Cover image for Vol. 32 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Navin C. Nanda

Impact Factor: 1.254

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 89/125 (Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems)

Online ISSN: 1540-8175


  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 124
  1. Echo Rounds Section Editor: Edmund Kenneth Kerut, M.D

    1. Cardiac Tamponade on the Edge

      Kavita P. Krishnasamy, Leon J. Frazin and Mayank Kansal

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12977


      Low-pressure cardiac tamponade is an uncommon phenomenon in the spectrum of pericardial diseases. We describe a case of a 37-year-old man with recurring admissions for dyspnea whose clinical picture challenged the classic exhibition of cardiac tamponade.

  2. Original Investigations

    1. Ratio of Acceleration Time to Ejection Time for Assessing Aortic Stenosis Severity

      Sergio Gamaza-Chulián, Santiago Camacho-Freire, Rocío Toro-Cebada, Alberto Giráldez-Valpuesta, Javier Benezet-Mazuecos and José Carlos Vargas-Machuca

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12978

  3. Image Sections

    1. An Unusual Case of Double-Orifice Mitral Valve Associated with D-Transposition of Great Arteries and Left-Side Heart Anomalies

      Placido Gitto, Elio Caruso, Luca Costanzo and Alfredo Di Pino

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12967


      We describe a very rare incidental echocardiography finding of double-orifice mitral valve in a newborn with prenatal diagnosis of D-transposition of great arteries, mild pulmonary valve stenosis, interventricular septal defect, and left superior cava vein draining into coronary sinus.

  4. Original Investigations

    1. Characteristics of Left Atrial Deformation Parameters and Their Prognostic Impact in Patients with Pathological Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Analysis by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

      Chiharuko Iio, Katsuji Inoue, Kazuhisa Nishimura, Akira Fujii, Takayuki Nagai, Jun Suzuki, Takafumi Okura, Jitsuo Higaki and Akiyoshi Ogimoto

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12961

  5. ECHO Rounds Section Editor: Edmund Kenneth Kerut, M.D.

    1. Infective Endocarditis Complicated by Mitral Valve Aneurysm: Pathologic and Echocardiographic Correlations

      Arash Seratnahaei, Alison L. Bailey, Patrick J. Hensley, William O'Connor and Mikel D. Smith

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12958

  6. Original Investigations

    1. Intervendor Variabilities of Left and Right Ventricular Myocardial Velocities among Three Tissue Doppler Echocardiography Systems

      Kiyoshi Abe, Satoshi Yuda, Yasumi Sato, Kenji Yasui, Ryosuke Nishi, Kyosuke Hanada, Naoko Hashimoto, Mina Kawamukai, Hidemichi Kouzu, Atsuko Muranaka, Akiyoshi Hashimoto, Kazufumi Tsuchihashi, Naoki Watanabe and Tetsuji Miura

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12962

  7. Review Articles

  8. Original Investigations

    1. Assessment of Left Atrial Function in Patients with Celiac Disease

      Nermin Bayar, Ayhan Hilmi Çekin, Şakir Arslan, Göksel Çağırcı, Zehra Erkal, Serkan Çay, Erkan Köklü and Selçuk Küçükseymen

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12963

  9. ECHO Rounds Section Editor: Edmund Kenneth Kerut, M.D.

    1. Isolated Left Atrial Mechanical Standstill after Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

      Edmund Kenneth Kerut, James McKinnie and Curtis Hanawalt

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12956

  10. Image Sections

    1. Aorto–Left Atrial Fistula after Mitral Valve Surgery

      Mahmut Yesin, Macit Kalçık, Mustafa Ozan Gürsoy, Süleyman Karakoyun, Sabahattin Gündüz, Cengiz Köksal and Mehmet Özkan

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12959


      The most common cardiac complications after prosthetic valve replacement include prosthetic valve endocarditis, thromboembolism, pericardial effusion, hemolysis, and valve failure due to prosthetic valve thrombosis or periprosthetic regurgitation. Aorto-atrial fistula after valve surgery is a rare complication, which usually occurs after aortic valve surgery. However, development of an aorto-left atrial fistula after prosthetic mitral valve replacement is very rare. Here, we present a patient who had aorto-atrial fistula evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography.

