Liver International

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 7

Editor-in-Chief: Mario U Mondelli. Co-Editors: Francesco Negro and Zobair Younossi

Impact Factor: 4.47

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 13/78 (Gastroenterology & Hepatology)

Online ISSN: 1478-3231

Author Guidelines

Updated 22 February 2016

Liver International is published in an online-only format.


Original Manuscripts:
Liver International publishes both clinical and experimental research in all areas of normal and abnormal liver function and disease. Purely descriptive research or methodology papers will not be considered for publication. Basic science manuscripts will be considered for publication only if they have translational significance.

Authors submitting systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses must use PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) check list. Failure to do that will result in automatic rejection of the manuscript.

Manuscript length should not exceed 5,000 words excluding figures and/or tables.

Manuscripts are allowed no more than 8 figures and/or tables with up to 6 individual panels each.

Additional supporting information can be submitted along with the original manuscript. Authors preparing supporting information for publication should carefully read the guidelines at:

      • The abstract must not exceed 250 words.
      • The title must not exceed 130 characters.
      • Key points must be organized in a box with 4 bullet points which highlight your paper’s
       originality. Must not exceed 100 words.

• The abstract must be organized as follows:
      - Background & Aims
      - Methods
      - Results
      - Conclusions

Do not use abbreviations, footnotes or references in the abstract. An electronic word count of the abstract must be included.3-5 key words at the end of the abstract must be provided.

The manuscript must be arranged as follows:
      • Title page
      • Abstract in the Liver International format
      • Key points box
      • Introduction
      • Materials and methods (or Patients and methods)
      • Results
      • Discussion
      • Acknowledgements
      • References
      • Tables
      • Figure legends

As a rule, original manuscripts will be evaluated by two independent reviewers and by the Editors. The Editors reserve the right of early rejection without further external review if the manuscript is judged unlikely to be accepted. Manuscripts requiring extensive revision will be at a disadvantage for publication and will be rejected. Authors shall be responsible for the quality of language and style and are strongly advised against submitting a manuscript which is not written in grammatically correct English. The Editors reserve the right to reject poorly written manuscripts even if their scientific content is qualitatively suitable for publication. Manuscripts are submitted with the understanding that they are original contributions and do not contain data that have been published elsewhere or are under consideration by another journal. Meeting abstracts do not constitute prior publication. Revised manuscripts should be accompanied by a point-by-point reply to the critiques, specifying the changes made in the revised version, which should be highlighted.

Rapid Communications: will be considered for important and timely scientific contributions; authors should explain in their accompanying letter why they wish to submit their paper as a rapid communication. Rapid communications will undergo regular peer-review as original manuscripts but will be granted fast-track processing. Such papers should not exceed 3,000 words, including no more than 2 tables or figures and 20 references. Additional supporting information can be submitted along with the original manuscript. Authors preparing supporting information for publication should carefully read the guidelines at:

Review Articles: Review articles on selected clinical and basic topics of interest for the readers of Liver International are generally commissioned by the Editors. While unsolicited reviews will be considered, authors are encouraged to contact the Editors before submitting a review. Review articles are expected to be clear, concise and updated.

      • The recommended length is 5,000 words with an upper limit of 6000 words excluding references, figures and/or tables.
      • References should not exceed a maximum of 150.
      • The inclusion of a reasonable number of tables and figures to summarize critical points is
       highly desirable.
      • Review articles must be accompanied by a title page and an abstract.
      • Reviews should include a key points’ box, with a maximum of 5 bullet points that briefly
       summarizes the content of the review.

Review articles are reviewed by the Editors and are normally sent off for peer review. Invitation to write a review article does not imply automatic acceptance.

Editorials: are commissioned by the Editors. They should be limited to 1,500 words and 20 references. One figure or table is highly recommended. A title page must be provided.

Debates in Hepatology: Case Reports or Original Articles eliciting a debate on patient management or relevant controversial topics meriting discussion are encouraged to be submitted in a rapid communication format for consideration of publication in this section. Upon acceptance, they will be accompanied by two short invited commentaries providing a PRO and a CON view on the subject.

