Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

Cover image for Vol. 39 Issue 3

Edited By: Gavin Bridge

Impact Factor: 4.011

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 3/76 (Geography)

Online ISSN: 1475-5661

Associated Title(s): Area, The Geographical Journal

TIBG Virtual Issues

Transactions Virtual IssuesTransactions of the Institute of British Geographers, the leading international journal of geographical research, publishes the very best scholarship from around the world, across the whole range of the discipline.

The Society invites you to enjoy the following Virtual Issues, compiled by the Journal's editors:

Jonathan Rigg, RGS-IBG 2013 Annual Conference Chair, Durham University, UK, and National University of Singapore
May 2013

Muki Haklay and Brian Lees, Editorial Board; Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers
September 2012

Sarah L. Holloway and Heike Jöns, Guest Editors; Loughborough University
September 2012

Alison Blunt (Editor, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers), Klaus Dodds (Editor, The Geographical Journal), Kevin Ward (Editor, Area), Paul Wood (Co-Editor, Area) and Madeleine Hatfield (Managing Editor at the RGS-IBG)
January 2012

Stephen Daniels, RGS-IBG 2011 Annual Conference Chair; University of Nottingham, UK
August 2011

Simon Reid-Henry, Guest Editor; Queen Mary, University of London, UK
June 2011

Stephen Legg, Guest Editor; University of Nottingham, UK
January 2011

Martin Evans, Associate Editor; Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers
August 2010

Gail Davies, Editorial Board; Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers
January 2009

Alison Blunt, Editor; Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers
March 2008


Jonathan Rigg
RGS-IBG 2013 Annual Conference Chair, Durham University, UK, and National University of Singapore
May 2013

‘New geographical frontiers’ is a deliberately open label, one that can, therefore, be interpreted in a variety of ways. The frontier can be employed as a concept, a metaphor or as a point of empirical focus – and while it is a classic geographical preoccupation that has rightly been problematised, it should still command our attention. The papers in this Virtual Issue (drawn from the RGS-IBG journals Area, The Geographical Journal and Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers) contribute to three, over-lapping areas of debate about new geographical frontiers and show both how embedded frontiers are in geographical research, as well as why they need to be continually interrogated. First of all, new geographical frontiers are integral to how we theorise (think) and practice (do) our geography. Occasionally gradual, incremental change can hide from view quite fundamental transformations in methodological approach or conceptual framing. Secondly, geography’s contribution to addressing the challenges that humanity faces, from climate change to international development, are central strands of geographical research. And third, there is the possibility, perhaps the need, to go beyond disciplinary boundaries and geographical frontiers to research new topics in innovative ways. The extended introduction summarises the papers in the Virtual Issue and expands on the theme of ‘new geographical frontiers’.

Resource frontiers

Scarcity, frontiers and development
Edward B Barbier
The Geographical Journal

Who's counting? Spatial politics, ecocolonisation and the politics of calculation in Boundary Bay
Emma Norman

Cultural and political frontiers

Humanism, race and the colonial frontier
Alan Lester
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

Gender and geopolitics in ‘secular time’
Elizabeth Olson

Frontiers and border crossings and enclosures

Nation, ‘migration’ and critical practice
Harald Bauder

From old comrades to new partnerships: dynamic development of economic relations between China and North Korea
Seung-Hyun Yoon and Seung-Ook Lee
The Geographical Journal

Border security, 9/11 and the enclosure of civilisation
Reece Jones
The Geographical Journal

Frontiers in geographical methods and practice

Doing flood risk science differently: an experiment in radical scientific method
S N Lane, N Odoni, C Landström, S J Whatmore, N Ward and S Bradley
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

The complexity of evidence for sustainable development policy: analysing the boundary work of the UK Parliamentary Environmental Audit Committee John Turnpenny, Duncan Russel and Tim Rayner
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

New spatial media, new knowledge politics
Sarah Elwood and Agnieszka Leszczynski
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

Research frontiers

Geographies of impact: power, participation and potential
Rachel Pain, Mike Kesby and Kye Askins

Resilience and responsibility: governing uncertainty in a complex world
Marc Welsh
The Geographical Journal



Muki Haklay and Brian Lees
Editorial Board; Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers
September 2012

This Virtual Issue includes a selection of papers from the past five decades that address the use of computers in geographical and cartographical research. The Virtual Issue provides an overview of the foundations for what is now known as Geographical Information Science (GIScience). As a journal aiming to cover the breadth of geographic research, these papers from Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers provides an overview of the development of concepts, techniques and their use in addressing geographical problems. You will see as you read these that many confident predictions about the future tended to be inaccurate. Moreover, the papers also provide a window onto related developments within the discipline, including the development of quantitative geography, the changing role of cartography and the growing link to complexity science. We hope that you will find this collection interesting and useful. One lesson that we have taken from this exercise, as we whittled the selection down, is that there is a lot to be gained from returning to important papers from the past.

