Journal of Phycology

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 6

Edited By: Debashish Bhattacharya, Michael Graham, Arthur Grossman, Jonathan Zehr

Impact Factor: 2.529

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 17/102 (Marine & Freshwater Biology); 50/196 (Plant Sciences)

Online ISSN: 1529-8817

Author Guidelines


SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPTS   Manuscripts are submitted to the Journal of Phycology through the online manuscript submission and review system, ‘ScholarOne Manuscripts’, a ScholarOne product provided by Wiley-Blackwell. To submit your manuscript, please go to


The online submission is a step-by-step process for which full instructions are provided, with additional support available online. Authors can track the progress of their manuscripts and will be notified by email when referee and editor comments are available online. The use of ScholarOne Manuscripts facilitates the transfer of manuscripts among associate editors and reviewers, which is designed to speed up the review process.


EDITORIAL POLICY The Journal of Phycology publishes all aspects of basic and applied research on algae to provide a common medium for the ecologist, physiologist, cell biologist, molecular biologist, evolutionary biologist, morphologist, taxonomist, geneticist, and biochemist, among others. Papers are accepted on the basis of original and meritorious data and ideas, and the potential impact that it would have on the field. Preliminary notes and papers primarily reporting research progress will not be accepted. Manuscripts may be submitted in the form of research articles or research letters. Manuscripts describing new techniques are also welcome; they should include results that illustrate the usefulness and application(s) of the technique. Reviews and minireviews are generally solicited, but interested authors are encouraged to contact the co-editors. Comments may be submitted that describe methods or equipment, that discuss papers previously published in the Journal, or that discuss other topics of interest to our readers. Comments and (mini)reviews will be reviewed in a similar way as research papers. Manuscripts submitted must not have been published, accepted for publication, be under consideration elsewhere, or contain substantial data that is published elsewhere. Authors must deposit data, strains or other materials in scientific collections (e.g., culture collections, herbaria, GenBank, etc.) to make it possible to repeat the experiments and perform future research. All molecular sequence data must be deposited in GenBank or other international databases.   

All manuscripts must be typed in 12-point font and DOUBLE-SPACED THROUGHOUT, including the literature list, tables, table headings, figure legends, and so forth. Times New Roman font is preferred; do not use a sans serif font such as Arial, Helvetica, or Geneva. Each page of the manuscript should be numbered, including the title page. It is also suggested that you number the lines of your manuscript to facilitate the review/editing processes. The title should appear in all caps. Do not justify right margins or use boldface for headings. Type all headings flush left; italicize subheadings. The Abstract and Results should be written in past tense, except in the case of descriptions of new species. In any manuscript, species specifically referred to in the research must either have authorities listed the first time the species is mentioned (but no authorities in Abstract) or all authorities together in a Table (in main text or as supplementary material). For non-taxonomic papers, species authorities may be found in AlgaeBase For taxonomic papers, the original source should be consulted for the correct spelling of genera or species and checked against Index Nominum Algarum ( For authorities of genera and species, consult INA and check International Plant Names Index (IPNI for how authority initials need to be cited if more than one person has the same surname. Do not abbreviate surnames. If an authority is not in IPNI, the authors of the manuscript can write associate editor Paul W. Gabrielson ( with the authority names. He will contact IPNI, get the authorities entered and send that information to the authors for inclusion in their manuscript. New taxa must be established in accordance with the latest International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants.

COPYRIGHT INFORMATION If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the CAF If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the Copyright Assignment Form (CAF) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CAF can be previewed here: CAF Terms and Conditions

Please do not complete this PDF until you are prompted to login into Author Services as described above.

Note to Contributors on Deposit of Accepted Version

Funder arrangements Certain funders, including the NIH, members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) and Wellcome Trust require deposit of the Accepted Version in a repository after an embargo period. Details of funding arrangements are set out at the following website: Please contact the Journal production editor if you have additional funding requirements.

Institutions Wiley has arrangements with certain academic institutions to permit the deposit of the Accepted Version in the institutional repository after an embargo period. Details of such arrangements are set out at the following website:

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

RESEARCH ARTICLES—The following sequence should be used.

