Veterinary and Comparative Oncology

Cover image for Vol. 15 Issue 1

Edited By: David J. Argyle and Douglas H. Thamm

Impact Factor: 2.452

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 9/138 (Veterinary Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1476-5829

Author Guidelines


Veterinary and Comparative Oncology (VCO) is an international, peer-reviewed journal integrating clinical and scientific information from a variety of related disciplines and from worldwide sources for all veterinary oncologists and cancer researchers concerned with aetiology, diagnosis and clinical course of cancer in domestic animals and its prevention. With the ultimate aim of diminishing suffering from cancer, the journal supports the transfer of knowledge in all aspects of veterinary oncology, from the application of new laboratory technology to cancer prevention, early detection, diagnosis and therapy.
    In addition to original articles, the journal publishes solicited editorials, review articles, commentary, correspondence and abstracts from the published literature. Current editorial policy has been to administratively decline to publish case reports or small retrospective case series unless the information contained therein will change the standard of care for therapy, diagnosis, or investigation of the tumour in question. From time to time, VCO may publish themed issues to cover areas of importance or debate, e.g. the management of a specific tumour type, or tumour-associated condition.

VCO is the official journal of the Veterinary Cancer Society, European Society of Veterinary Oncology, Japanese Veterinary Cancer Society, British Veterinary Oncology Study Group, Italian Association of Veterinary Oncology and the Oncology Chapter of the Australia and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists.
    Please read the instructions below carefully for details on the submission of manuscripts, the journal’s requirements and standards as well as information concerning the procedure after a manuscript has been accepted for publication in VCO. Authors are encouraged to visit Wiley-Blackwell Author Services for further information on the preparation and submission of articles and figures.


VCO adheres to the below ethical guidelines for publication and research. 

2.1. Authorship, Acknowledgements and Conflict of Interest
Authorship: VCO adheres to the definition of authorship set up by The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). According to the ICMJE authorship criteria should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design of, or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data, 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2 and 3.
It is a requirement that all authors have been accredited as appropriate upon submission of the manuscript. Contributors who do not qualify as authors should be mentioned under Acknowledgements.
Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors and that all authors agree to the submission of the manuscript to the journal. The number of authors is not limited for manuscripts submitted to VCO, however, participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship.

Acknowledgements: Under Acknowledgements please specify contributors to the article other than the authors accredited. All sources of institutional, private and corporate financial support for the work within the manuscript must be fully acknowledged. Suppliers of materials should be named and their location (town, state/county, country) included. The information will be disclosed in the published article.

Note to NIH Grantees: Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance.  This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication.  For further information, see 

Conflict of Interest: Any potential conflicts of interest must be disclosed upon submission. These include financial conflicts of interest (for example, patent, ownership, stock ownership, consultancies, speaker's fee). Author's conflict of interest (or information specifying the absence of conflicts of interest) will be published under a separate heading entitled 'Conflict of Interest'.

2.2. Ethical Approvals 
Experimental Subjects: Experimentation involving human subjects will only be published if such research has been conducted in full accordance with ethical principles, including the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki (; 2002 version) and the additional requirements, if any, of the country where the research has been carried out. Manuscripts must be accompanied by a statement that the experiments were undertaken with the understanding and written consent of each subject and according to the above mentioned principles. A statement regarding the fact that the study has been independently reviewed and approved by an ethical board should also be included. Editors reserve the right to reject papers if there are doubts as to whether appropriate procedures have been used.
    When experimental animals are used, the Materials and methods section must clearly indicate that adequate measures were taken to minimize pain or discomfort. Experiments should be carried out in accordance with the Guidelines laid down by the National Institute of Health (NIH) in the USA regarding the care and use of animals for experimental procedures or with the European Communities Council Directive of 24 November 1986 (86/609/EEC) and in accordance with local laws and regulations. If approval from an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, Clinical Review Board or similar institutional regulatory body was obtained, this should be stated within the manuscript.  

Ethics of investigation: Papers not in agreement with the guidelines of the Helsinki Declaration as revised in 1975 will not be accepted for publication.

2.3 DNA Sequences and Crystallographic Structure Determinations
Papers reporting protein or DNA sequences and crystallographic structure determinations will not be accepted without a Genbank or Brookhaven accession number, respectively. Papers reporting gene expression data will not accepted without a Gene Expression Omnibus accession number. Other supporting data sets must be made available on the publication date from the authors directly.