  11. Original Investigations

    1. The Relationship between Epicardial Fat Thickness and Endothelial Dysfunction in Type I Diabetes Mellitus

      Abdullah Nabi Aslan, Telat Keleş, Hüseyin Ayhan, Hacı Ahmet Kasapkara, Murat Akçay, Tahir Durmaz, Cenk Sarı, Serdal Baştuğ, Bekir Çakır and Engin Bozkurt

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12960

  12. Research from or in Collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham

  13. Case Reports

    1. An Unusual Cause of Cardioembolic Stroke: Paradoxical Embolism Due to Thrombus Formation on the Eustachian Valve

      Mohamed ElRefai, Karthika Thananayagam, Rajaram Bathula and Benoy N. Shah

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12945


      Cardioembolism is an important cause of ischemic stroke. Paradoxical embolism is a rare cause of cardioembolic stroke. We report the first case of a patient with presumed paradoxical cardioembolic stroke secondary to thrombus formation on the eustachian valve remnant. The patient was anticoagulated with resolution of the mass upon follow-up assessment. Physicians are reminded of the utility of echocardiography for identifying potential cardioembolic etiologies, including both transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography.

  14. Original Investigations

  15. Case Reports

    1. Rare Mycotic Aneurysm of the Mitral Valve without Aortic Valve Involvement

      Parham Zarrini, Omeed Elboudwarej, Daniel Luthringer and Robert Siegel

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12942


      Mycotic aneurysms can be a rare, but serious complication of infectious endocarditis. We report the case of a 20-year-old woman who presented with fever and malaise from streptococcal bacteremia and found to have vegetation on the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. On follow-up visit, the patient was noted to have a mycotic aneurysm of the anterior mitral valve without aortic involvement. Her clinical course was complicated by mitral valve chordal rupture, severe mitral regurgitation, and dyspnea from severe mitral regurgitation for which she underwent successful surgical repair of the mitral valve.

  16. Original Investigations

    1. Determinants of Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

      Masaki Izumo, Maiko Shiota, Smruti Nalawadi, Jayanta Das, Sohail Dohad, Eiji Kuwahara, Yoko Fukuoka, Robert J Siegel and Takahiro Shiota

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12949

  17. Echo Rounds Section Editor: Edmund Kenneth Kerut, M.D

    1. Role of Four-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography in Diagnosis of Mechanical Tricuspid Valve Obstruction Due to Thrombus

      Henry C. Quevedo, Rohan Samson, Zhaohui Li, Ghassan Mohsen, Frederick Helmcke, Edmund K. Kerut and Gary E. Sander

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12953

  18. Image Sections

    1. An Unexpected Guest in the Proximal Ascending Aorta

      Laura Toffetti, Alice Pugno, Laura Massironi, Silvia Tresoldi and Antonio G. Mantero

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12952


      A 72-year-old asymptomatic woman with history of ischemic heart disease and repeat coronary percutaneous interventions underwent a routine transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE). A 9-mm long, fixed, echo dense mass was visualized in the proximal ascending aorta. We performed a two and three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiogram and a cardiac multidetector-row contrast-enhanced computed tomography with ECG gating, which revealed the unexplained mass to be an ostial right coronary artery stent protruding 9 mm into the ascending aorta. Coronary stent protrusion is a very unusual finding observed during routine 2DTTE, but it has many potential clinical consequences. This case suggests that 2DTTE is feasible and useful for the identification and follow-up of protruding ostial coronary stents.

    2. Giant Aneurysm of Aortic Right Coronary Sinus: Diagnostic Doubts Related to Presentation of Valsalva Sinus Aneurysm in Transthoracic Echocardiography

      Karina Wierzbowska-Drabik, Jarosław D. Kasprzak, Konrad Szymczyk, Ewa Szymczyk, Katarzyna Wdowiak-Okrojek and Piotr Lipiec

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12950


      We present the images of giant aneurysm of Valsalva sinus (SVA) in 79-year-old woman that was not diagnosed in first transthoracic echocardiographic study, because of problematic presentation suggesting defect of aortic wall or additional structure inside right ventricle. Although the majority of aneurysm of Valsalva sinuses are diagnosed by echocardiography, our case illustrates diagnostic doubts evoked by big aneurysm which seemed to fill completely right ventricular cavity. Nevertheless, repeated detailed examination with support of 3D technique and verification by computed tomography elucidated the correct diagnosis. On grounds of high surgical risk, the patient was classified for treatment with losartan and echocardiographic monitoring.

