Coloration Technology

Cover image for Vol. 132 Issue 4

Editor-in-Chief: Andrew Towns

Impact Factor: 1.127

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 6/23 (Materials Science Textiles); 41/71 (Chemistry Applied); 79/135 (Engineering Chemical)

Online ISSN: 1478-4408

Author Guidelines

1. General
The editor welcomes submission of papers on coloration and topics covering the science and technology of coloured materials. Its scope embraces:

Colorants of all classes in relation to:
• Molecular structure and physical form and the effects of these on application and in-service properties
• Chemistry, synthesis and manufacture

• Composition and mode of action of chemicals used at any stage in coloration, including pre- and post-coloration processes

Application practice:
• Processing operations on different types of laboratory and bulk-scale equipment
• Practical significance of any processing variants
• Developments in coloration processes

Application theory:
• Chemistry and physical chemistry of coloration processes
• Correlation with industrial practice

Analysis and testing:
• Identification and characterisation of colorants, substrates, finishes and chemicals in substance and on substrates
• Identification of faults
• Fastness testing
• Equipment and techniques

Theory and practice of ancillary processes:
• Processes involved in coloration or in the achievement of the final coloured product

Physico-chemical aspects of colour:
• Colour and constitution
• Colour theory
• Colorimetry and equipment
• Colour matching
• Colour vision
• Spectra
• Photochemistry of colorants, substrates and chemicals

Plant, management and services, provided that it is directly related to coloration, information on:
• Building, machinery, works engineering and organisation
• Automation, instrumentation and control
• Power and energy resources
• Water quality, supply and handling
• Effluent, pollution and environmental factors

Subjects within the scope of the journal include those making functional use of colour in addition to more conventional, aesthetic colorants. The following illustrate fields considered of relevance to the journal.

Colorants; Application:
As well as conventional dyes and pigments, functional colorants fall within journal scope. Applications encompassed therefore include those in which the colour properties of the dyes or pigments being employed may not be of direct relevance to their use. Examples of functional colorant utilisation include, but are not restricted to: chromic materials whose appearance changes in response to a stimulus, such as light, heat, electrical current, pressure, etc.; construction of devices for solar power generation, organic electronics and displays; components in information technologies like photonics and data storage; therapeutic use in treating cancer or infections; probes in biomedicine and forensic science; photocatalytic additives and photosensitisers; security marking for authentication or validation. Aesthetic uses of colorants that are within scope extends from coloration of textiles, coatings, plastics, paper, ceramics, architectural materials, food, cosmetics, hair and fur, through to less conventional applications, such as prosthetics and dental implants.

Chemicals; Theory and practice of ancillary processes:
These subject areas cover materials used in the processing of substrates prior to coloration, such as bleaching agents, or following coloration, like finishes. Papers submitted in this area must include some element relating to impact on substrate colour properties. Influence over substrate colour prior to coloration is considered relevant as determined, for example, by whiteness index, yellowness index or colorimetric co-ordinates.

Analysis and testing:
In addition to describing developments in the assessment of colorants and ancillary materials before, during, and after their application, activities within this field include the analysis of coloured objects and colorants of historical interest, in addition to the conservation of coloured materials.

Please read the instructions below carefully for details on the submission of manuscripts, the journal's requirements and standards, as well as information concerning the procedure after a manuscript has been accepted for publication in Coloration Technology. Authors are encouraged to visit Wiley Author Services for further information on the preparation and submission of articles and figures.

2. Ethical Guidelines
Coloration Technology adheres to the below ethical guidelines for publication and research.

2.1. Originality
Contributions submitted to the journal must not have appeared or have been accepted for publication in extenso elsewhere prior to publication in Coloration Technology without sanction from the Publications Committee.

2.2. Authorship and Acknowledgements Authorship:
Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors and that all authors agree to the submission of the manuscript to the journal. ALL named authors must have made an active contribution to the conception and design and/or analysis and interpretation of the data and/or the drafting of the paper and ALL must have critically reviewed its content and have approved the final version submitted for publication. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship.