2.4 Cross-Species Antibodies
Papers reporting the results of protein analysis (flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, immunoprecipitation) that utilize antibodies directed against a protein or epitope from another species (e.g. anti-human or anti-murine antibodies used to interrogate protein expression in a dog or cat) should provide appropriate validation of the specificity and cross-reactivity of the antibodies as described in Ramos-Vara et al (J Vet Diagn Invest 2008;20:93). Specifically, antibodies should demonstrate reactivity with the appropriate molecular weight antigen in western blots. Alternatively, citations demonstrating such validation must be provided.
2.5 Appeal of Decision
Authors who wish to appeal the decision on their submitted paper may do so by e-mailing the editors with a detailed explanation for why they find reasons to appeal the decision.

2.6 Permissions
If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publishers.

2.7 Copyright Assignment
If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:


Manuscripts should be submitted electronically via the online submission site The use of an online submission and peer review site enables immediate distribution of manuscripts and consequentially speeds up the review process. It also allows authors to track the status of their own manuscripts. Complete instructions for submitting a paper are available online and below. Full instructions and support are available on the site and a user ID and password can be obtained on the first visit. If you are experiencing problems with your submission, please contact the Editorial Office at .

3.1. Getting Started

  • Launch your web browser (supported browsers include Internet Explorer 6 or higher, Netscape 7.0, 7.1, or 7.2, Safari 1.2.4, or Firefox 1.0.4) and go to VCO's ScholarOne Manuscripts homepage: (
  • Log-in or click the 'Create Account' option if you are a first-time user.
  • If you are creating a new account. 
    - After clicking on 'Create Account', enter your name and e-mail information and click 'Next'. Your e-mail information is very important.
    - Enter your institution and address information as appropriate, and then click 'Next'.
    - Enter a user ID and password of your choice (we recommend using your e-mail address as your user ID), and then select your area of expertise. Click 'Finish'.
  • If you have an account, but have forgotten your log in details, go to Password Help on the VCO's online submission system ( and enter your e-mail address. The system will send you an automatic user ID and a new temporary password.
  • Log-in and select 'Author Center'.

3.2. Submitting Your Manuscript

  • After you have logged in, click the 'Submit a Manuscript' link in the menu bar.
  • Enter data and answer questions as appropriate. You may copy and paste directly from your manuscript and you may upload your pre-prepared covering letter.
  • Click the 'Next' button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen.
  • You are required to upload your files.
    - Click on the 'Browse' button and locate the file on your computer.
    - Select the designation of each file in the drop-down menu next to the Browse button.
    - When you have selected all files you wish to upload, click the 'Upload Files' button.
  • Review your submission (in HTML and PDF format) before sending to the VCO. Click the 'Submit' button when you have finished reviewing.

3.3. Manuscript Files Accepted
Manuscripts should be uploaded as Word (.doc) or Rich Text Format (.rft) files (not password-protected) plus separate figure files. GIF, JPEG, PICT or Bitmap files are acceptable for submission, but only high-resolution TIF or EPS files are suitable for printing. The files will be automatically converted to HTML and PDF on upload and will be used for the review process. The text file must contain the entire manuscript including: abstract, text, references, tables, and figure legends, but no embedded figures. The title page listing names and institutional affiliations for all authors should be uploaded separately for the purposes of double-blinded review. Figure tags should be included in the file. Manuscripts should be formatted as described in the Author Guidelines below.

3.4. Blinded Review
All manuscripts submitted to VCO will be reviewed by a minimum of two experts in the field. VCO uses double-blinded review meaning that author identities are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa.

3.5. Suggest a Reviewer
VCO attempts to keep the review process as short as possible to enable rapid publication of new scientific data. In order to facilitate this process, please suggest the names and current e-mail addresses of at least two potential international reviewers whom you consider capable of reviewing your manuscript. Please note that the journal editor is not obliged to choose the nominated reviewers for your manuscript.

3.6. Suspension of Submission Mid-way in the Submission Process
You may suspend a submission at any phase before clicking the 'Submit' button and save it to submit later. The manuscript can then be located under 'Unsubmitted Manuscripts' and you can click on 'Continue Submission' to continue your submission when you choose to.

3.7. E-mail Confirmation of Submission
After submission you will receive an e-mail to confirm receipt of your manuscript. If you do not receive the confirmation e-mail after 24 hours, please check your e-mail address carefully in the system. If the e-mail address is correct please contact your IT department. The error may be caused by spam filtering software on your e-mail server. Also, the e-mails should be received if the IT department adds our e-mail server ( to their whitelist.

3.8. Manuscript Status
You can access ScholarOne Manuscripts any time to check your 'Author Center' for the status of your manuscript. The journal will inform you by e-mail once a decision has been made.

3.9. Submission of Revised Manuscripts
Revised manuscripts must be uploaded within one month of authors being notified of conditional acceptance pending satisfactory revision. Locate your manuscript under 'Manuscripts with Decisions' and click on 'Submit a Revision' to submit your revised manuscript. Please include a POINT BY POINT response to reviewers as part of your revised submission. In addition, please upload a revised version of your manuscript with changes clearly highlighted. Please remember to delete any old files uploaded when you upload your revised manuscript.

