Letters in Applied Microbiology

Cover image for Vol. 59 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: J.-Y. Maillard

Impact Factor: 1.749

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 85/119 (Microbiology); 98/165 (Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology)

Online ISSN: 1472-765X

Associated Title(s): Journal of Applied Microbiology


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  1. Original Articles

    1. Simultaneous identification by multiplex PCR of major Prototheca spp. isolated from bovine and buffalo intramammary infection and bulk tank

      E. Capra, P. Cremonesi, C. Cortimiglia, G. Bignoli, M. Ricchi, P. Moroni, A. Pesce, M. Luini and B. Castiglioni

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12326

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: This work reports PCR assays based on novel Prototheca spp. mitochondrial and chloroplastic target sequences. The multiplex PCR protocol described in this study is useful for rapid simultaneous detection of P. zopfii, P. wickerhamii and P. blaschkeae.

    2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of lineage ST398 as cause of mastitis in cows

      N.C.C. Silva, F.F. Guimarães, M.P. Manzi, A. Fernandes Júnior, E. Gómez-Sanz, P. Gómez, H. Langoni, V.L.M. Rall and C. Torres

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12329

      Significance and Impact of the Study: Few studies on the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from bovine isolates have been performed in Brazil. MRSA of lineage ST398 is worldwide spread and associated with farm animals. Multidrug-resistant MRSA-ST398 isolates were recovered in 11% of mastitic cows from a single farm, with one isolate carrying the unusual lsa(E), spw and aadE genes. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of MRSA-ST398 isolates in milk samples of cows with mastitis in Brazil.

    3. Antifungal effect of 405-nm light on Botrytis cinerea

      K. Imada, S. Tanaka, Y. Ibaraki, K. Yoshimura and S. Ito

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12330

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) is a very successful necrotroph, causing serious losses in more than 200 crop hosts. This study investigated the antifungal effect of 405-nm light on this pathogen. Our results suggest that the excitation of endogenous porphyrins and subsequent accumulation of singlet oxygen contribute to the 405-nm light-mediated photoinactivation of grey mould. The development of symptoms in detached tomato leaves inoculated with B. cinerea spores was significantly inhibited by irradiation with 405-nm light, indicating that this wavelength of light has a potential use in controlling plant diseases caused by B. cinerea.

    4. A rapid and visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay to detect Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli targeting a transposase gene

      M. Ghai, V. Singh, L.A. Martin, S.A. McFarlane, T. van Antwerpen and R.S. Rutherford

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12327

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx) on a large scale is based on serological assays such as evaporative-binding enzyme-linked immunoassay (EB-EIA). These methods are time consuming and require well-equipped laboratories. This study presents the development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay which allows detection of Lxx in 30 min at 65°C, using xylem sap as the template. The assay requires minimal laboratory equipment and could be used at near farm conditions, thus saving time and money required to transfer samples from remote areas to diagnostic laboratories. The LAMP method shows potential as an alternative detection method for RSD.

    5. Elevation of antibiotic resistance genes at cold temperatures: implications for winter storage of sludge and biosolids

      J.H. Miller, J.T. Novak, W.R. Knocke and A. Pruden

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12325

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Wastewater treatment plants have been identified as the hot spots for the proliferation and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) to the environment through discharge of treated effluent to water bodies as well as application of biosolids to land. Identifying critical control points within the treatment process may aid in the development of solutions for the reduction of ARGs and ARB and curbing the spread of antibiotic resistance. This study found increases in ARGs during biosolids storage and identifies changes in operational protocols that could help reduce ARG loading to the environment when biosolids are land-applied.

    6. Detection of Salmonella spp. by a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method targeting bcfD gene

      L. Zhuang, J. Gong, Q. Li, C. Zhu, Y. Yu, X. Dou, X. Liu, B. Xu and C. Wang

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12328

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was established to detect Salmonella targeting bcfD gene, a conserved fimbrial operon gene. The detection limit was 5 CFU of Salmonella pure culture or 200 CFU of artificially spiked faeces per reaction system (equivalent to 5000 CFU g−1 of faeces), and this method could directly detect Salmonella in chicken faeces free of pre-enrichment in a reaction time of 25 min. The Salmonella LAMP assay is a rapid, sensitive, specific and practical method for Salmonella detection and can potentially serve as new on-site diagnostics in the food and agricultural industries.

    7. Elevated CO2 concentration impacts cell wall polysaccharide composition of green microalgae of the genus Chlorella

      Y.-S. Cheng, J.M. Labavitch and J.S. VanderGheynst

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12320

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Microalgae have the potential to produce products that will reduce society's reliance on fossil fuels and address challenges related to food and feed production. An overlooked yet industrially relevant component of microalgae are their cell walls. Cell wall composition affects cell flocculation and the recovery of intracellular products. In this study, we show that increasing CO2 level results in greater cell wall polysaccharide and uronic acid content in the cell walls of three strains of microalgae. The results have implications on the management of systems for the capture of CO2 and production of fuels, chemicals and food from microalgae.