All named authors must register for their own account in ScholarOne manuscripts by going to the Create an Account tab at Each author must then be linked to the manuscript via their ScholarOne account under the Authors and Institutions section during the submission process.

Coloration Technology adheres to the definition of authorship set up by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). According to the ICMJE authorship criteria should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design of, or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data, 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2 and 3.

It is a requirement that all authors have been accredited as appropriate upon submission of the manuscript. Contributors who do not qualify as authors should be mentioned under Acknowledgements. Suppliers of materials should be named and their location (country) included in the ‘Experimental’ section.

2.3. Appeal of Decision
Authors who wish to appeal the decision on their submitted paper may do so by emailing the Editorial Office ( with a detailed explanation for why they find reasons to appeal the decision.

2.4. Permissions
If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the editor.

2.5. Copyright Assignment
Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the work and its essential substance have not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. The submission of the manuscript by the authors means that the authors automatically agree to assign exclusive licence to Wiley if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. The work shall not be published elsewhere in any language without the written consent of the publisher. The articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers translation rights and the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute all of the articles printed in the journal. No material published in the journal may be stored on microfilm or videocassettes, in electronic databases and the like, or reproduced photographically without the prior written permission of the publisher. Correspondence to the journal is accepted on the understanding that the contributing author licences the publisher to publish the letter as part of the journal or separately from it, in the exercise of any subsidiary rights relating to the journal and its contents.

3. Manuscript Types Accepted

3.1. Full papers
Papers containing original scientific work will be selected for inclusion in a particular issue of Coloration Technology sequentially in order of date of acceptance. Authors should note that the fragmentation of a substantial body of work into a number of short publications is strongly discouraged; if a paper is submitted as part of a series, any previous ‘parts’ should be indicated in a footnote or cited in the reference list.

3.2. Short communications
There is a fast track procedure for short papers submitted via the accelerated publication procedure (APP). If authors wish their paper to be considered for APP, they must provide a statement clarifying this and submit their manuscript according to specific guidelines.

3.3 Review papers
The submission of authoritative review articles is welcomed. These are often published by invitation of the Reviews Editor or Publications Committee. However, uncommissioned review articles will also be considered. Enquiries regarding potential review articles should be directed to the Reviews Editor.

4. Submission of Manuscripts

Coloration Technology uses the ScholarOne Manuscripts system for online manuscript submission and peer review. The new system brings with it a whole host of benefits including:

· Quick and easy submission
· Administration centralised and reduced
· Significant decrease in peer review times

All submissions to the journal must be submitted online at

Full instructions and support are available on the site and a user ID and password can be obtained on the first visit. If you require assistance then click the ‘Help’ link which appears at the top right of every ScholarOne Manuscripts page. If you cannot submit online, please contact the Editorial Office by email (

4.1. Manuscript Files Required
The manuscript should consist of a Microsoft Word document containing the title, a full list of authors, their addresses (affiliations should be made with superscript italics of the form, a, b, c, etc.; the author who is to receive correspondence should be identified with an asterisk) and email address of the corresponding author. This should be followed by the summary, the main body of text and references. Any tables and figures, together with their captions, should be included at the end of the manuscript. Manuscripts should be formatted as described in the Author Guidelines below.

4.2. Peer Review
The names of any reviewers will not be disclosed to the author submitting a paper. Authors will be notified whether their manuscript has been accepted (possibly subject to certain revisions) or rejected on the basis of the referee(s)’ reports. If revision is required, a full revised manuscript should be provided in electronic form. A detailed note explaining how the manuscript has been amended in response to the referee(s)’ comments should also be included. Ideally, revisions should be highlighted in the revised manuscript in a different colour to speed up assessment. Authors should note that any original documents submitted to the editorial office will not be returned unless explicitly requested.

4.3. Suggest a Possible Reviewer
Coloration Technology attempts to keep the review process as short as possible to enable rapid publication of new scientific data. In order to facilitate this process, authors may suggest the names and current email addresses of potential international reviewers whom you consider capable of reviewing your manuscript.

5. Manuscript Language, Format and Structure
Many students and researchers looking for information online will use search engines such as Google, Yahoo or similar. By optimising your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. These guidelines will enable you to maximise the web-friendliness of the most public part of your article.