4.0 Guidelines for Cover Submissions
If you would like to send suggestions for artwork related to your manuscript to be considered to appear on the cover of the journal, please follow these general guidelines.


Original Research: Papers describing an original piece of research that has not been published elsewhere.

Editorials: A solicited Editorial relates to a manuscript in the same issue or a topic of current interest.

Review Articles: A Review Article is a timely, in-depth discussion of an issue. It should not exceed 6000 words.

Short Communications: A Short Communication includes new techniques/technology reports, etc. It should not exceed 2000 words and a total of 4 figures or tables.

Letters to the Editor: A Letter should be sent to the Editors for approval, and include a reference to the article being discussed. It should be concise, preferably less than 450 words.

Abstracts: The Editorial Board selects abstracts from the published literature for publication.


5.1. Format
Language: The language of publication is English. Authors for whom English is a second language must have their manuscript professionally edited by an English speaking person before submission to make sure the English is of high quality. It is preferred that manuscripts are professionally edited. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.
Spacing and Margins: All manuscripts should be double-spaced with 1-inch (2.5-cm) margins throughout. A common and easy-to-read type face such as Arial, Helvetica, Georgia or Times New Roman and a font size of 11 points or larger should be utilized throughout the manuscript.

5.2. Structure
For Editorials, Short Communications and Letters to the Editor, the style should be of continuous prose with appropriate references, figures and tables as required. For Reviews, the structure will depend on the subject matter but the use of clear descriptive figures is strongly encouraged.

For all original research manuscripts submitted to VCO: The manuscript should include title page and abbreviated title for use as a running headline; a self-contained abstract of the paper (250 words in length); introduction; materials and methods; results; discussion; acknowledgements (if any); references; supporting information legends; tables; captions to figures (on a separate page) and figures as separate files.

Title Page: title of paper; names of the authors; address of the place at which the work was carried out (including postal and email addresses for corresponding author).

Abstract: 250 words in length and between four and six keywords. Please note that the abstract should be submitted on a separate page to the rest of the manuscript.

Optimizing Your Abstract for Search Engines: Many students and researchers looking for information online will use search engines such as Google, Yahoo or similar. By optimizing your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. We have compiled these guidelines to enable you to maximize the web-friendliness of the most public part of your article.

5.3. References
References should be cited in the text by superscript numbers after punctuation, in order of citation. The editor and publisher recommend that citation of online published papers and other material should be done via a DOI (digital object identifier), which all reputable online published material should have - see for more information. If an author cites anything which does not have a DOI they run the risk of the cited material not being traceable.

List all authors when there are 6 or fewer; when there are 7 or more authors, list only the first 6 and add “et al.”

Do not use ibid. or op cit.

Include an “available from” note for documents that may not be readily accessible.

When citing an article or book accepted for publication but not yet published, include the title of the journal (or name of the publisher) and the year of expected publication. Include references to unpublished material in the text, not in the references (for example, papers presented orally at a meeting; unpublished work [personal communications, papers in preparation]), and submit a letter of permission from the cited persons to cite such communications. In general, avoid citations to unpublished scientific results.

Ensure that URLs used as references are active and available (the references should include the date on which the author accessed the URL).

Reference List Examples:

Journal article (1-6 authors):

1. Hu P and Reuben DB. Effects of managed care on the length of time that elderly patients spend with physicians during ambulatory visits. Medical Care 2002; 40: 606613.

Journal article with more than 6 authors:

2. Geller AC, Venna S, Prout M, et al. Should the skin cancer examination be taught in medical school? Archives of Dermatology 2002; 138: 12011203.

Journal article with no named author or group name:

3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Licensure of a meningococcal conjugate vaccine (Menveo) and guidance for use--Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2010. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2010; 59: 273.

Electronic Journal article:

If you have a doi (preferred):

4. Gage BF, Fihn SD and White RH. Management and dosing of warfarin therapy. American Journal of Medicine 2000; 109: 481488. doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00545-3.

If you do not have a doi:

5. Aggleton JP. Understanding anterograde amnesia: disconnections and hidden lesions. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 2008; 61:14411471. Accessed March 18, 2010.

Journal article published online ahead of print:

6. Chau NG and Haddad RI. Antiangiogenic agents in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: tired of going solo [published online ahead of print September 20, 2016]. Cancer. doi: 10.1002/cncr.30352.

Entire Book:

6. McKenzie BC. Medicine and the Internet: Introducing Online Resources and Terminology. 2nd edn., New York, Oxford University Press, 1997.