  19. Original Investigations

    1. Incremental Value of Pocket-Sized Echocardiography in Addition to Physical Examination during Inpatient Cardiology Evaluation: A Multicenter Italian Study (SIEC)

      Vitantonio Di Bello, Salvatore La Carrubba, Lorenzo Conte, Iacopo Fabiani, Alfredo Posteraro, Francesco Antonini-Canterin, Valentina Barletta, Irene Nicastro, Egidio Mariotti, Sergio Severino, Pio Caso, Frank Benedetto, Ketty Savino, Scipione Carerj and on behalf of SIEC (Italian Society of Cardiovascular Echography)

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12910

  20. Review Articles

    1. The Various Hemodynamic Profiles of the Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Adults

      Bahaa M. Fadel, Dania Mohty, Aysha Husain, Ziad Dahdouh, Mohammad Al-Admawi, Valeria Pergola and Giovanni Di Salvo

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12943

  21. Original Investigations

    1. Real Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Evaluations of Fetal Left Ventricular Stroke Volume, Mass, and Myocardial Strain: In Vitro and In Vivo Experimental Study

      Meihua Zhu, Muhammad Ashraf, Zhijun Zhang, Cole Streiff, Eriko Shimada, Sumito Kimura, Traci Schaller, Xubo Song and David J. Sahn

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12939

  22. Image Sections

    1. Aortic Fibroelastoma: Detailed Preoperative Analysis with 3D Echocardiography

      José Luis Moya-Mur, Jacobo Silva-Guisasola, Eduardo Casas-Rojo, Miren Martín-García, Carmen de Pablo-Zarzosa, José Julio Jiménez-Nacher and José Luis Zamorano-Gomez

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12940


      A 70-year-old man submitted to a routine echocardiogram was diagnosed of an aortic mass by transthoracic echocardiography. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) revealed a mobile and pedunculated mass attached to the noncoronary cusp of the aortic valve, suggestive of an aortic fibroelastoma. 3DTEE allowed a perfect characterization of the tumor. Because of their size and mobility, surgical resection was advised. Surgery confirmed the diagnosis of aortic fibroelastoma and showed the utility of 3DTEE to take the correct therapeutic attitude.

  23. Original Investigations

    1. The Effect of Habitual Physical Training on Left Ventricular Function During Exercise Assessed by Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

      Mari Sugiura Kojima, Akiko Noda, Seiko Miyata, Jun Kojima, Yuki Hara, Makoto Minoshima and Toyoaki Murohara

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12934

    2. Significant Reduction in Mitral Regurgitation Volume Is the Main Contributor for Increase in Systolic Forward Flow in Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Hemodynamic Analysis Using Echocardiography

      Yuji Itabashi, Kentaro Shibayama, Hirotsugu Mihara, Hiroto Utsunomiya, Javier Berdejo, Reza Arsanjani, Robert Siegel, Tarun Chakravarty, Hasan Jilaihawi, Raj R. Makkar and Takahiro Shiota

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12936

  24. Case Reports

    1. Trileaflet Mitral Valve with Three Papillary Muscles Associated with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Novel Case

      Salvatore Rosanio, Cameron J. Simonsen, John Starwalt, Abdul M. Keylani and Antonio Vitarelli

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12938


      A trileaflet mitral valve with three separate papillary muscles with concordant atrioventricular and ventricle–arterial connections is exceptionally rare. To the best of the authors' knowledge, it has been reported only once in association with subaortic valvular stenosis. We hereby describe a novel case associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  25. Case Reports – Pediatric

    1. Aortic Arch Interruption and Persistent Fifth Aortic Arch in Phace Syndrome: Prenatal Diagnosis and Postnatal Course

      Enrico Chiappa, Antonella Greco, Valentina Fainardi, Silvia Passantino, Daniele Serranti and Silvia Favilli

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12941


      PHACE syndrome is a rare congenital neurocutaneous disease where posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, cerebrovascular anomalies, aortic arch anomalies, cardiac defects, and eye abnormalities are variably associated. We describe the prenatal detection and the postnatal course of a child with PHACE syndrome with a unique type of aortic arch anomaly consisting of proximal interruption of the aortic arch and persistence of the fifth aortic arch. The fifth aortic arch represented in this case a vital systemic-to-systemic connection between the ascending aorta and the transverse portion of the aortic arch allowing adequate forward flow through the aortic arch without surgical treatment.