FREE - Geographic information science: tribe, badge and sub-discipline
M. Haklay (2012)


FREE - The Computer and the Geographer
T. Hägerstrand (1967)

FREE - Quantitative geography: the British experience and the role of the Institute
S. Gregory (1983)

Further papers:
Theoretical geography: some speculations
A.G. Wilson (1972)

On geographical myths and statistical fables
S. Gregory (1976)

Let's get real: spatio-temporal identity and geographic entities
J. Raper and D. Livingstone (2001)

Developing new techniques

FREE - Trend-Surface Mapping in Geographical Research
R.J. Chorley and P. Haggett (1965)

FREE - Computer-aided cartography
D. Rhind (1977)

FREE - The geography of reactor siting policies in the U. K.
S. Openshaw (1982)

FREE - Mapping population data from zone centroid locations
D. Martin (1989)

Further Papers:

A geographical information and mapping system for the BBC Domesday optical discs
S. Openshaw, C. Wymer and M.Charlton (1986)

Cartography 1950-2000
A.H. Robinson, J. L. Morrison and P.C. Muehrcke (1977)

Perception and maps: human factors in map design and interpretation
C. Board and R.M. Taylor (1977)


FREE - The size, shape and dimension of urban settlements
P.A. Longley, M. Batty and J. Shepherd (1991)

FREE - Where Is Helvellyn? Fuzziness of multi-scale landscape morphometry
P. Fisher, J. Wood and T. Cheng (2004)

FREE - Complexity science and human geography
D. O'Sullivan (2004)

Historical GIS

FREE - Mapping the English Lake District: a literary GIS
D. Cooper and I.N. Gregory (2011)

FREE - The demographic impacts of the Irish famine: towards a greater geographical understanding
A.S. Fotheringham, M.H. Kelly and M. Charlton (2012)

FREE - Sinification of Zhuang place names in Guangxi, China: a GIS-based spatial analysis approach
F. Wang, G. Wang, J. Hartmann and W. Luo (2012)


FREE - Augmented reality in urban places: contested content and the duplicity of code
M. Graham, M. Zook and A. Boulton (2012)

FREE - New spatial media, new knowledge politics
S. Elwood and A. Leszczynski (2012)



Sarah L. Holloway and Heike Jöns, Guest Editors, Loughborough University
September 2012

In the twenty-first century Anglophone geographers have exhibited a growing interest in education and learning. Geographies of education and learning consider the importance of spatiality in the production, consumption and implications of formal education systems from pre-school to tertiary education and of informal learning environments in homes, neighbourhoods, community organisations and workspaces. Between them, these geographies foreground the wider political, economic, social and cultural processes shaping and being reshaped through formal and informal spaces of education across the globe, and the ways they are experienced, embraced and contested by educators and diverse subjects of education, including children, young people, parents, and workers. In so doing, geographies of education and learning need to examine the historical and contemporary policies and experiences of education and consider their un/intended impacts in creating particular types of citizens as well as (paid and unpaid) workers for the future. This requires that we look into different education and learning spaces, and examine the links between these and other facets of life in diverse (and inter-related) local, national and transnational contexts. This Virtual Issue is organised around four key themes that emerge in the field.

Boundary Crossing
FREE - Geographies of education and learning

S. L. Holloway and H. Jöns (2012)

Educational provision and restructuring

States, spatiality and social difference

FREE - Faith in the system?’ State-funded faith schools in England and the contested parameters of community cohesion
C. Dwyer and V. Parutis (2012)

FREE - Neoliberalism, policy localisation and idealised subjects: a case study on educational restructuring in England
S.L Holloway and H. Pimlott-Wilson (2012)

FREE - Towards geographies of ‘alternative’ education: a case study of UK home schooling families
P. Kraftl (2012)

Equity and access

FREE - ‘Geography matters’: the role distance plays in reproducing educational inequality in East London
C. Hamnett and T. Butler (2011)

FREE - Geographies of transition and the separation of lower and higher attaining pupils in the move from primary to secondary school in London
R. Harris (2012)

FREE - The short-run impact of using lotteries for school admissions: early results from Brighton and Hove’s reforms
R. Allen, S. Burgess and L. McKenna (2012)

Subjectivities and learning spaces

FREE - Educating for religious citizenship: multiculturalism and national identity in an English multi-faith primary school
P.J. Hemming (2011)