            1. Title page—Provide a concise title (in all caps), including class or division (phylum) designation when a genus or species name is included. Do not include taxonomic authors of scientific names in the title. Place a superscripted number one (1) after the last word of the title to correspond to a footnote that will indicate the date of submission and acceptance. Use full name (including first name for aid in bibliographic work) of the author(s) and complete address with ZIP or postal code. Each author should be listed separately followed by his/her affiliation. Also indicate the author to contact regarding correspondence by a superscripted number two (2); include an e-mail address, phone, and fax number for the corresponding author. Please ensure that the e-mail address is valid, as this will be the address to which article proofs are sent, as well as reader communication after publication of the article. Include a condensed running title of no more than 35 letters and spaces.

            2. Abstract—This should be a concise (no more than 250 words) summary of the investigation with objectives, results, and conclusions included. Please state the major scientific significance and implications of the conclusions, for the broader audience; during the online manuscript submission process you will also be prompted to specifically state this scientific significance. Include scientific names of key organisms without authorities. New taxa described in the manuscript must be mentioned. Do not repeat information in the title or make reference to the literature. At the end of the Abstract, list 5 to 10 Key index words (arranged alphabetically), which should be followed by a list of abbreviations. Each abbreviation should be, followed by its meaning written out in full (e.g., GFP, green fluorescent protein). Common abbreviations (e.g., DNA), listed at the end of these instructions, do not need to be included. The Abstract, Key index words, and Abbreviations should be in roman type (not italicized), except for scientific names.

            3. Introduction—This should contain a brief description of the purpose of the investigation that includes pertinent background literature and hypotheses to be tested. While it should not be a general review, it should provide the information that would allow the work to be appreciated by those who are not experts in the field.

            4. Materials and Methods—This section should describe, in sufficient detail, the methodologies used to permit the study to be replicated by another scientist. Whenever possible (and appropriate), the authors should include the sources of reagents and software (company name, city, state, country when first referenced), the equipment with manufacturer and model number, strain or clone numbers, and latitudes/longitudes of study sites.  Use metric units (Systéme International d’Unités, SI) and SI style (e.g., μmol photons · m–2 · s–1, g · L–1).

            5. Results—Only the results of the study should be included. A rationale for undertaking certain aspects of the investigation, methods, techniques, and so forth, must be excluded. Cite each figure and table in the text in order of the presentation (e.g., Fig. 1 before Fig. 2, Table 9 before Table 10). When tables or figures are presented, cite only the significant results in the text. Do not duplicate the presentation of data in both a figure and a table. Tables of specimens studied may be placed in supplementary materials. Photographs should only be included if necessary to illustrate results. Include statistical analyses or other indicators to enable assessment of the variance of replicates of the experiments.

            6. Discussion—The significant results and their importance to the study and to the discipline in general should be discussed. Reference to illustrative material should be minimal and should be provided only when necessary to emphasize a specific interpretation. Repetition of the Introduction should be minimized. The Results and Discussion may be combined, in which case a Conclusions section might be advantageous, although it this section should be concise.

           7. Acknowledgments—This section is to be used as necessary to acknowledge an institutional paper number, collection permits, and financial and other assistance.

            8. References—Citations in the text are in chronological, then alphabetical order (e.g., Scott and Fischer 1992, Mannos et al. 2006, Johnson 2008, Mowbry 2008). References in the biobliography must be arranged alphabetically, with multiple references by the same author(s) arranged chronologically. The author is responsible for verifying the accuracy of unpublished citations. Double-space all references and check them against the originals for accuracy. Type references flush left (i.e., without hanging indents) with an extra space between citations; they will be formatted properly by the publisher. Journal titles should be abbreviated following the BIOSIS SERIAL SOURCES, which is published each December and is available in most libraries (or go to If in doubt about any journal abbreviation, include the full title. The style to be used for references is as follows:

Journal articles:        

Harrison, W. G. 1973. Nitrate reductase activity during a dinoflagellate bloom. Limnol. Oceanogr. 18:457–65.                 

Mann, H., Mann, S. & Fyfe, W. S. 1987. Aragonite crystals in Spirogyra sp. (Chlorophyta). J. Phycol. 23:506–9.

Contribution to a book:

Droop, M. R. 1974. Heterotrophy of carbon. In Stewart, W. D. P. &?Pierce, C. E. [Eds.] Algal Physiology and Biochemistry. Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp. 530–59.                 