  26. Challenging Cases

  27. Original Investigations

    1. Clinical Evaluation of Coronary In-Stent Restenosis Using Dual-Source Computed Tomography

      Lian-Fa Wang, Li-Wei Tao, Meng-Xun Huang, Wen-Bin Liao, You-Zhi Zhu, Wen-Bing Zhou, Hua Li, Dan Li, Hong-Tao Lu, Bang-Zhu Zhang and Zhen Chen

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12932

  28. Image Sections

    1. Swiss Cheese-Like Atrial Septal Defect Detected by Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

      Mehmet A. Vatankulu, Parviz Jafarov and Nuray Kahraman Ay

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12933


      A 33-year-old female presented to the outpatient clinic with progressive exertional dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed enlarged right heart chambers with left-to-right shunting. Two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography confirmed these findings and showed three defects on interatrial septum. Real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography was performed to better visualize the anatomy of the interatrial septum. Reconstruction of the three-dimensional images revealed multiple defects of interatrial septum like a Swiss cheese. The patient underwent surgical closure of the atrial septal defect.

  29. Original Investigations

  30. Image Sections

    1. Two Giant Right Coronary Artery Aneurysms with Fistula to the Left Ventricle: Preliminary Diagnosis by Echocardiography

      Yuman Li, Mingxing Xie, Xinfang Wang, Qing Lv, YaLi Yang and Lin He

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12922


      Coronary artery fistula with two giant coronary artery aneurysms is a very rare condition. In this study, we report a patient with right coronary artery to left ventricle fistula with two giant coronary artery aneurysms. The patient was treated successfully by closure of the fistula and the orifice of the RCA, and coronary artery bypass grafting.

  31. Original Investigations

    1. Left Ventricular Twist Mechanics Are Impaired in Patients with Coronary Slow Flow

      Ahmet Barutçu, Adem Bekler, Ahmet Temiz, Bahadır Kırılmaz, Ali Ümit Yener, Yusuf Ziya Tan, Emine Gazi and Burak Altun

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12918

  32. Case Reports

    1. Imaging Tuberous Sclerosis: The Incremental Benefit of Three-Dimensional and Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

      Pankaj Garg, Tarique A. Musa and David P. Ripley

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12921


      Transthoracic echocardiography is established as the primary imaging modality for detection of cardiac rhabdomyomas. The precise functional assessment of the left ventricle in these patients requires clarification. We report a case with multiple rhabdomyomas (on 3D echocardiography) and normal ejection fraction but altered global and regional deformation on speckle tracking. The regional longitudinal strain was notably reduced in the anterior septum (−11%) and inferior septum −15%). The global circumferential strain (GCS) was significantly reduced at −15.6%. The distribution of regional circumferential strain reduction for the mid-ventricular segment correlated with the location of cardiac rhabdomyomas.

    2. Giant Purulent Pericarditis with Cardiac Tamponade Due to Streptococcus intermedius Rapidly Progressing to Constriction

      Elif T. Tigen, Ibrahim Sari, Koray Ak, Sena Sert, Kursat Tigen and Volkan Korten

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12919


      Purulent pericardial effusion, although rare, is a life-threatening condition usually produced by the extension of a nearby bacterial infection locus or by blood dissemination in the immune-suppressed subjects or in the course of cardiothoracic surgery. Because clinical features of purulent pericardial effusion are often nonspecific, it can cause delay in diagnosis. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for timely diagnosis and management. Herein, we describe a case of giant purulent pericardial effusion due to Streptococcus intermedius with the history of bronchiectasis and pneumonia, which was successfully treated with pericardiocentesis via parasternal approach, appropriate antibiotics, and pericardiectomy.