FREE - 'An instruction in good citizenship': scouting and the historical geographies of citizenship education
S. Mills (2012)

FREE - Towards critical geographies of the university campus: understanding the contested experiences of Muslim students
P. Hopkins (2011)

Skills, employability and careers

FREE - Theorising international youth volunteering: training for global (corporate) work?
A. Jones (2011)

FREE - Geographies of business education: MBA programmes, reflexive business schools and the cultural circuit of capital
S. Hall (2008)

Mobility and networks
FREE - Geographies of cultural capital: education, international migration and family strategies between Hong Kong and Canada
J.L Waters (2006)

FREE - World class? An investigation of globalisation, difference and international student mobility
A.M. Findlay, R. King, F.M Smith, A. Geddes and R. Skeldon (2012)

FREE - ‘Read ten thousand books, walk ten thousand miles’: geographical mobility and capital accumulation among Chinese scholars
M.W.H. Leung (2012)



Alison Blunt (Editor, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers), Klaus Dodds (Editor, The Geographical Journal), Kevin Ward (Editor, Area), Paul Wood (Co-Editor, Area) and Madeleine Hatfield (Managing Editor at the RGS-IBG)
January 2012

This Virtual Issue draws together recent papers from Area, The Geographical Journal and Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (the journals of the Royal Geographical Society (with IBG)). Chris Philo (University of Glasgow) leads the list with a paper on the theme, also that of the RGS-IBG’s Annual Conference in 2012, providing his perspective as to why geographers should be working on both, interrelated, subjects. The other articles showcase the breadth and depth of this theme through a wide range of geographical elements of security, including hazards, geopolitics, resource security, climate change and financial crisis; and papers on the state of geography as a discipline, which traverse publishing, contemporary agendas and occupations.

Security of Geography/Geography of Security
Chris Philo
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

Geography of security

The Everywhere War
Derek Gregory
The Geographical Journal

Maintaining the Sanitary Border: Air Transport Liberalisation and Health Security Practices at UK Regional Airports
Lucy Budd, Morag Bell, Adam Warren
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

Bodies, Bombs and Barricades: Geographies of Conflict and Civilian (In)security
Jennifer L Fluri
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

Biosecure Citizenship: Politicising Symbiotic Associations and the Construction of Biological Threat
Kezia Barker
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

The Biopolitics of Food Provisioning
David Nally
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

An Obsolete Dichotomy? Rethinking the Rural–Urban Interface in Terms of Food Security and Production in the Global South
Amy M Lerner and Hallie Eakin
The Geographical Journal

Model Migrations: Mobility and Boundary Crossings in Regional Climate Prediction
Martin Mahony and Mike Hulme
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

Global Energy Dilemmas: a Geographical Perspective
Mike J Bradshaw
The Geographical Journal

Future Visioning for Sustainable Household Practices: Spaces for Sustainability Learning?
Anna R Davies, Ruth Doyle, Jessica Pape

An Ash Cloud, Airspace and Environmental Threat
Peter Adey, Ben Anderson, Luis Lobo Guerrero
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

Integrating Knowledge and Actions in Disaster Risk Reduction: The Contribution of Participatory Mapping
Jake Rom D Cadag, JC Gaillard

Goodbye Reykjavik: International Banking Centres and the Global Financial Crisis
Ben Derudder, Michael Hoyler, Peter Taylor

Security of geography

Is there a World Beyond the Web of Science? Publication Practices Outside the Heartland of Academic Geography
Nick Schuermans, Bruno Meeus, Filip De Maesschalck

The Impact Agenda and Geographies of Curiosity
Richard Phillips
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

Geographies of Impact: Power, Participation and Potential
Rachel Pain, Mike Kesby, Kye Askins

The Future of Geography in English Universities
Noel Castree
The Geographical Journal

Occupying Newcastle University: Student Resistance to Government Spending Cuts in England
Peter Hopkins, Liz Todd and Newcastle Occupation
The Geographical Journal



Stephen Daniels, RGS-IBG 2011 Annual Conference Chair, University of Nottingham, UK August 2011

This Virtual Issue of Transactions is compiled by RGS-IBG Conference Chair Stephen Daniels (University of Nottingham) and addresses the 2011 conference theme of ‘The Geographical Imagination’. It selects landmark papers from the history of Transactions, the first from 1955, the most recent from 2011, which explore the imagination as both a subject and method of geographical enquiry. Some papers are recognized as classics in the field, others are brought to light as papers which deserve a wide readership. They offer rich perspectives on the current resurgence of interest in the geographical imagination within and beyond geography as a discipline. View the full introductory essay.