5.1. Language
The language of publication is English. Authors for whom English is a second language must have their manuscript professionally edited by an English speaking person before submission to make sure the English is of high quality. It is preferred that manuscripts are professionally edited. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at Wiley Editing Services. Japanese authors can also find a list of local English improvement services here. All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

5.2. Format
Papers must be submitted in English of a sufficient standard to allow referees to form a considered judgement on the technical merit of the paper. Any need for excessive editing after submission may result in rejection or a request for extensive revision by the author. Publication time is kept to a minimum to publish new information in the shortest possible time. Rapid publication is aided by careful preparation of text and illustrations. In view of the high costs of publication, authors should be as concise as possible and should cite literature references for experimental procedures that have already been published. Despite this need for conciseness, it is essential that sufficient background and explanatory detail be included to enable the non-expert to read the paper with understanding. To attempt to do this by the use of literature references alone may not always be satisfactory if the techniques involved are not widely known.

5.3. Structure
All manuscripts submitted to Coloration Technology should normally include:

Abstract: A stand-alone summary (up to 250 words) which is sufficiently detailed to provide a broad indication of the field covered and the results obtained.

Main Text: An ‘Introduction’ which describes the aims of the investigation; an ‘Experimental’ section outlining the methods used to enable replication of the work; a ‘Results and Discussion’ section; and in the ‘Conclusions’ section a summary of the conclusions drawn should be outlined. In all papers, but in particular those describing theoretical studies, it is desirable that the aims and objectives of the work and any conclusions drawn should be stated as clearly as possible in terms of practical coloration.

Acknowledgements: If included, this section should be kept brief and inserted immediately above the list of references.

5.4. Characterisation
Reviewers are asked whether the novel materials synthesised or commercial colorants have been sufficiently characterised. Authors are therefore advised to take note of the following:

5.4.1. Novel colorants – Where relevant, the identity and purity of colorants or ancillary agents claimed as novel must be unambiguously established. Consequently, authors are required to provide suitable characterisation information supporting the claimed composition of synthetic colorants. In addition, they must supply convincing evidence for the purity of their compounds, which rules out the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants, for example, elemental analysis coupled with appropriate chromatographic or spectroscopic techniques. Simple TLC analysis is unlikely to be sufficient for this purpose.

5.4.2. Commercial colorants – The above stipulation does not apply to cases where commercial colorants have been used ‘as is’. However, establishment of composition will be deemed necessary when it is of fundamental importance to the work. The source of any commercial colorants employed must be identified and complete brand names given. (It is anticipated that, under special circumstances, disclosure of such information may not be desired by authors; this course of action will only be permitted as an exception if authors provide sound reasons for it.) Authors will be expected to provide Colour Index identifiers, usually the CI Generic Name (e.g. CI Acid Red 1), for any colorants they have used which have such designations. Authors are requested to check carefully any structures that they attribute to a CI Generic Name before including them in a manuscript: the journal has received many submissions where authors have provided incorrect structures, obtained from unreliable sources, thereby leading to publishing delays and, in certain instances, rejection of manuscripts.

5.4.3 Natural colorants – Submissions concerning natural colorants (i.e. those of plant, mineral or animal origin) should contain experimental data that characterises their composition and content. Of particular importance is verification of the identity of the main colorant(s) present. Such information is key to understanding coloration obtained when using them, so manuscripts that lack it are likely to be looked on less favourably.

5.5. References

Journals: References should be cited at a relevant position in the text and should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals within square brackets. A full list of references should appear at the end of the paper with each reference numbered (followed by a full stop) on a new line. References to journal articles should include a list of all the authors, the journal title abbreviation in italics, volume number in bold, year of publication in parentheses and starting page number, e.g. ‘1. A B Smith and F Bloggs, Color. Technol.,121 (2005) 17.’ Issue numbers or actual months of publication are needed only if each issue is numbered from page one.

Books: A full list of authors should also be provided for books, followed by the title, names of editors (if appropriate), edition, location of publisher, publisher’s name and year of publication (all in parentheses) and starting page number.