Smith, G. M. 1950. The Fresh-Water Algae of the United States. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 719 pp.


Sanderson, B. L. 1998. Factors regulating water clarity in northern Wisconsin lakes. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 227 pp.  

Online sources/software:

Verbruggen, H. 2008. TreeGradients. Available at: (last accessed 12 October 2008).  

Swofford, D. L. 2003. PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods), Version 4. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.  

References associated with the supplementary materials should be included with the specific supplementary material to which it refers (e.g. in the legend that goes with a Supplementary Figure) and not in the text of the manuscript.

             9. Tables—Tables should be created using the Table function in Word (rather than using tabs). Each table must be on its own page, numbered with Arabic numerals (e.g., Table 2) and given a descriptive title placed at the top of the table. The title and table contents must be double-spaced and in 12-point font. Footnotes should be kept to a minimum, and indicated in the table by superscripted letters (a, b, c) rather than symbols or numbers. As vertical lines cannot be typeset, a table that uses vertical lines will be considered a figure. Complex tables will be typeset at the author’s expense, unless they are submitted as a camera-ready figure that can be treated as a line drawing.

             10. Figures—For final submission of a manuscript, the artwork must be in digital format. Each figure, in its final size, must be a separate TIFF, PDF, or EPS file with a resolution of 300 dpi or higher.  Combination images, or images that contain both vector and bitmap graphics, should be supplied at higher resolution to prevent image quality loss in the bitmap graphics, such as in the symbol keys. The recommended figure resolution for combination images is 600 dpi at final size. Images must be provided as either one column (3¼” or 8.2 cm) or two column (6¾” or 17.5 cm) width and no more than 8 inches (18–20 cm) in height.

A note on resampling: If your image size is less than 300 dpi at final size, you must re-create the figure. You cannot increase the resolution of a lower resolution figure by simply resaving it at 300 dpi—this will not result in a higher-quality image, and the resultant image may be pixilated or grainy. More details on submitting artwork can be found on the Web site at:

All terms, abbreviations, and symbols should correspond to those used in the text of the paper. It is preferable to include a symbol key directly on the line drawings. Each component (panels) of a composite figure should be labeled with letters and not with numbers (e.g., a, b, c, not 1, 2, 3).

              a. Drawings, graphs—The labels placed on line drawings must be large enough to be read easily after reduction; many line drawings are reduced to one-column width. Use the reducing function on a photocopy machine to check that the labeling is of sufficient size. The outer line on bars or boxes should be adequately sized for reduction (at least 1-point font). All species names should be italicized within the figure and for drawings, a scale indicator (e.g., line representing specific distance) should be used to allow determination of the size and magnification of the object. Do not use two shades of grays in histograms. Line art will be reproduced from electronic files. Axis labels should be of uniform font and size and should not be bolded. Use an initial capital letter for the first work of each label (e.g., Relative carbon content). If units are included in the label, use the SI style (e.g., μg · L–1). Numerals should include a comma in the thousands place (e.g., 1,200).

            b. Photographs—Individual photographs used to generate a plate should be of equal contrast to help produce a high quality composite print. Each photograph must contain a scale measure, be squared accurately, and be separated from other photographs in the plate by thin white lines. Scale length may be indicated directly above the scale or in the legend.

            c. Color—The charge for color in print is $700 per figure. Authors who do not have funding for color may apply to the managing editor for a waiver, which will only be granted should there be a scientific need for color, as established during peer review.

            d. Legends—Figure legends must be typed double-spaced in paragraph form and placed together on a separate sheet that is included after the Tables and prior to the Figures. Do not repeat details that are already in the text, but provide enough information to make easy to comprehend the meaning of the meaning of the figure. See recent issues of the Journal for format.

             11.Supplementary Tables and Figures—Wiley-Blackwell will host online approved supplementary material submitted by the authors. Supplementary material must be important, ancillary information that is relevant to the parent article but which does not or cannot appear in the printed edition of the journal. More information about guidelines for supplementary material can be found at the Web site: suppmat.asp. Supplementary materials should be submitted as files separate from the main manuscript document, with each supplement in a separate file. Tables, figures, or data appendices should be numbered S1, S2, etc. (i.e., Table S1, S2, etc.; Figure S1, S2, etc.; Appendix S1, S2, etc.). For supplementary figures, the figure and its legend should be placed on the same page. The editorial office may suggest that additional figures or tables be moved to supplementary materials (e.g., list of specimens analyzed). A reference that pertain only to supplementary materials should not be cited in the main manuscript; this citation should be part of the supplementary file to which it refers.