Geographical imagination
Stephen Daniels (2011)

Imagined geographies
The Golden Chersonese
P. Wheatley (1955)

The Development of the Rhine
E. M. Yates (1963)

Prospect, Perspective and the Evolution of the Landscape Idea
Denis Cosgrove (1985)

Imperialism, Colonialism and Cartography
Jeffrey C. Stone (1988)

Mapping the Modern City: Alan Sillitoe's Nottingham Novels
Stephen Daniels and Simon Rycroft (1993)

Between the Book and the Lamp: Imaginative Geographies of Egypt, 1849-50
Derek Gregory (1995)

Mountains and memory: embodied visions of ancient peaks in the nineteenth-century Aegean
Veronica Della Dora (2008)

Geographical imagining

The Problem of Geographical Descriptionl
H. C. Darby (1962)

Locational Change in the Kentish Hop Industry and the Analysis of Land Use Patterns
D. W. Harvey (1963)

Regional Surveys and Local Knowledges: The Geographical Imagination in Britain, 1918-39
David Matless (1992)

Geomorphological equilibrium: myth and metaphor?
Louise J Bracken, John Wainwright (2006)

National maps, digitalisation and neoliberal cartographies: transforming nation-state practices and symbols in postcolonial Ecuador
Sarah A Radcliffe (2009)

Mapping the English Lake District: a literary GIS
David Cooper, Ian N Gregory (2011)


Vital Geography

Simon Reid-Henry, Guest Editor; Queen Mary, University of London
June 2011

In this Virtual Issue, Guest Editor Simon Reid-Henry collects together recent papers from the journal that have, in different ways, addressed a series of emerging questions as to what has elsewhere been called ‘vital geography’ (Kearns and Reid-Henry 2009). As Reid-Henry elaborates in the introductory essay to this issue, the ‘vital’ is central to geography – both to the constitution of human life and spatial relations and to geographical historiography. It links the discipline’s traditional concerns with botany, environment, demography and empire to more recent critical investigations into infrastructure, culture, health and political-economy. Different understandings of the vital politics of humanity are also essential to the claims that individuals have enacted upon the world, be it through utopian urban planning, forced collectivization or the contemporary ‘management’ of what Mark Duffield (2010) refers to as ‘the global life-chance divide’. Under the categories of vital spaces, systems, politics and subjects, the papers collected in this Virtual Issue address some of these bigger questions. They also make clear the ways in which concepts and ideas about ‘the vital’ appear in a wide variety of more day-to-day contexts too and they offer a fascinating insight into the contributions that geographers have made to recent academic debates about the political and material constitution of human life itself.

Duffield M 2010 The Liberal Way of Development and the Development–Security Impasse: Exploring the Global Life-Chance Divide Security Dialogue 41 53-76
Kearns G and Reid-Henry S 2009 Vital Geographies: Life, Luck and the Human Condition Annals of the Association of American Geographers 99 554-574


Vital Spaces

Maintaining the sanitary border: air transport liberalization and health security practices at UK regional airports
Lucy Budd, Morag Bell and Adam Warren (2011)

War and peace
Derek Gregory (2010)

Bodies, bombs and barricades: geographies of conflict and civilian (in)security
Jennifer Fluri (2011)

Unequal access to foreign spaces: how states use visa restrictions to regulate mobility in a globalized world
Eric Neumayer (2006)

Disease, social identity, and risk: rethinking the geography of AIDS
Susan Craddock (2000)

The spatial dynamics of epidemic diseases in war and peace: Cuba and the Insurrection against Spain, 1895-98
Matthew Smallman-Raynor and Andrew Cliff (1999)

Vital Systems

Technonatural revolutions: the scalar politics of Franco’s hydro-social dream for Spain, 1939-1975
Erik Swyngedouw (2007)

The Paris sewers and the rationalization of urban space
Matthew Gandy (1999)

Reworking hegemony in the urban waterscape
Alex Loftus and Fiona Lumsden (2008)

The Making of a Regulatory Crisis: Restructuring New York City's Water Supply
Matthew Gandy (1997)

Vital Politics

The Biopolitics of Food Provisioning
David Nally (2011)

Anticipating fatness: childhood, affect and the pre-emptive ‘war on obesity’
Bethan Evans (2010)

Patterning the geographies of organ transplantation: corporeality, generosity and justice
Gail Davies (2006)

Biosecure citizenship: politicising symbiotic associations and the construction of biological threat
Kezia Barker (2010)

Mobilising bodies: visceral identification in the Slow Food movement
Allison Hayes-Conroy and Deborah Martin (2010)