Patents: Patents should be cited according to the European patents database (, normally including a full list of authors, the patent number in italics, and in parentheses company name (if available) and the year of publication separated by a semi-colon.

Conference proceedings: A full list of authors should also be provided for conference proceedings, followed by the title of the conference, city, country and year of conference in parentheses, along with a starting page number if available.

Theses: The author of the thesis should be cited, the thesis title in italics, educational establishment, country and year of publication in parentheses.

Online publications: The editor and publisher recommend that citation of online published papers and other material should be done via a DOI (digital object identifier), which all reputable online published material should have – see for more information. If an author cites anything which does not have a DOI they run the risk of the cited material not being traceable.

The use of tools such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting is recommended.

EndNote reference styles can be searched for here:

Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:

5.6. Tables, Figures and Molecular Structures

Tables: Tables should only be used to clarify important points and must, as far as possible, be self-explanatory. Tables are to be numbered consecutively and should be cited at a relevant position in the text.

Figures: Figures, schemes and chemical structures should be numbered consecutively and should be cited at a relevant position in the text. In a complex reaction scheme, chemical structures should be numbered serially (1, 2, etc.) following the reaction sequence. The number of illustrations should be kept as low as possible and the results should be presented in the form of tables or graphs, not both. Diagrams illustrating well known apparatus, techniques or results should not be included. If illustrations are not discussed adequately in the text, they may be removed at the editing stage. Captions should be provided for all tables and figures. In a series of figures containing graphs, consistent use of symbols will help the reader. The preferred font type for figures (axes, labels, etc.) is Arial. Figure legends should be used showing different line styles or data point symbols enclosed in a 0.5 pt box and positioned inside the illustration if possible. SI units should be separated from quantities with a comma e.g. λ, nm. Symbols representing physical quantities should be italicised e.g. t, min. Parts of figures should be labelled (a), (b), (c), etc. and further information given in the figure caption.

Molecular Structures: Representations of chemical compounds depicted in Schemes, Figures and Tables should be drawn in a consistent manner. Functional groups, heteroatoms and labels must be in a san-serif font, most preferably Arial. The size of font must be in proportion to bond length. As a guide, 12pt font is suitable for use with bonds of 0.7cm length and 0.7pt thickness with spaces for unsaturated bonds being 18% of bond length. In chains containing a backbone of sp2- and/or sp3-hydridised atoms of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen or sulphur atoms, bond angles of 120o should be set. Indexes used for labelling of groups must be superscript rather than subscript, e.g. R1-CH2-R2 rather than R1-CH2-R2. Common abbreviations for functional groups are permitted, e.g. -Me instead of -CH3, although their use must be consistent. For labelling of compounds, bold numerals (e.g. 1) are preferred. Aromatic systems must be represented by alternating single and double bonds rather than with an internal circle. In the case of azo compounds derived from hydroxyarenes, care must be taken to show the compound as the correct tautomer, which may be the hydrazone form. For example, in the case of CI Acid Orange 7, which exists predominantly in hydrazone form, structure 1 should be used rather than the hydroxyazo form 2. It is not necessary to show hydrogen bonds explicitly unless the authors wish to draw special attention to them.


Colour charges: Owing to the high cost of reproducing illustrations, it may be necessary to pass on to authors charges incurred for large numbers of illustrations, when diagrams do not conform to the specifications given, when they are more than usually complex, or when colour is required. If this proves necessary, authors will be notified beforehand.

5.6.1. Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication:
On acceptance, authors must provide the following by email:

• Line art (e.g. graphs, bar charts): Each illustration should be provided separately, one file for each illustration or part thereof. Acceptable format: encapsulated postscript (EPS). For generating EPS files from Excel or PowerPoint, visit Information can be obtained from this link with regard to viewing EPS files.

• Half tones (e.g. photos, micrographs): Each file should be provided as 300 dpi TIFF; please note that the only compatible method of compression is LZW.

• Structures: The preferred format for chemical structures and reaction schemes is ChemDraw (*.cdx) files. ISIS Sketch (*.skc) files may also be provided. Failing that, authors can provide the structures as EPS files. Fonts used should be restricted to 8 pt Helvetica (Mac) or Arial (Win).

