysis of the annealing curve of the LAMP reaction products increases the reliability of the LAMP diagnosis. This study shows that the diagnostic method using the LAMP assay is useful for monitoring P. myriotylum in the field.

    12. Recombinant production of the antimicrobial peptide NZ17074 in Pichia pastoris using SUMO3 as a fusion partner

      X.J. Wang, X.M. Wang, D. Teng, Y. Zhang, R.Y. Mao and J.H. Wang

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12246

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Recombinant active NZ17074 was produced with Pichia pastoris by using high-density fermentation technology for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the usefulness of SUMO-fusion technology as an effective expression strategy for synthesizing peptides in yeast. This SUMO3 expression system with a lower cost would likely be widely used for the production of other cytotoxic proteins including antimicrobial peptides.

    13. Chemical and bioactive natural products from Microthyriaceae sp., an endophytic fungus from a tropical grass

      C. Almeida, H. Ortega, S. Higginbotham, C. Spadafora, A.E. Arnold, P.D. Coley, T.A. Kursar, W.H. Gerwick and L. Cubilla-Rios

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12245

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The present study attributes new antiparasitic and psychoactive biological activities to sterigmatocystin (2), and describes the structure elucidation of the new natural product integrasone B (1), which possesses a rare epoxyquinone with a lactone ring moiety. This is also the first report of sterigmatocystin (2) isolation in a fungal strain from this family, broadening the taxonomic range of sterigmatocystin-producing fungi. The study also presents taxonomic analyses indicating that strain F2611 is strongly supported as a member of the Microthyriaceae (Ascomycota), but is not a member of any previously known or sequenced genus.

    14. Abundance of Mycobacterium avium ssp. hominissuis in soil and dust in Germany – implications for the infection route

      A. Lahiri, J. Kneisel, I. Kloster, E. Kamal and A. Lewin

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12243

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study was conducted to investigate the ecological abundance of the most prominent clinical nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in Germany, the Mycobacterium avium ssp. hominissuis (MAH). Examination of soil, water, dust and biofilm samples revealed that MAH in Germany was predominant in soil and dust. No MAH was identified in water and biofilms. Our finding contributes to the identification of the environmental niche of this opportunistic pathogen and proposes soil and dust as sources of MAH infection in Germany.

    15. Degradation of acetochlor by a bacterial consortium of Rhodococcus sp.T3-1, Delftia sp.T3-6 and Sphingobium sp.MEA3-1

      Y. Hou, W. Dong, F. Wang, J. Li, W. Shen, Y. Li and Z. Cui

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12242

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study presents a bacterial consortium consisting of Rhodococcus sp.T3-1, Delftia sp.T3-6 and Sphingobium sp.MEA3-1 could completely mineralize acetochlor by biochemical cooperation. The study reveals the metabolic mechanism of acetochlor biodegradation and highlights the potential of the bacterial consortium for cleaning up acetochlor and its metabolites subsisting in the environment.

    16. In vitro activity of Aloe vera inner gel against Helicobacter pylori strains

      L. Cellini, S. Di Bartolomeo, E. Di Campli, S. Genovese, M. Locatelli and M. Di Giulio

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12241

      Significance and Impact of the Study: The study demonstrates that the Aloe vera inner gel expresses antibacterial properties against both susceptible and resistant Helicobacter pylori strains. These findings may impact on the antimicrobial resistance phenomenon of H. pylori, proposing the A. vera inner gel as a novel effective natural agent for combination with antibiotics for the treatment of H. pylori gastric infection.

    17. Diversity and activity of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria and sulphate-reducing bacteria in landfill cover soils

      F.F. Xia, Y. Su, X.M. Wei, Y.H. He, Z.C. Wu, A. Ghulam and R. He

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12240

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      Significance and the Impact of the Study: High diversity of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) presented in the landfill cover soils. Among the physicochemical properties of soils (moisture content, pH, organic materials, SO42−, acid volatile sulphide and total sulphur), pH was the most important factor affecting the diversity and activity of SOB and SRB in the landfill cover soils. Higher pH of landfill cover soils (i.e. neutral or slight alkaline) was favourable for the growth of SOB and SRB, leading to a rapid bioconversion of sulphur. These findings are helpful to optimize sulphur biotransformation in landfill cover soils and to control odour pollution at landfills.