Environmental justice and health: the implications of the socio-spatial distribution of multiple environmental deprivation for health inequalities in the United Kingdom
Jamie Pearce, Elizabeth Richardson, Richard Mitchell and Niamh Shortt (2010)

Vital Subjects

The ecological paradox: social and natural consequences of the geographies of animal health promotion
Gareth Enticott (2008)

Mental health, the arts and belonging
Hester Parr (2006)

Creating the semi-living: on politics, aesthetics and the more-than-human
Deborah Dixon (2009)

Boundary Crossing: Neoliberalism as a mobile technology
Aihwa Ong (2007)

Making connections and thinking through emotions: between geography and psychotherapy
Liz Bondi (2005)

Editorial: the body as battlefield
Kirsten Simonsen (2004)

White natures: Sydney’s Royal Agricultural Show in post-humanist perspective
Kay Anderson (2003)



Stephen Legg, Guest Editor; University of Nottingham
January 2011

Alongside concepts such as space, place, landscape, network, and environment, scale is central to geographers’ conceptions of what exists, how we can know what exists, and how we go about collecting data on these existent objects and subjects. Whether this centrality is acknowledged and explicit, or assumed and implicit, approaches to scale across human and physical geography inform: the way in which we craft and practice our research; the examples and ideas we teach; and the ways through which we imagine the worlds in which we live, visit, desire or fear. Cartographers have long appreciated the complexities of scale and the ways through which a scale of representation has powerful impacts on claims to territory, geographies of knowledge and our comprehension of particular spaces, from the micro to the macro scale. Social theory, political-economics and Marxist geography have been used to demonstrate how scales are produced through socio-spatial dialectics; achieving symbolic capital and material effects through the iterative performances of “local” logics, “national” policies and “global” scalar fixes to crises of accumulation. In 2005 Transactions published a paper by Marston, Jones and Woodward which reignited the debate about by scale by suggesting the replacement of scale within the geographical lexicon by the conceptual and research unit of the “site”. The suggestion of a “human geography without scale” has been widely influential (238 citations by the end of 2010) but also hotly contested. The paper highlighted the dangers of common implicit and assumed hierarchical scalar divisions between levels of the global-macro-structures and the local-micro-agency. But, in the five years since that paper was released, Transactions has also published a wide variety of papers which continue to explore the limits and possibilities of scale-work.

This virtual issue consists of 12 open access papers with links to 16 others that reflect the breadth of the scale-debate published in Transactions of the IBG. This issue brings together papers which respond to the concept of a human geography without scale, but also those from other parts of the geographical discipline, those which pre-date this debate, and those which pursue an approach to scale unaffected by the potential of flat ontologies. As a collection (and heterogeneous collective) we believe these papers represent geographical research and debate at it’s healthiest and most provocative. They represent just a small sample of the Transactions papers which contribute to the scale debate, but touch on many themes that recur within this broader discourse. “Governance”, for instance, features here in Bailey’s paper on neoliberalism, Sadler’s on European labour and Legg’s work on interwar internationalism, but has been discussed from a scalar perspective in papers on European territory (Clark and Jones 2008), geographies of relatedness (Nash 2005), welfare design (Mahon 2006) and local economic development (Gibbs et al. 2001). The scale debate has also provoked a rich theoretical discussion regarding ontology, including the papers by Leitner and Miller, Escobar, Jonas, Collinge, Hoefle, and Jones et al.’s response. But other, and often separate, debates have considered questions of scale and moral geographies (North 2005), causality and complexity (Chapura 2009), Allain Badiou’s work on bodies, language and truth (Shaw 2010), and Wittgenstein’s semiotics as applied to the human/physical geography divide (Couper 2007). Between these conceptual debates and questions of applying these ontologies to research lies a rich seam of papers exploring the intersection of scale with other dimensions of analysis. Papers here presented consider the intersection of scale, place, networks, positionality and mobility (Leitner et al. 2008), territory and environment (Swyngedouw), and networks and climate (Bailey). Further papers have considered the concept of the site (Shaw 2010), and social movement space (Nicholls 2009). Scale has long been acknowledged as a key methodological concept and problem within geography (see Harvey 1968). Counteracting the explicitly ontological turn away from epistemological debates in geographical theory as exemplified by the Marston et al. paper, many papers have examined scale from the perspective of methodology, through papers on geomorphometry (Fisher et al. 2004), measurements of dissimilarity (Voas and Williamson 2004), local voting patterns (Tunstall et al. 2000), urban air pollution (Buzzelli 2008) and localised economic agglomerations (Coe and Townsend 1998). We hope the diversity of approaches here portrayed will provoke further debate about the continued relevance (or not) of scale to research within and beyond the geographical discipline.