• Mathematical equations: All equations should be embedded in the Microsoft Word document using original file formats; all variables to be italicised.

Authors are encouraged to submit their figures in either EPS or TIFF format. Should authors have difficulty in converting an image from a source file (for example, Word and Excel), please supply the original source file.

5.7. Supplementary Material
Publication in electronic formats has created opportunities for adding details or whole sections in the electronic version only. Authors need to work closely with the editors in developing or using such new publication formats. Supplementary Material, such as data sets or additional figures or tables, that will not be published in the print edition of the journal, but which will be viewable via the online edition, can be submitted. Such adjuncts to the printed papers may include large data sets, CIF data for crystal structures, extra grey scale or colour illustrations or other material for which insufficient space in the journal is available. The managing editor should be supplied with the extra material on submission of the paper, and an editorial decision will be made on whether the Supplementary Material will be made available once a paper has been accepted for publication. All such material should be provided in web-ready format or in a form that can be conveniently converted into one of the standard web publishing formats, i.e. simple word-processing files (.doc or .rtf) for text; PDF (portable document format) for more complex, layout-dependent text or page-based material; or GIF, JPG, or EPS files for graphics. If the size or format of the Supplementary Material is such that it cannot be accommodated on the Journal's website, the author agrees to make the Supplementary Material available free of charge on a permanent website, to which links will be set up from the Journal's website. The author must advise Wiley-Blackwell if the URL of the website where the Supplementary Material is located changes. The content of the Supplementary Material must not be altered after the paper has been accepted for publication. The availability of Supplementary Material should be indicated in the main manuscript by a paragraph, to appear after the References, headed 'Supplementary Material' and providing titles of figures, tables, etc. In order to protect reviewer anonymity, material posted on the author’s website cannot be reviewed. The Supplementary Material is an integral part of the article and will be reviewed accordingly. Papers reporting crystallographic structure determinations will not be accepted without a Brookhaven accession number. Other supporting data sets must be made available on the publication date from the authors directly.

6. After Acceptance
Upon acceptance of a paper for publication, the manuscript will be forwarded to the production editor who is responsible for the production of the journal.

6.1 Licensing
The formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

6.1.1. For authors signing the non-standard CTA
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the Coloration Technology non-standard CTA to sign. The terms and conditions of the non-standard CTA can be previewed with this link: Terms and Conditions. Please do not complete this PDF until you are prompted to login into Author Services as described above. Certain funders, including the NIH, members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) and Wellcome Trust require deposit of the Accepted Version in a repository after an embargo period.

Wiley has arrangements with certain academic institutions to permit such a deposit.

Details are set out at the following website:

Please contact the Journal production editor if you have additional requirements from funders.

6.1.2. For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

· Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
· Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
· Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and Wiley Open Access.

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit

6.2. Proof Corrections
The corresponding author will receive an email alert containing a link to a website. A working email address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF file from this site. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following website: This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Hard copy proofs will be posted if no email address is available; in your absence, please arrange for a colleague to access your email to retrieve the proofs, or provide an alternative email address for dispatch of proofs. Proofs must be returned to the production editor within three days of receipt. As changes to proofs are costly, we ask that you only correct typesetting errors. Excessive changes made by the author in the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately. Other than in exceptional circumstances, all illustrations are retained by the publisher. Please note that the author is responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.

6.3. Author Services
Online production tracking is available for your article through Wiley's Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their article – once it has been accepted – through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an email with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete email address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more. For more substantial information on the services provided for authors, please see Wiley Author Services.

6.4. Author Material Archive Policy
Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the Editorial Office or production editor as soon as possible.

6.5. Offprints and Extra Copies
A PDF offprint of the online published article will be provided free of charge to the corresponding author, and may be distributed subject to the Publisher's terms and conditions. Authors have permission to make multiple copies of this document for private use, but not for resale or web use, provided the source of the article is included in all copies used. Additional paper offprints may be ordered online. Please click here, fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields. If you have queries about offprints please email