Authors of regular Case Reports are encouraged to submit to Wiley's open access journal Clinical Case Reports.

Letters: Only letters concerning papers published in Liver International will be considered for publication. They should be less than 400 words, with a maximum of 5 references and 4 authors

Liver International Images
: should be accompanied with a short description of the image(s) which should not exceed 250 words, with 4 references and a maximum of 4 authors.

Page charges – Any article that exceeds 9 published pages will be charged. Excess pages must be paid for at a rate of GBP 100 per page unless specific written arrangements have been negotiated with the Editors. Invited papers are as a rule not charged for excess pages. Papers will be invoiced upon publication.

Video summaries: A video summary can be a quick way to make the message of your research accessible to a much larger audience. Wiley and its partner Research Square offer a service of professionally produced video summaries, available to authors of articles accepted in this journal. You can learn more about it, and purchase one for your article, at If you have any questions, please direct them to .


Manuscripts, including tables and figures, should be submitted online at: ScholarOne Manuscripts:

Authors are kindly asked NOT to send their manuscripts by fax or mail to the Editorial Office.

Ithenticate Liver International employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published material.

- If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

      • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA.
      • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA.

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit See the OnlineOpen section for more information.

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by certain funders [e.g. The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) or the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)] you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying your Funder requirements . For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

For RCUK, Wellcome Trust, FWF authors click on the link below to preview the terms and conditions of this license:

      • Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

OnlineOpen - OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive.

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.


Submitted manuscripts must be typed double-spaced throughout, preferably using a "standard" font (we prefer Times/Arial 12). Tables and figures must be numbered. For mathematical symbols, Greek letters, and other special characters, use normal text. The references must be in accordance with Liver International reference style (see References).

Approved nomenclature for gene and protein names and symbols should be used, including appropriate use of italics (all gene symbols and loci should be in italics) and capitalization as it applies for each organism's standard nomenclature format, in text, tables, and figures. Full gene names are generally not in italics and Greek symbols are not used. Proteins should not be italicized.

Improperly prepared manuscripts will not be entered into the peer review process and will be sent back to the author for correction.

A letter of submission
must be uploaded with all manuscripts. The letter may be used to outline the strengths of the manuscript. All commercial relationships (i.e. consultancies, patent-licensing agreements) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted manuscript must be included in the letter. In case of possible conflicts of interest, the letter must include a detailed description of the nature of the conflict of interest, the full name of the entity with which there is a conflict, as well as address, telephone number, webpage address, a detailed financial disclosure, and any other important, relevant details.

The Title page must contain:
a. A title of no more than 130 characters.
b. Names of the Authors including the first names of all the Authors in full.
c. Names of department(s) and institution(s) where the work was done.
d. Name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and electronic mail address of the corresponding Author.
e. Electronic word count for main body of manuscript.
f. Number of figures and tables.
g. List of abbreviations in the order of appearance.
h. Conflict of interest.
i. Financial support.
j. Trial registration number, if applicable (see below).

Animal trials – Manuscripts reporting experiments using animals must include a statement giving assurance that all animals received human care and that study protocols comply with the institution's guidelines. Statistical methods used should be outlined.

Human trials – Manuscripts reporting data from research conducted on humans must include a statement of assurance in the methods section of the manuscript reading that: (1) informed consent was obtained from each patient included in the study and (2) the study protocol conforms to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki as reflected in a priori approval by the institution's human research committee.

Randomised controlled trials
– Any paper that is a randomised control trial should adhere to the guidelines that can be found at the following web-site: The checklist should be downloaded, completed and uploaded with your submission. The trial registration number must be included on the title page of the manuscript reporting a registered clinical trial. Failure to do so will prevent entry to the peer review process.