A human geography without scale?

Human geography without scale
Sallie A Marston, John Paul Jones III, Keith Woodward (2005)

The ‘ontological turn’ in social theory: a commentary on ‘human geography without scale’ , by Sallie Marston, John Paul Jones II and Keith Woodward
Arturo Escobar (2007)

Scale and the limitations of ontological debate: a commentary on Marston, Jones and Woodward
Helga Leitner and Byron Miller (2007)

Situating Flatness
John Paul Jones III, Keith Woodward, Sallie A Marston (2007)

Environmental and physical geographies

Scales and networks of neoliberal climate governance: the regulatory and territorial logics of EU emissions trading
Ian Bailey, Sam Maresh (2009)

A tale of two scales, or the two geomorphologies
Michael A Summerfield (2005)

Space, Time and Sustainability in the Hadejia-Jama'are Wetlands and the Komodugu Yobe Basin, Nigeria
David H L Thomas and William M Adams (1997)

Economic geographies

Scaling alternative economic practices? Some lessons from alternative currencies
Peter North (2005)

Organizing European Labour: Governance, Production, Trade Unions and the Question of Scale
David Sadler (2000)

Cultural, historical and political geographies

Of scales, networks and assemblages: the League of Nations apparatus and the scalar sovereignty of the Government of India
Stephen Legg (2009)

The spatialities of contentious politics
Helga Leitner, Eric Sheppard, Kristin M. Sziarto (2008)

Technonatural revolutions: the scalar politics of Franco's hydro-social dream for Spain, 1939–1975
Erik Swyngedouw (2007)

Additional Reading

A political ecology of scale in urban air pollution monitoring
Michael Buzzelli (2008)

Scale, causality, complexity and emergence: rethinking scale’s ontological significance
Mitch Chapura (2009)

The spatialities of Europeanisation: territory, government and power in ‘EUrope’
Julian Clark, Alun Jones (2008)

Debunking the Myth of Localized Agglomerations: The Development of a Regionalized Service Economy in South-East England
Neil M Coe, Alan R Townsend (1998)

Flat ontology and the deconstruction of scale: a response to Marston, Jones and Woodward
Chris Collinge (2006)

Fluvial geomorphology and semiotics: a Wittgensteinian perspective of the ‘divide’ between human and physical geography
Pauline Couper (2007)

Where is Helvellyn? Fuzziness of multi-scale landscape morphometry
Peter Fisher, Jo Wood, Tao Cheng (2004)

Governance, institutional capacity and partnerships in local economic development: theoretical issues and empirical evidence from the Humber Sub-region
David C. Gibbs, Andrew E. G. Jonas, Suzanne Reimer, Derek J. Spooner (2001)

Patterns, process and the scale problem in geographical research
David Harvey (1968)

Eliminating scale and killing the goose that laid the golden egg?
Scott William Hoefle (2006)

Pro scale: further reflections on the ‘scale debate’ in human geography
Andrew E G Jonas (2006)

Of scalar hierarchies and welfare redesign: child care in three Canadian cities
Rianne Mahon (2006)

Geographies of relatedness
Catherine Nash (2005)

Place, networks, space: theorising the geographies of social movements
Walter Nicholls (2009)

Sites, truths and the logics of worlds: Alain Badiou and human geography
Ian Graham Ronald Shaw (2010)

The Scale of Dissimilarity: Concepts, Measurement and an Application to Socio-Economic Variation Across England and Wales
David Voas, Paul Williamson (2000)



Martin Evans, Associate Editor; Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers
August 2010

The papers published in this virtual issue are a selection of the best and most influential geomorphological papers published in Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers over the last three decades. The virtual issue is being launched to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the British Society for Geomorphology (formerly the British Geomorphological Research Group). Geomorphological research has made up a small proportion of the research published in Transactions over the last 30 years, perhaps because of the focus on specialist interdisciplinary journals in physical geography. However, geomorphologists, particularly those who have their disciplinary home within geography departments, have continued to publish influential papers in Transactions and indeed geomorphologists are well-represented on the current editorial board.

Arguably there are two main strands to the work represented in this issue: Firstly there are papers which outline or analyse fundamental conceptual approaches to geomorphological research. For example, Schumm’s (1979) work on thresholds and Brunsden and Thornes’ (1979) work on landscape sensitivity, both appearing in the same issue nearly three decades ago, are seminal papers and have had a significant effect on geomorphological research during this time. More recently papers such as Bracken and Wainwright (2006) have critically revisited the concept of geomorphological equilibrium and Summerfield (2005) has discussed the inherent tension between the process focus of modern geomorphology, and the fundamental geomorphological interest in the landscape scale.