RESEARCH LETTERS—The Research Letter provides a platform for rapid publication of high impact work. Manuscripts submitted under the Research Letter format must be concise, written for a broad readership, and will be subjected to strict scrutiny by a review panel. Research letters should be less than 1500 words, include a short Abstract (no more than 150 words), followed by a Methods paragraph and then move directly into Results and Discussion with no formal headings. Research Letters must have full references and may include two non-text items (i.e., tables and or figures). All other tables, figures, or methods should be provided in supplementary materials. The review panel will decide whether to consider submitted Research Letters for peer-review within 3 business days, and if granted, the peer-review process will be completed no more than fourteen days after receipt of the submission. If the submittal is rejected by the review panel, then the work may be resubmitted to Journal of Phycology as a standard manuscript. Less than 20% of submitted Research Letters will be sent to peer-review. It is critical that authors pay special attention to the Scientific Contribution entry field during the submittal process.

RESEARCH NOTES, COMMENTS, REVIEWS AND MINI-REVIEWS —Research notes should occupy one to three printed pages and use the same general format as research articles, except for the headings, which must be removed (with the exception of the Abstract). Comments occupy one to three printed pages and are in commentary style; use only one set of headings (i.e., no subheadings). Minireviews occupy three to eight printed pages and are in commentary style; use only one set of headings (i.e., no subheadings) and include a brief abstract. Reviews occupy up to 20 printed pages and can include several levels of headings. Note: estimate three typed pages of text for every printed journal page.  

COVER SUBMISSIONS   High quality photographs that pertain to submitted manuscript will be considered for use on the cover. Submit the image file(s), at a resolution of at least 300 dpi, either TIFF or EPS format, with the final copy of the manuscript--preferably scalable to a 12.7 x 17.8 (5 ´7 inch) format. Include a brief legend for the inside front cover (sent as a separate Word document).  

REVIEW OF MANUSCRIPTS AND SUBMISSION OF REVISED MANUSCRIPTS   Every article that is submitted to the Journal is reviewed by the co-editor and an associate editor for scientific merit and potential impact on the field, plus conformity to the editorial policy and to the style of the Journal. Papers meeting these requirements are then anonymously peer-reviewed by at least two referees, which will often include an associate editor, the corresponding co-editor, or a member of the editorial board; papers that do not meet these requirements will be rejected-without-review. The decision regarding acceptance or rejection of a manuscript is the responsibility of the associate editor and co-editor, with the co-editor assuming final responsibility. The associate editor will usually correspond with the designated author during the review process. It is the corresponding author’s responsibility to communicate to the other authors any changes made to the manuscript in revision and to ensure that all authors are aware of the contents of the paper. A manuscript that has been rejected may be resubmitted in six months only if the author(s) are able to present new data that address the concerns of the reviewers. Manuscripts returned to authors for revision following­­ review must be resubmitted within three months of the date the revision was requested. Most manuscripts are published within four months of acceptance. Please go to ScholarOne Manuscripts ( for instructions on submitting your revised paper online (only papers that were originally submitted online may be submitted online as revised manuscripts).   

AUTHOR SERVICES Online production tracking is now available for all articles through Wiley-Blackwell's Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their article, once it has been accepted, through the production process to online and print publications. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission, and more.  

ONLINE OPEN Wiley-Blackwell provides an option called OnlineOpen. OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their published article available to non-subscribers, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library; it can also be deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see Any authors wishing to send their manuscripts to OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available here:

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform the Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen. All OnlineOpen articles are treated identically to other articles.

Please see the "Copyright Information" section above for instructions on submitting the correct copyright form for your OnlineOpen article.  

PROOFS AND OFFPRINTS   Instructions for electronically downloading page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author directly by Wiley-Blackwell, along with supporting documents, including instructions for reviewing the proofs, a page and color charge form, and information about ordering hard copy offprints. Please note: If you wish to order hardcopy offprints, you must place an order before the article has gone to press. Hardcopy offprints are only available for purchase before publication of an article. The page proof corrections must be returned to the editorial office within 48 hours, excluding weekends and holidays, and the page charge form should be returned to the publisher (as indicated on the form). Corresponding authors are responsible for alerting all co-authors when proofs are dispatched.  