    3. Unruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm with Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction and Ventricular Septal Defect—A Rare Combination

      Sambhunath Das, Suruchi Ladha and Balram Airan

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12920


      Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms are rare cardiac anomalies which may be acquired or congenital. We describe the case of a patient who had an unruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm causing right ventricular outflow obstruction, with an associated subaortic ventricular septal defect. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms rarely present until rupture occur. However, the unruptured aneurysm of the right sinus of Valsalva caused significant right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, resulting in exertional dyspnea. Intraoperative multiplane transesophageal echocardiography and color Doppler helped in precise identification of structural anomalies, shunt location, and definitive surgical repair.

    4. Isolated Left Ventricular Diastolic Collapse Due to Extra-Thoracic Compression

      Rana Costa, Jad Zahnan, Hadi Skouri, Walid Gharzuddine, Lara Al-Masri, Chakib Ayyoub and Antoine B. Abchee

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12913


      Isolated collapse of the left ventricle (LV) in diastole is not a very common finding on two-dimensional echocardiography. Reported cases in the literature were due to either loculated postoperative pericardial effusion/hematoma or left pleural effusion. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of LV diastolic collapse secondary to extra-thoracic compression.

  33. Original Investigations

    1. Impact of Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation on Accuracy of Echocardiographic Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure Estimation

      Ebru Özpelit, Bahri Akdeniz, Emre Mehmet Özpelit, Sedat Tas, Erkan Alpaslan, Selen Bozkurt, Abdulla Arslan and Özer Badak

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12912

    2. Atrial Septal Aneurysms and Supraventricular Arrhythmias: The Role of Atrial Electromechanical Delay

      Vincenzo Russo, Anna Rago, Federica Di Meo, Andrea Antonio Papa, Carmine Ciardiello, Anna Cristiano, Raffaele Calabrò, Maria Giovanna Russo and Gerardo Nigro

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12908

    3. Four-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

      Kadriye Orta Kilickesmez, Onur Baydar, Cem Bostan, Ugur Coskun and Serdar Kucukoglu

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12916

  34. Image Sections

    1. Nonbacterial Thrombotic Endocarditis

      M. Amer Alaiti and Brian D. Hoit

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12915


      A 61-year-old man with no medical history presented with necrosis of the fingers and toes in the setting of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma with profound eosinophilia. A crescendo–decrescendo murmur consistent with aortic stenosis was noted on exam. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography revealed large mass on aortic valve resulting in severe stenosis. Imaging studies and extensive infectious workup were unremarkable for other underlying malignancy, evidence of embolism, infections, or connective tissue disease. Following dexamethasone treatment to achieve a normal eosinophil count, the patient underwent bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement. Pathologic examination was consistent with nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis.

  35. Original Investigations

    1. Relationship between Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness and Atrial Electromechanical Delay in Hypertensive Patients

      Ahmet Akyel, Kadriye G. Yayla, Mehmet Erat, Hamza Sunman, Mehmet Doğan, Tolga Çimen, Mehmet Aytürk and Ekrem Yeter

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12917

    2. Accuracy of Echocardiographic Cardiac Index Assessment in Subjects with Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

      Micha T. Maeder, Sofie Karapanagiotidis, Elizabeth M. Dewar and David M. Kaye

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12928

  36. Case Reports

    1. A Case Report of Double-Chambered Right Ventricle Associated with Subaterial Ventricular Septal Defect and Rupture of Right Coronary Sinus Aneurysm

      Guobing Hu, Xiangming Zhu, Guojie Li, Feng Jiang and Jing Li

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12923


      Double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is a rare congenital heart disease. We report a case of DCRV associated with subarterial ventricular septal defect (VSD) and rupture of right coronary sinus aneurysm (RCSA); the patient was diagnosed by echocardiography and later confirmed by surgical operation.