Secondly, there are substantial empirical papers which develop approaches to geomorphology from a synthesis of extensive field investigation. Influential empirical papers have included Carling’s (1986) ground breaking work on peat mass movements and Lawler’s (1986) work on river bank erosion. Transactions has been a sympathetic home for papers which draw together the wider implications of intensive field investigation. Examples of this genre include Warburton’s (1993) heavily cited paper on the energetics of alpine proglacial systems, the comprehensive framework for the analysis of meander behaviour presented by Hooke (2003), the empirical evaluation of landform persistence presented by Calver and Anderson (2004), and Macklin and Rumsby’s (2007) synthesis of climatic controls on flooding in the UK.

The space which the journal has provided for the debate and development of ideas means that the best papers are influential and highly cited. For example Schumm (1979) and Brunsden and Thornes (1979) have been cited over 100 times. Clifford (2001) in an editorial in Transactions discussed the fact that physical geographers have not always been good at developing theory. This is in part due to the strong focus on new empirical results in the specialist literature. The evidence of the best papers from Transactions is that the journal is a natural home for a distinctive type of article. The journal allows the space for synthetic work which aims to develop theory and generalisation about landscapes and geomorphological processes. These papers typically draw on a strong body of empirical work to develop theoretical approaches or to develop synthetic understanding of the way that geomorphological systems behave. Transactions will continue to offer a sympathetic home for all kinds of geomorphological research work, and the literal and metaphorical space that the journal provides to develop big ideas will be of increasing relevance as institutions place more focus on the lasting impact of research work.

Martin Evans, Associate Editor, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers


Editorial: Physical geography - the naughty world revisited
Nicholas J. Clifford

Articles in the Virtual Issue

Geomorphological equilibrium: myth and metaphor?
Louise J Bracken, John Wainwright

Landscape Sensitivity and Change
D. Brunsden and J. B. Thornes

Conceptual framework for the persistence of flood-initiated geomorphological features

Ann Calver, Malcolm G. Anderson

The Noon Hill Flash Floods; July 17th 1983. Hydrological and Geomorphological Aspects of a Major Formative Event in an Upland Landscape
P. A. Carling

River meander behaviour and instability: a framework for analysis
Janet Hooke

River Bank Erosion and the Influence of Frost: A Statistical Examination
D. M. Lawler

Changing climate and extreme floods in the British uplands
Mark G Macklin, Barbara T Rumsby

Geomorphic Thresholds: The concept and its applications
S. A. Schumm

A tale of two scales, or the two geomorphologies
Michael A. Summerfield

Energetics of Alpine Proglacial Geomorphic Processes
Jeff Warburton


Geographies of Knowledge

Gail Davies, Editorial Board; Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers
January 2009

The theme for the RGS-IBG Annual International Conference in 2009, chaired by Professor Stuart Lane, is Geography, Knowledge and Society. In his Chair’s introduction, Professor Lane expands on this theme to explain, ‘debates in Geography largely centre upon what constitutes admissible ways of knowing the world, whether through theory, observation or experience’. Whilst looking forward to the response of the community to this theme, it is timely to look back at the diversity of work published in the Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, which takes relations between geography, knowledge and society as its central focus. Over the last 10-15 years, there has been a growing engagement between scholars in geography and those in cognate disciplines interested in the sociology of scientific knowledge, the nature of knowledge controversies, and the diversity of knowledge practices. Significant parts of this exchange have been featured and developed in papers in Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. This engagement draws attention to the importance of place in the production of scientific knowledge, adding to a ‘spatial turn’ in Science and Technology Studies through insights into concepts of place, and geographical concerns with fieldwork and other mobile knowledge practices. Attention to the production of knowledge and knowledge controversies has enlivened traditional geographical concerns, such as those around work and gender, ethnicity and identity, materiality and nature conservation, and the governance of environmental issues. Finally, informed by these debates, there has been renewed attention to understanding episodes from geography’s past, whether telling disciplinary histories of institutional geography, listening to oral histories from geographical pioneers, or recounting the small stories making up geography’s diverse history and practices. The ten articles forming the main contents of this virtual issue are chosen to illustrate work addressing these three themes. Each section is followed by links to further articles published in Transactions, which develop our understanding of the relations between geography, knowledge and society. We invite you to read the papers in the virtual issue, to recommend them to colleagues and students, and to bring your thoughts to the conference in 2009.