    18. High inhibition of Paenibacillus larvae and Listeria monocytogenes by Enterococcus isolated from different sources in Tunisia and identification of their bacteriocin genes

      I. Jaouani, M.S. Abbassi, V. Alessandria, J. Bouraoui, R. Ben Salem, H. Kilani, R. Mansouri, L. Messadi and L. Cocolin

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12239

      Significance and Impact of the Study: Enterococci possess interesting properties not only for the food industry, but also for animal and human health. The antimicrobial potential of these bacteria includes principally bacteriocin-like molecules. With the aim of identifying bacteriocinogenic strains, a collection of 300 enterococci isolated from different origins were screened and their spectrum of action, as well as the gene encoding the bacteriocin, was determined. Fifty-nine bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus showed high activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood. Enterocins A, P and L50A/B were found in various combinations. The most important finding of this study is the growth inhibition of P. larvae due to bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus, which opens up the possibility to use these strains to control the disease in honeybees.

    19. Prevalence of urease in Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Mississippi Sound

      T.R. Berutti, R.E. Williams, S. Shen, M.M. Taylor and D.J. Grimes

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12237

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The results of this study illustrate that V. parahaemolyticus has the ability to create alkaline microhabitats that could enhance virulence, including virulence from haemolysins. This finding could have both clinical and ecological impact as to how V. parahaemolyticus can modify its habitat.

    20. Enhanced rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2 via fed-batch cultivation based on maximum substrate uptake rate

      N.A. Md Noh, S. Mohd Salleh and A.R.M. Yahya

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12236

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study highlights the significance of an effective fed-batch strategy for rhamnolipid production in a submerged fermentation using a water-immiscible substrate, based on maximum substrate uptake rate. The impact of this strategy ensured that the substrate was supplied at the rate matching the maximum substrate utilization by the cells without excess feeding, leading to increased rhamnolipid production, yield and productivity.

    21. Quantitative approach to track lipase producing Pseudomonas sp. S1 in nonsterilized solid state fermentation

      R.K. Sahoo, E. Subudhi and M. Kumar

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12235

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study presents the first report on the production of thermophilic organic solvent tolerant lipase using agro-industry waste in nonsterile solid state fermentation. Positive correlation between survival of Pseudomonas sp. S1 and lipase production under nonsterile solid state fermentation was established, which may emphasize the need to combine molecular tools and solid state fermentation in future studies. Our study brings new insights into the lipase production in cost-effective manner, which is an industrially relevant approach.

    22. A novel flotation technique for the separation of nonadherent micro-organisms from a substrate

      Robert Kadlec, Martin Jakubec and Zoran Jaglic

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12234

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This is the first study that suggests using flotation agents to separate planktonic from adhered bacteria. When a high-density solution is used, buoyancy of bacteria ensures their segregation in the solution. Flotation agents could be used instead of washing procedure, which is inaccurate and hardly reproducible. High-density flotation agents could be used for more precise evaluation of bacterial adherence in many assays, such as research of biofilms or evaluation of probiotics.

    23. In vitro interaction of actinomycetes isolates with Aspergillus flavus: impact on aflatoxins B1 and B2 production

      C. Verheecke, T. Liboz, M. Darriet, N. Sabaou and F. Mathieu

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12233

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Interaction between Aspergillus flavus and Actinomycetes isolates was conducted in vitro. Actinomycetes isolates having a mutual antagonism in contact with A. flavus were chosen for further aflatoxins production study. This is a new approach based to develop biocontrol against aflatoxins accumulation in maize while respecting natural microbial equilibrium.

    24. Rapid and reliable method for identification of associated endonuclease cleavage and recognition sites

      T.Ø. Jensen, T. Kvist, M.J. Mikkelsen and P. Westermann

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12238

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Restriction-modification systems are important barriers to successful genetic modification in many bacterial species. In this study, we demonstrate an efficient and general applicable method for identifying endonuclease recognition and cleavage sites. For the study and the trails, the model organism for nitrogen fixation Clostridium pasteurianum was used. The method was proven to be reliable, and by modifying DNA at the identified sites, it is possible to prevent digestion.