Registration of clinical trials
Liver International endorses the policy of the WHO and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) on the registration of clinical trials. Any trial that starts recruiting on or after July 1, 2005 should be registered in a publicly owned, publicly accessible registry and should satisfy a minimal standard dataset. Trials that started recruiting before that date will be considered for publication if registered before September 13, 2005. More detailed information regarding the definition of clinical trial, the minimal registration data set, and the requirements for an acceptable trial registry can be found in New Engl J Med 2004, 351:1250-1251 and New Engl J Med 2005, 352:2437-2438.

Drugs and chemicals – Drugs and chemicals should be used by generic name. If trademarks are mentioned, the manufacturer's name and city should be given. All funding sources supporting the work, either public or private, especially those from pharmaceutical companies, must be provided.

Genetic Sequence data – In papers reporting a novel DNA or amino sequence, verification that the data have been or will be submitted either to Gen-Bank or EMBL is required. Please provide this verification and the accession number in the covering letter.

References – References must be in accordance with the Liver International reference style. References are ordered as they appear in the text and citation numbers for references are placed between "brackets" ("[ ]") in the text as well as in the reference list.
Authors should be listed surname first, followed by the initials of given names (e.g. Bolognesi M). If there are more than six authors, the names of the first six authors followed by et al. should appear. Titles of all cited articles are required. Titles of articles cited in reference list should be in upright, not italic text; the first word of the title is capitalized, the title written exactly as it appears in the work cited, ending with a full stop. Journal titles are abbreviated according to common usage, followed by Journal years, semicolon (;) before volume and colon (:) before full page range (see examples below).

All articles in the list of references should be cited in the text and, conversely, all references cited in the text must be included in the list. Personal communications and unpublished data should be cited directly in the text by the first Author, without being numbered.
An example of how references should look within the text: HVPG was measured by hepatic vein catheterization using a balloon catheter according to a procedure described elsewhere [14, 15] and used as an index of portal hypertension [16].

An example of how the reference list should look:
[14] Merkel C, Bolognesi M, Bellon S, Zuin R, Noventa F, Finucci G, et al. Prognostic usefulness of hepatic vein catheterization in patients with cirrhosis and esophageal varices. Gastroenterology 1992;102:973-979.
[15] Groszmann RJ, Wongcharatrawee S. The hepatic venous pressure gradient: anything worth doing should be done right. Hepatology 2004;39:280-282.

Abbreviations, symbols and nomenclature - should be standardised and in accordance with ELLIS G (ed.). Units, symbols and abbreviations. The Royal Society of Medicine, 1 Wimpole Street, London Wl M 8AE, 1975.

Tables – Tables should be provided as Word files (*.doc), Excel (.xls) or Illustrator (*.eps) compatible files. TIFF and JPG files are not acceptable for table submission. Tables should contain a maximum of 10 columns. Tables submitted in landscape orientation will not be accepted. Tables should include a title, table legend, and if necessary footnotes.

Figures –All graphics submitted to Liver International should be sent at their actual size, which is 100% of their print dimension and in portrait orientation.
Two standard widths are used and figures should fit in one (8.5 x 23.5 cm) or two (17.5 x 23.5 cm) columns (see Figure and Table Guidelines).

Figure files should be provided in high resolution .eps format, minimum 800dpi (for graphs and charts) or .tiff format, minimum 300dpi (for photographs or a combination of images and text). Figures with multiple parts (A, B, C) should be provided as separate files. Panel lettering should be in Arial bold 16 pt, capitalized and no full stop (A) while lettering in figures (axes, conditions) should be in Arial 14 pt, lower case type with the first letter capitalized and no full stop. Do not copy and paste figure files into the manuscript word document.

Figures can be in grayscale or CMYK. All photomicrographs should have a scale on the photograph. Photographs of identifiable patients should be accompanied by written permission to publish from patient(s).

If you no longer have the original data to improve/recreate graphs, charts or combination figures to high resolution, please crop the graph portion in Microsoft PowerPoint and re-type any text in Arial/Times New Roman in minimum 14pts. This will ensure that at least the text is clear. Any lines in the figures must be at least 1.5 or 2pts thick. We will accept the revised .ppt file. For more information on file requirements, please refer to http:

The journal adheres to the definition of authorship set up by The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The ICMJE recommends that authorship be based on the following 4 criteria: i) Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; ii) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; iii) Final approval of the version to be published; and iv) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Contributors who do not qualify as authors should be mentioned under 'Acknowledgements'.