Book Chapter:

7. Guyton JL and Crockarell JR. Fractures of acetabulum and pelvis. In: Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 10th edn., ST Canale Ed., Philadelphia,Mosby, Inc., 2003: 29392984.

Electronic Book:

8. Rudolph CD and Rudolph AM. Rudolph's Pediatrics. 21st edn. New York, McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002. . Accessed August 22, 2007.

Internet Document:

9. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2003. Accessed March 3, 2003.


10. SD. Cloning and Characterization of Piccolo, a Novel Component of the Presynaptic Cytoskeletal Matrix [dissertation]. Birmingham, University of Alabama, 2000.


11. Undeman C. Fully Automatic Segmentation of MRI Brain Images Using Probabilistic Diffusion and a Watershed Scale-Space Approach [master’s thesis]. Stockholm, NADA, Royal Institute of Technology, 2001.

5.4. Tables, Figures and Figure Legends

Tables: Tables should be input on separate pages together with a suitable caption at the top of each table. Column headings should be kept as brief as possible, and indicate units of measure in parentheses.

Figures: Drawings and graphs should be supplied as electronic files. Label axes appropriately and clearly. Please use a selection of the following symbols: +,´,£,¡,r,¢, ˜, p, q. Authors are asked where possible to draw diagrams to one of the following widths, including lettering: 168 mm, 354 mm. During reproduction, the diagrams can be reduced to half of their original size; please ensure, therefore, that lettering can withstand such a reduction. Authors are asked to use the minimum amount of descriptive matter on graphs and drawings but rather to refer to curves, points, etc., by symbols and place the descriptive matter in the caption. The figures should be numbered in a consecutive series of figures using Arabic numerals.

Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication: Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (line art) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. Microsoft PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented programs. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size (see below). Please submit the data for figures in black and white or submit a Colour Work Agreement Form (see Colour Charges below). EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible). For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: line art:  >600 dpi; halftones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi.

Further information can be obtained at our guidelines for figures:
Check your electronic artwork before submitting it:

Permissions: If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publisher.

Colour Charges: It is the policy of VCO for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour artworkin print. Therefore, please note that if there are figures in colour in your manuscript when it is accepted for publication, these are assumed to be colour online-only. If you would like them to appear in colour in print, the publisher requires you to complete and return a Colour Work Agreement Form before your paper can be published. Any article received by us with colour work will not be published until the form has been returned. If you are unable to access the internet, or are unable to download the form, please contact the Production Editor (

Figure Legends: Legends should be provided on a separate page but grouped together.

5.5. Supporting Information
Publication in electronic formats has created opportunities for adding details or whole sections in the electronic version only. Authors need to work closely with the editors in developing or using such new publication formats.
    Supporting Information, such as data sets or additional figures or tables, that will not be published in the print edition of Veterinary and Comparative Oncology, but which will be viewable via the online edition, can be submitted.
    It should be clearly stated at the time of submission that the Supporting Information is intended to be made available through the online edition. If the size or format of the Supporting Information is such that it cannot be accommodated on the journal’s website, the author agrees to make the Supporting Information available free of charge on a permanent website, to which links will be set up from the journal’s website. The author must advise Wiley-Blackwell if the URL of the website where the Supporting Information is located changes. The content of the Supporting Information must not be altered after the paper has been accepted for publication.
    The availability of Supporting Information should be indicated in the main manuscript by a paragraph, to appear after the References section, headed 'Supporting Information' and providing short legends for figures, tables, etc. In order to protect anonymity, material posted on the author’s website cannot be reviewed. The Supporting Information is an integral part of the article and will be reviewed accordingly.

Extra issues: Larger papers or monographs may be published as additional issues (numbered as the ordinary issues), the full cost being paid by the author. Further information may be obtained from the editors.

Writing For Publication in Veterinary Medicine can be accessed at the following link:


Upon acceptance of a paper for publication, the manuscript will be forwarded to the Production Editor who is responsible for the production of the journal.

6.1 Proof Corrections
The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a website.  A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author.  The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from this site. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following website: This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Hard copy proofs will be posted if no e-mail address is available; in your absence, please arrange for a colleague to access your e-mail to retrieve the proofs.
    Proofs must be returned to the Production Editor within three days of receipt.
    As changes to proofs are costly, we ask that you only correct typesetting errors. Excessive changes made by the author in the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately. Other than in exceptional circumstances, all illustrations are retained by the publisher. Please note that the author is responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.

6.2 Author Services
Online production tracking is available for your article through Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

6.3 Author Material Archive Policy
Please note that unless specifically requested, the Publisher will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the Editorial Office ( or Production Editor ( as soon as possible if you have not yet done so.

OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see

Prior to acceptance, there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.