  37. Original Investigations

    1. Interatrial Dyssynchrony May Contribute to Heart Failure Symptoms in Patients with Preserved Ejection Fraction

      Laura Sanchis, Luca Vannini, Luigi Gabrielli, Nicolas Duchateau, Carles Falces, Rut Andrea, Bart Bijnens and Marta Sitges

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12927

    2. Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion and Its Association with Mortality in Critically Ill Patients

      Deepakraj Gajanana, Harish Seetha Rammohan, Oluseun Alli, Abel Romero-Corral, Bhaskar Purushottam, Shiva Ponamgi, Vincent M. Figueredo and Gregg S. Pressman

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12926

    3. Value of Resting Echocardiographic Findings and Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography for Diagnosing Myocardial Ischemia in Patients with Suspected Angina Pectoris

      Hiroto Utsunomiya, Takayuki Hidaka, Kenji Masada, Takashi Shimonaga, Tadanao Higaki, Toshitaka Iwasaki, Naoya Mitsuba, Ken Ishibashi, Satoshi Kurisu and Yasuki Kihara

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12800

  38. Editorials

  39. Original Investigations

    1. Assessment of Myocardial Infarct Size by Three-Dimensional and Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography: A Comparative Study to Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography

      Qiushuang Wang, Dangsheng Huang, Liwei Zhang, Dong Shen, Qiaohong Ouyang, Zhongxiang Duan, Xiuzhi An, Meiqing Zhang, Chunhong Zhang, Feifei Yang and Guang Zhi

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12901

    2. Feasibility and Diagnostic Potential of Pulmonary Transit Time Measurement by Contrast Echocardiography: A Pilot Study

      Evan L. Brittain, Laura N. Doss, Linda Saliba, Waleed Irani, Benjamin F. Byrd III and Ken Monahan

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12906

    3. Prognostic Value of Pericardial Effusion on Serial Echocardiograms in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

      Omar Batal, Zeina Dardari, Chelcie Costabile, John Gorcsan, Vincent C. Arena and Michael A. Mathier

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12909

    4. Association of Left Atrial Spontaneous Echo Contrast to Uric Acid in Patients with Mitral Stenosis

      Mahmut Akpek, Omer Sahin, Bahadir Sarli, Huseyin Arinc, Ahmet O. Baktir, Zeynep S. Akpek, Hayrettin Saglam, Ali Ergin and Mehmet G. Kaya

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12897

  40. Case Reports

    1. A Case of Giant Mediastinal Cyst Initially Detected and Diagnosed by Echocardiography

      XiaoDong Li, XiaoCong Wang, XiuMei Duan and Hui Xu

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12884


      The diagnoses of mediastinal cysts are primarily depended on x-ray and computed tomography. The development of ultrasound instruments in recent years has led to improved detection rates of mediastinal lesions. We report a case of a mediastinal cyst that was first detected and diagnosed on thoracic echocardiography examination.

  41. Original Investigations

  42. Doppler Hemodynamics

    1. Spectral Doppler Interrogation of Mitral Regurgitation —Spot Diagnosis

      Bahaa M. Fadel, Hatem Bakarman, Ziad Dahdouh, Giovanni Di Salvo and Dania Mohty

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12891

    2. Spectral Doppler Interrogation of the Pulmonary Veins in Atrial Septal Defect

      Bahaa M. Fadel, Dania Mohty, Wafa Aldawood, Ziad Dahdouh and Giovanni Di Salvo

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12892

  43. Original Investigations

    1. Right and Left Atrial Dissimilarities in Normal Subjects Explored by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

      Sherif Moustafa, Hamed Zuhairy, Mostafa A. Youssef, Nanette Alvarez, Michael S. Connelly, Timothy Prieur and Farouk Mookadam

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12880

    2. Echo Doppler Estimation of Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis

      Simon Biner, Yan Topilsky, Shmuel Banai, Arie Steinvil, Yaron Arbel, Robert James Siegel, Roy Beigel, Gad Keren and Ariel Finkelstein

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12893

    3. Training Program for Cardiology Residents to Perform Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Examination with Portable Device

      Vicente N. Siqueira, Frederico J. N. Mancuso, Orlando Campos, Angelo A. De Paola, Antonio C. Carvalho and Valdir A. Moises

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12887

  44. Case Reports

    1. Atypical Abnormal Pulmonary Vein Drainage with Atrial Septal Defect: Surgical Treatment

      Wojciech Szychta, Gheorghe Cerin, Bogdan Adrian Popa, Armienti Felice, Guido Lanzillo, Marco Diena and Grzegorz Opolski

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12863


      Sinus venosus atrial septal defect (SV-ASD) is a rare congenital disease, which can be usually found with partial anomalous pulmonary vein connection (PAPVC). We present a case that has never been described before of the patient with highly positioned atypical SV-ASD and very rare PAPVC. Diagnosis was difficult as it could not be set after transthoracic echocardiography, nor transesophageal echocardiography, whereas angio-CT was finally conclusive.