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship must be listed in an acknowledgements section at the end of the manuscript. Financial and material support must also be acknowledged. Authors are required to describe the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in the study design; in collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the supporting source had no such involvement, the authors should state so. Also, if no specific funding was obtained, this should be stated.

Images of, or Information about, Identifiable Individuals: It is the author’s responsibility to obtain consent from patients and other individuals for use of information, images, audio files, interview transcripts, and video clips from which they may be identified. To ensure we have the rights we require please provide a signed consent/release form in all instances.
            - If the person is a minor, consent must be obtained from the child’s parents or guardians.
            - If the person is dead, we consider it essential and ethical that you obtain consent for use from the next of kin. If this is impractical you need to balance the need to use the photo against the risk of causing offence. In all cases ensure you obscure the identity of the deceased.
            - If using older material, or for material obtained in the field, for which signed release forms are, for practical purposes, unobtainable, you will need to confirm in writing that the material in question was obtained with the person’s understanding that it might be published.

Authors may be asked to contact professionals regarding the correction of the English content of manuscripts either before or after acceptance. We recommend the Wiley English Language Editing Services: go to The expense will be the responsibility of the Authors.

Authors should be aware that manuscripts will be screened upon submission. Only the manuscripts which fully comply with the submission requirements outlined and in which the level of English is of an acceptable standard will enter the peer review process.

First submission – Once successful submission of a manuscript has taken place, an acknowledgement will be sent by e-mail to the Corresponding Author on the manuscript, with a copy to all named co-authors. All subsequent correspondence will be with the designated Corresponding Author. The reference number of the manuscript should be used by the Authors in all communications with the Editorial Office. All the manuscripts will be reviewed by the Editors and, and in some cases, by external expert reviewers. After review, the Corresponding Author will be notified by email of the decision taken by the Editor(s). This email will be accompanied by the comments of the reviewers, where a paper has been sent for external review.

Resubmission of manuscripts – In some cases, Authors will be invited to submit a revised version of the manuscript for further review. This invitation does not imply, in any case, that the revised version will be accepted for publication. In general, revised manuscripts must be received in the Editorial Office within four months of the date of the first decision. Authors should submit the resubmitted manuscript with all changes underlined. The resubmitted manuscript should be accompanied by a cover letter stating that the manuscript has been revised according to the comments made by the Editor and the Reviewers. Figures and tables must be uploaded. Please ensure that a separate point by point response to the reviewers is included with the covering letter. Please do not send revised manuscripts to the Editorial Office via e-mail. Revised manuscripts should be uploaded on the ScholarOne website.

When proofs are ready for checking, the corresponding author will receive an email alert containing a link to a web site. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from this site. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following web site: will enable the file to be opened, read and corrected on screen. Further instructions will be sent with the proof.

Offprints - A PDF offprint of the online published article will be provided via Author Services. Additional paper offprints may be ordered online at
If you have queries about offprints please email

Accepted Articles – ‘Accepted Articles' have been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but have not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process. Accepted Articles are published online a few days after final acceptance, appear in PDF format only, are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows them to be cited and tracked, and are indexed by PubMed. A completed copyright form is required before a manuscript can be processed as an Accepted Article.

Early View - Liver International is covered by Wiley Blackwell's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors’ final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles mean that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

Author material archive policy - Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted 2 months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible.

Disclaimer - The Publisher, the International Association for the Study of the Liver and the Editors cannot be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in this journal; the views and opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the Publisher, the International Association for the Study of the Liver and the Editors; neither does the publication of advertisements constitute any endorsement by the Publisher, the International Association for the Study of the Liver and the Editors of the products advertised.

Author Services - Author Services enables authors to track their article – once it has been accepted – through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Note to NIH Grantees

Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see