    8. The evaluation of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil effect on biogenic amines formation and microbiological profile in Gouda cheese

      M. Es'haghi Gorji, N. Noori, R. Nabizadeh Nodehi, G. Jahed Khaniki and M. Alimohammadi

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12319

      Significance and Impact of the Study: The presence of biogenic amines in cheese has a serious impact on public health. Besides, there is growing concern about the use of chemical preservatives and the food industry is looking for new natural preservation methods. Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil is well known for its antimicrobial effects, and we attempted to reduce biogenic amines formation in Gouda cheese using Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil as a natural additive. Furthermore, the desirable organoleptic qualities such as flavour, odour, texture and colour were achieved by adding Z. multiflora Boiss. to cheese.

    9. Genetic diversity and expression profiles of cysteine phytases in the sheep rumen during a feeding cycle

      Z. Li, H. Huang, H. Zhao, K. Meng, J. Zhao, P. Shi, P. Yang, H. Luo, Y. Wang and B. Yao

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12318

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Ruminal phytases, that are cysteine phytases, are novel in sequences and functions. Great divergence in the constitution and abundance of cysteine phytase genes at the genome and transcriptional levels suggested that transcript data are more reliable to reflect the information of functional genes. Phylogenetic and rarefaction analyses indicated that the cysteine phytase genes from uncultured bacteria instead of Firmicutes play the major phytate-degrading role in rumen, and their constitution is dynamic at different time points. This study provides a new insight into ruminal cysteine phytase genes and undermines their expression profiles over a whole feeding cycle.

    10. Antibacterial validation of electrogenerated hypochlorite using carbon-based electrodes

      J. Locker, P. Fitzgerald and D. Sharp

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12324

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Carbon fibre electrodes can rapidly generate antimicrobial concentrations of hypochlorite; as such, these cheap and commercially available electrodes are proposed for the local production of hypochlorite for healthcare antisepsis. Importantly, the antimicrobial properties of the electrochemically generated hypochlorite mirror those of commercial hypochlorite, suggesting this is not enhanced by the cogeneration of reactive oxygen species. This illustrates the potential use of disposable carbon electrodes for localized small-volume production of hypochlorite for surface and skin cleansing, and opens a broader scope of research into the exploitation of carbon electrodes for this application.

    11. Clostridium sporogenes delivers interleukin-12 to hypoxic tumours, producing antitumour activity without significant toxicity

      Y.-L. Zhang, R. Lü, Z.-S. Chang, W.-Q. Zhang, Q.-B. Wang, S.-Y. Ding and W. Zhao

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12322

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent antitumour cytokine, but it is toxic when administrated systemically. This study demonstrates that murine IL-12 can be systemically delivered to hypoxic sites in solid tumours by Clostridium sporogenes, producing a clear delay in tumour growth and a 14·3% cure rate in a mouse tumour model. Importantly, there is no obvious toxicity associated with IL-12 during the treatment process. This result may be accounted for by the excellent tumour-targeting capacity of Cl. sporogenes, targeting IL-12 directly to the tumour site instead of to the entire body.

    12. Development of an indirect ELISA with epitope on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus for differentiating between infected and vaccinated Muscovy ducks

      B. Yan, J.-Z. Ma, T.-F. Yu, S.-L. Shao, M. Li and X.-D. Fan

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12323

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: In this study, we developed an i-ELISA based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of MDPV. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus.

    13. A simple mathematical model that describes the growth of the area and the number of total and viable cells in yeast colonies

      E.-M. Rivas, E. Gil de Prado, P. Wrent, M.-I. de Silóniz, P. Barreiro, E.C. Correa, F. Conejero, A. Murciano and J.M. Peinado

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12314

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Mathematical models used to predict microbial growth are based on liquid cultures data. Models describing growth on solid surfaces, highlighting the differences with liquids cultures, are scarce. In this work, we have demonstrated that a single Gompertz equation describes accurately the increase of the yeast colonies, up to the point where they reach their maximum size. The model can be used to quantify the differences in growth kinetics between solid and liquid media. Moreover, as all its parameters have biological meaning, it could be used to build secondary models predicting yeast growth on solid surfaces under several environmental conditions.

    14. Detection of CoHV-1 by loop-mediated amplification (LAMP). Application of LAMP for CoHV-1 incidence monitoring in domestic pigeons

      G. Woźniakowski, P. Wencel and E. Samorek-Salamonowicz

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12317

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: The incidence of Columbid herpesvirus-1 (CoHV-1) in pigeons was examined for the first time by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The study showed the presence of CoHV-1 in 8 of 42 examined domestic pigeons. LAMP technique developed within this study may be used by not well-equipped veterinary laboratories.

    15. Patulin reduction in apple juice by inactivated Alicyclobacillus spp.

      Y. Yuan, X. Wang, S. Hatab, Z. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Luo and T. Yue

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/lam.12315

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      Significance and Impact of the Study: Inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells can efficiently reduce patulin concentration in apple juice. It provides a theoretical foundation for recycling of Alicyclobacillus cells from spoiled apple juice to reduce the source of pollution and the cost of juice industry. This is the first report on the use of Alicyclobacillus to remove patulin from apple juice.


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