  45. Original Investigations

    1. Characterization of Left Atrial Mechanics in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Essential Hypertension Using Vector Velocity Imaging

      Hala Mahfouz Badran, Naglaa Faheem, Mohamed Fahmy Elnoamany, Asma Kenawy and Magdi Yacoub

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12885

  46. Case Reports

    1. Congenital Absence of the Left Atrial Appendage Visualized by 3D Echocardiography in Two Adult Patients

      Mona Saleh, Revathi Balakrishnan, Leticia Castillo Kontak, Ricardo Benenstein, Larry A. Chinitz, Robert Donnino and Muhamed Saric

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12882


      Congenital absence of left atrial appendage (LAA) is a rare condition with unknown physiological consequences. We present two cases of incidental finding of a congenitally absent LAA in two adult patients. Congenitally absent LAA may be confused with flush thrombotic occlusion of the appendage. There are very few published reports of congenital absence of LAA, and our report is the first to demonstrate this absence by 3DTEE.

    2. Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia as the First Manifestation of Hydatid Cyst Located in the Interventricular Septum

      İrfan Şahin, Berk Özkaynak, Bariş Güngör, Burak Ayça, Serhat Sığirci, Bülent Mert and Ertuğrul Okuyan

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12894


      Echinococcus granulosus infection may manifest with cardiac involvement causing various symptoms. Here, we discuss a case of a young patient who presented with sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) causing hemodynamic compromise. Diagnosis of cardiac hydatid cyst was established with echocardiography, computed tomography imaging, and serological examination. After surgical removal of the cyst VT did not recur.

  47. Original Investigations

    1. Effects of Hemodialysis on Tei Index: Comparison between Flow Doppler and Tissue Doppler Imaging

      Demet Menekse Gerede, Sibel Turhan, Cansin Tulunay Kaya, Ozgur Ulas Ozcan, Huseyin Goksuluk, Veysel Kutay Vurgun, Irem Dincer, Sim Kutlay, Sehsuvar Erturk and Cetin Erol

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12895

  48. Case Reports

    1. A Case of Late Presenting Unicuspid Aortic Valve in a 62-Year-Old Female

      Rebecca Chester, Sheila Sahni and Tracy Huynh

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12881


      We describe a case of a 62-year old female with newly diagnosed severe aortic stenosis and is found to have a unicuspid aortic valve. Transesophageal echocardiography suggested a bicuspid aortic valve, however surgical valve replacement revealed the valve to be unicuspid. This case report provides discussion of epidemiology of unicuspid aortic valves as well as current imaging modalities used for diagnosis of aortic valve pathology.

  49. Original Investigations

    1. Prevalence of Left Ventricular Dyssynchrony in Patients with Congenital Atrioventricular Block and Long-Term Pacing: A Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Study

      Vitor Coimbra Guerra, Luciana de Menezes Martins, Roberto Marcio Oliveira, Kátia Regina da Silva, Maria Angelica Binotto, Jeane M. Tsutsui, Roberto Kallil, Roberto Costa and Wilson Mathias Jr

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12871

  50. Case Reports

    1. Early Recognition of Apical Ballooning Syndrome by Global Longitudinal Strain Using Speckle Tracking Imaging—The Evil Eye Pattern, a Case Series

      Sualy Sosa and Jose Banchs

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12875


      In this case series we report 4 cases of patients diagnosed with stress induced cardiomyopathy apical ballooning syndrome (ABS), who presented to our institution with chest pain, mildly elevated cardiac enzymes and ischemic electrocardiographic changes. They were found to have severe hypokinesis or akinesis of the mid to apical segments with dynamic basal segments on echocardiography. A global longitudinal strain (GLS) pattern on polar map was markedly different from the pattern of proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) myocardial infarction. All of them had a similar GLS pattern on presentation, which was easy to recognize on these polar maps images the day of the event. We discuss the usefulness of early recognition of ABS using global longitudinal strain images.