    25. Leaching of Escherichia coli from sheep faeces during simulated rainfall events

      E.M. Moriarty and B.J. Gilpin

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12230

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study confirms that faecal bacteria can be released from fresh and aged ovine faeces under stimulated rainfall. It demonstrates that aged faeces remain a source of faecal bacteria, which under rainfall can release the bacteria and result in pollution of waterways. This study aids in our understanding of the potential impact of grazing sheep on the microbial quality of surface waters in NZ.

    26. Isolation of a new broad spectrum antifungal polyene from Streptomyces sp. MTCC 5680

      A. Vartak, V. Mutalik, R.R. Parab, P. Shanbhag, S. Bhave, P.D. Mishra and G.B. Mahajan

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12229

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: PN00053 is a novel polyene macrolide isolated from a wild strain of Streptomyces sp. PM0727240 (MTCC5680), an isolate from the mountainous rocky regions of Himachal Pradesh, India. The compound is a new derivative of the antibiotic Roflamycoin [32, 33–didehydroroflamycoin (DDHR)]. It displayed broad spectrum antifungal activity against yeast and filamentous fungi. However, it did not show any antibacterial activity. The in vitro study revealed that PN00053 has better potency as compared to clinical gold standard fluconazole. The development of pathogenic resistance against the polyenes has been seldom reported. Hence, we envisage PN00053 could be a potential antifungal lead.

    27. The Brucella suis IbpA heat-shock chaperone is not required for virulence or for expression of the VirB type IV secretion system VirB8 protein

      P. Berta, G. Bourg, N. Hanna, B. Saadeh, J. Armengaud, G. Patey and D. O'Callaghan

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12231

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Many bacteria use type IV secretion systems (T4SS), multi-protein machines, to translocate DNA and protein substrates across their envelope. Understanding how T4SS function is important as they play major roles in the spread of plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance and in pathogenicity. In the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens, HspL, an α-crystalline-type small heat-shock protein, acts as a chaperone for the essential type IV secretion system component VirB8. Here, we show that this is not the case for all T4SS; in the zoonotic pathogen Brucella suis, IbpA, the protein most related to HspL, does not play this role.

    28. Barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial community of Daqu for light-flavour Chinese liquor

      X. Zhang, J. Zhao and X. Du

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12225

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: There are three kinds of Daqu (starter material) used for famous Chinese light-flavour liquor brewing, that is Qingcha, Hongxin and Houhuo. Since Daqu was fermented in an open environment, the microbiology communities were different with different kind of Daqu. Objective bacterial communities determined by barcoded pyrosequencing help to speculate possible metabolic productions, even to guess the function of many kind of Daqu in light-flavour liquor brewing.

    29. Use of an improved atpA amplification and sequencing method to identify members of the Campylobacteraceae and Helicobacteraceae

      W.G. Miller, E. Yee, K.A. Jolley and M.H. Chapman

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12228

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The atpA-based species identification method described here uses a single primer pair to amplify DNA from all current validly-described Campylobacter and Arcobacter taxa, as well as multiple members of the Helicobacteraceae. This method unambiguously identified all taxa tested, although it could not discriminate the subspecies of Camp. fetus. Furthermore, five putative novel Campylobacter taxa were observed following testing of environmental campylobacters with this method. The scope and resolution of this method make it an important addition to studies of epsilonproteobacterial epidemiology and evolution.

    30. Anticancer effects of pyocyanin on HepG2 human hepatoma cells

      J. Zhao, Y. Wu, A.T. Alfred, P. Wei and S. Yang

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12224

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Pyocyanin is a redox-active phenazine toxin. Here, we investigated the ability of pyocyanin to inhibit cancer-related phenotypes in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Our results indicated that pyocyanin accelerated cellular senescence and apoptosis and induced oxidative stress-associated DNA damage in HepG2 cells. The potential anticancer applications of pyocyanin should be investigated further in clinical studies.

    31. Inactivation of the lpcC gene alters surface-related properties and symbiotic capability of Bradyrhizobium japonicum

      H.-I. Lee, Y.-H. In, S.-Y. Jeong, J.-M. Jeon, J.G. Noh, J.-S. So and W.-S. Chang

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12232

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study demonstrates the role of the B. japonicum lpcC in nodulation with soybean and importance of cell surface hydrophobicity. The results also highlight that intact LPS is required for successful symbiosis between B. japonicum and soybeans. Our findings not only support previous studies emphasizing the necessity of LPS on the interaction between the two symbiotic partners, but also contribute to a better understanding of the symbiotic mechanisms.