Encountering Geography and Science Studies

Placing the view from nowhere: historical and sociological problems in the location of science
Steven Shapin

The field, the museum and the lecture hall: the spaces of natural history in Victorian Cornwall
Simon Naylor

Tales of an Island-Laboratory: Defining the field in geography and science studies
Beth Greenhough

Further Papers:

Social theory and the reconstruction of science and geography
David Demeritt

Science, text and space: thoughts on the geography of reading
David Livingstone

Green, gold and grey geography: legitimating academic and policy expertise
Sally Eden

Mapping Knowledge Production and Knowledge Controversies

Masculinity, dualisms and high technology
Doreen Massey

Wild(er)ness: Reconfiguring the geographies of wildlife
Sarah Whatmore and Lorraine Thomas

Indeterminacy in-decisions – science, policy and politics in the BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) crisis
Steve Hinchliffe

Geographies of relatedness
Catherine Nash

Further Papers:

Culture and nature at the Adelaide Zoo: at the frontiers of ‘human’ geography
Kay Anderson

Space against time: Competing rationalities in planning for housing
Jonathan Murdoch

Spatialities of transnational resistance to globalization: the maps of grievance of the Inter-Continental Caravan
David Featherstone

From born to made: technology, biology and space
Nigel Thrift

Patterning the geographies of organ transplantation: corporeality, generosity and justice
Gail Davies

From convergence to contention: United States mass media representations of anthropogenic climate change science
Maxwell Boykoff

Placing Histories of Geography

Rethinking ‘disciplinary’ history: geography in British universities, c.1580–1887
Charles Withers and Robert Mayhew

Telling small stories: spaces of knowledge and the practice of geography
Hayden Lorimer

Becoming a geographical scientist: oral histories of Arctic fieldwork
Richard Powell

Further Papers:

Geography’s other histories? Geography and science in the British Association for the Advancement of Science
Charles Withers, Diarmid Finnegan and Rebekah Higgitt

The ‘Map Girls’. British women geographers’ war work, shifting gender boundaries and reflections on the history of geography
Avril Maddrell

Geographically touring the eastern bloc: British geography, travel cultures and the Cold War
David Matless, Jonathan Oldfield and Adam Swain


Women and Geography

Alison Blunt, Editor; Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers
March 2008

Launched to celebrate International Women’s Day, the first virtual issue of Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, is on 'Women and Geography'. Reflecting the importance and diversity of feminist research within the discipline, this virtual issue brings together a range of landmark articles in the field. Key themes include research on feminist historiographies of geography; feminist theory and methodology in geography; and substantive areas of ongoing concern for women, including geographies of work, fear, domestic violence and the family. Nine articles, published from 1991 to 2008, form the main contents of the virtual issue. Several of these articles include links to others published in Transactions that address women, travel and the history of geography; feminist methodology; gender and work; geographies of home; and family and relatedness. I hope that you will be able to read the papers in the virtual issue, and recommend it to colleagues and students.


Toward a feminist historiography of geography
M. Domosh

Links to other articles on women, travel and the history of geography:

Cutting power lines within the palace? Countering paternity and Eurocentrism in the 'geographical tradition'
C. McEwan

British women travellers and constructions of racial difference across the nineteenth century American West
K. M. Morin

Gender, nature, empire: women naturalists in nineteenth century British travel literature
J. K. Guelke, and K. M. Morin

Do we need a feminist historiography of geography? And if we do, what should it be?
D. R. Stoddart

Beyond the frontiers of geographical knowledge
M. Domosh

The "Map Girls": British women geographers’ war work, shifting gender boundaries and reflections on the history of geography
A. Maddrell

Doing gender: feminism, feminists and research methods in human geography
L. McDowell

Doing gender and development: understanding empowerment and local gender relations
J. Sharp, J. Briggs, H Yacoub and N. Hamed

Feminism and the spaces of transformation
J Robinson

Life without father and Ford: the new gender order of Post-Fordism
L. McDowell

Links to other articles on gender and work

The particularities of place: geographies of gendered moral responsibilities among Latvian migrant workers in 1950s Britain
L. McDowell

The geography of gender divisions of labour in Britain
S. Duncan

Flexibility, gender and part-time work: evidence from a survey of the economically active
S. Pinch and A. Store

Social geographies of women's fear of crime
R. Pain

'I must get out': the geographies of domestic violence
M Warrington

Links to other articles on geographies of home:

The Cinderella complex - narrating Spanish women’s history, the home and visions of equality: developing new margins
R. Mohammad

Imperial geographies of home: British domesticity in India
A. Blunt

Exploring liminality in cyber/space
C. Madge and H O’Connor

Links to other articles on family and relatedness:

Geographies of relatedness
C. Nash

Family photographs and domestic spacings: a case study
G. Rose

Women and children last: the poverty and marginalization of one-parent families
H. Winchester