PDF OFFPRINTS Free access to the final PDF offprint of your article will be available via Wiley-Blackwell’s Author Services. Please register to access the PDF offprint of your article and enjoy the many other benefits that the service offers.  Visit to register.  

terms of use—Authors who receive a postpublication PDF offprint from the Phycological Society of America may distribute the file for personal or professional use; however, the file may not be posted to the author's Web site for uncontrolled downloading until six months after the time of publication. Offprints shall include the complete citation information.

PAGE CHARGES   To help defray publishing costs, the Journal assesses page charges for each manuscript, except solicited reviews. Payment of page charges is not a condition for the acceptance of a manuscript for publication. Papers in which a PSA member is the first author or corresponding author are exempt from black-and-white page charges. Visit the PSA Web site at for membership information. Nonmember author(s) will be assessed page charges for each paper accepted for publication. Rates (2012) are $50 per printed page for black-and-white pages, and $700 per color page.  

ACCEPTED ARTICLES 'Accepted Articles' have been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but have not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process. Accepted Articles are published online a few days after final acceptance, appear in PDF format only, are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows them to be cited and tracked. A completed copyright form is required before a manuscript can be processed as an Accepted Article.

EARLYVIEW The Journal of Phycology benefits from Wiley-Blackwell's EarlyView service. EarlyView articles are complete, full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. EarlyView articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised, and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of EarlyView articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue, or page numbers, so EarlyView articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article. Manuscripts in an issue will be published at http://www3. Abstracts are accessible online to the public; individual members and subscribing libraries can view the full contents of the Journal through a password system. See subscription information at for details.  

COPYRIGHT PERMISSION   Please contact the editor for permission to reproduce any portion of an article that has been published in the Journal. Copyright is held by the Phycological Society of America.  


ADP                                                    adenosine 5´-diphosphate
AFDM                                                ash-free dry mass
ATP                                                    adenosine 5´-triphosphate
B.P.                                                     before present
b.p.                                                      boiling point
BSA                                                    bovine serum albumin
cAMP or cyclic AMP                          adenosine 3´,5´-cyclic monophosphate
cDNA                                                 complementary deoxyribonucleic acid
chl                                                       chlorophyll
DMSO                                                dimethyl sulfoxide
DNA                                                   deoxyribonucleic acid
DNase                                                 deoxyribonuclease
EDTA                                                 ethylinediaminetetraacetic acid
EGTA                                                 ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethyl ether)                                                           
              N,N,N´,N´-tetraacetic acid
ELISA                                                 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EM                                                      electron microscopy
FAD (FADH2)                                     flavin adenine dinucleotide (reduced form)
GTP                                                     guanosine triphosphate
HAB                                                    harmful algal bloom
HPLC                                                  high-performance liquid chromatography
LM                                                      light microscopy
LSU                                                     large subunit
mRNA                                                 messenger ribonucleic acid
MTOC                                                 microtubule-organizing center
NAD+ (NADH)                                   nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form)
NADP+ (NADPH)                               nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced form)
NMR                                                   nuclear magnetic resonance
Pi                                                         inorganic phosphate
PBS                                                     phosphate-buffered saline
PAGE                                                  polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PAR                                                    photosynthetically active radiation
PCR                                                    polymerase chain reaction
PSI                                                      photosystem I
PSII                                                     photosystem II
rDNA                                                  ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid
RFLP                                                  restriction fragment length polymorphism
RIA                                                     radioimmunoassay
RNA                                                   ribonucleic acid
RNase                                                 ribonuclease
rRNA                                                  ribosomal ribonucleic acid
RUBISCO                                           ribulose-1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase
SCUBA                                               self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
SDS                                                     sodium dodecyl sulfate
SEM                                                    scanning electron microscopy
SSU                                                     small subunit
TEM                                                    transmission electron microscopy
TLC                                                     thin-layer chromatography
Tris                                                      tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane
tRNA                                                  transfer ribonucleic acid
UV                                                      ultraviolet  

The journal to which you are submitting your manuscript employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript will be screened against previously published works.