    32. Antimicrobial resistance and toxin gene profiles of Staphylococcus aureus strains from Holstein milk

      X. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Wang, G. Guo, T. Usman, D. Hao, X. Tang, Y. Zhang and Y. Yu

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12221

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Significantly higher levels of antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains were detected in the lactating Holstein milk with clinical mastitis compared with that without clinical mastitis. PFGE results suggest potential transmission of Staph. aureus strains in different dairy farms. The results imply that the dairy farms need to select effective antibiotics in the treatment of Staph. aureus-infected cows and prevent the transmission of Staph. aureus strains from one herd to another.

    33. Occurrence and distribution of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus – potential roles for fish, oyster, sediment and water

      C.E. Givens, J.C. Bowers, A. DePaola, J.T. Hollibaugh and J.L. Jones

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12226

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This is the first study to report the densities of Bacteria 16S rRNA, Vibrio 16S rRNA, Vibrio vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus in fish intestine, oyster, sediment and water samples, as well as compare these values through culture-dependent and culture-independent methodology. Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus were detected in samples of fish intestines by qPCR and colony hybridization when conditions were less favourable for their occurrence in the environment. In contrast, V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus were infrequently detected and at lower levels in other niches examined. These results indicate that fish intestinal tracts are a significant source of these pathogens.

    34. Biocatalysis with Escherichia coli-overexpressing cyclopentanone monooxygenase immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol gel

      M. Rebroš, L. Lipták, M. Rosenberg, M. Bučko and P. Gemeiner

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12227

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Immobilization in polyvinylalcohol gel particles is desirable technique with presumptive impact on industrial applications of recombinant whole-cell Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenases as biocatalysts for production of bioactive compounds and precursors of potentially new drugs. An original immobilization of cells E. coli with overproduced Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase improved their stability in repetitive batch biooxidations as compared to free cells. Detected autoinduction of recombinant enzyme in pET22b+ plays significant role in application of immobilized cells as it may increase specific activity of cells in repetitive use under growing reaction conditions. Original technique for qualitative analysis of enzyme expression within immobilized cells was developed.

    35. Identification of six Listeria species by real-time PCR assay

      E. Hage, O. Mpamugo, C. Ohai, S. Sapkota, C. Swift, D. Wooldridge and C.F.L. Amar

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12223

      Significance and Impact of the Study: The identification of species of Listeria from foods is important to monitor pathogenic strains and facilitates the implementation of control measures. This study shows the development and evaluation of a 5′exonuclease real-time PCR assay for the rapid identification of L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, L. grayi, L. innocua. The developed assay proved to be specific, rapid and reproducible and therefore could be implemented in busy specialist reference laboratories.

    36. Antimicrobial activity of fluorescent Ag nanoparticles

      R.K. Bera, S.M. Mandal and C.R. Raj

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12222

      Significance and Impact of the Study: This study aims to demonstrate the size and shape-dependent antimicrobial activity of Ag nanoparticles. It is shown for the first time that the fluorescent Ag nanoparticles of 1·5 nm have superior antimicrobial activity with respect to the larger particles. The shape and size of the particles actually control their activity. The smaller particles can easily penetrate the cell wall and have pronounced activity. These findings may be useful in the development of potential antimicrobial agents.

    37. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry6A exhibits nematicidal activity to Caenorhabditis elegans bre mutants and synergistic activity with Cry5B to Celegans

      Z. Yu, H. Luo, J. Xiong, Q. Zhou, L. Xia, M. Sun, L. Li and Z. Yu

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12219

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Bacillus thuringiensis nematicidal crystal proteins Cry6A and Cry5B share notable structural differences. Our study confirmed that there is no cross-resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans bre mutants (with resistance to Cry5B) to Cry6A, and combination of Cry6A and Cry5B shows synergistic activity against Celegans. This result provides a more effective strategy for biocontrol of plant-parasitic nematodes using a combination of Cry6A and Cry5B. Combination of Cry6A and Cry5B could enhance nematicidal toxicity of Bt and supply an alternative to overcome the potential resistance of plant-parasitic nematodes when large-scale and long-term use of Bt toxins.

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