    2. An Unusual Mass of Tricuspid Valve in an Adult Patient: Blood-Filled Cyst

      Macit Kalçık, Mahmut Yesin, Mustafa Ozan Gürsoy, Süleyman Karakoyun, Sinan Cerşit, Cengiz Köksal, Cemil İzgi and Mehmet Özkan

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12878


      Blood-filled cysts (BFC) within the heart are very rare entities in adolescents and adults. Here, an adult case of BFC attached to the posterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve is reported, demonstrating the importance of multimodal diagnostic imaging combining both echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  51. Original Investigations

    1. Exploring Noninvasive Tricuspid dP/dt as a Marker of Right Ventricular Function

      Yash Singbal, William Vollbon, Luan Tan Huynh, William Y. S. Wang, Arnold C. T. Ng and Sudhir Wahi

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12877

    2. Novel Echocardiographic Indices as Predictors of Immediate Recurrence after Undersized Ring Annuloplasty for Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation

      Shokoufeh Hajsadeghi, Niloufar Samiee, Seyyed Saied Hosseini, Morteza Hassanzadeh and Scott Reza Jafarian Kerman

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12879

    3. Prognostic Value of Stress Echocardiography in Patients Presenting with Syncope

      Jose Ricardo F. Po, Farooq A. Chaudhry, Kiruthika Balasundaram, Waseem Shami, Sunil Penesetti, Kiran K. Kommaraju, Sameh Mohareb, Suketukumar Patel, Vikram Agarwal and Edgar Argulian

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12874

  52. Case Reports

    1. Gargantuan Left Atrium: A Sequela of Mitral Regurgitation and Mitral Stenosis

      Brian T. Omslaer and Robert W. W. Biederman

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12869


      Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography revealed a gargantuan left atrium measuring 18.9 cm × 15.7 cm × 11.3 cm in a 56-year-old patient diagnosed with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis, severe pulmonary hypertension, and permanent atrial fibrillation. A chest x-ray also revealed a cardiothoracic ratio approaching 1.0 and a transthoracic echocardiogram measured diameters as large as 19.2 cm. The patient then underwent mitral valve replacement and left atrial reduction surgery and has had no further admissions or complications.

  53. Original Investigations

    1. Exercise-Induced Abnormal Increase of Systolic Pulmonary Artery Pressure in Adult Patients With Sickle Cell Anemia: An Exercise Stress Echocardiography Study

      Newton Nunes de Lima-Filho, Maria Stella Figueiredo, Perla Vicari, Rodolfo Cançado, Antonio Carlos de Camargo Carvalho, José Orlando Bordin and Orlando Campos

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12853

  54. Case Reports

    1. Three-Dimensional Echocardiography Enhances Diagnostic Accuracy of Supramitral Ring

      Pei-Ni Jone, Carlie Bremen, Michael DiMaria, David N. Campbell, James Jaggers, Adel Younoszai and D. Dunbar Ivy

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12867


      Real time three-dimensional echocardiography allows for accurate morphological characterization of congenital heart disease especially in the precise anatomical analysis of mitral valve apparatus. We report a case of using real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography to accurately diagnosed congenital mitral valve stenosis from a supramitral ring in a young child, avoiding unnecessary catheterization, and successful resection of the supramitral ring.

  55. Original Investigations

    1. Assessment of the Developmental Change in the Left Atrial Volume Using Real Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

      Noboru Tanaka, Kiyohiro Takigiku, Ken Takahashi, Ayako Kuraoka, Kotoko Matsui, Satoru Iwashima, Masaki Nii, Manatomo Toyono, Masaaki Takeuchi, Masahiko Kishiro, Satoshi Yasukochi and Toshiaki Shimizu

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12829

  56. Case Reports

    1. Severe Left Atrioventricular Valve Regurgitation Due to Discontinuity between the Leaflets of the Aortic and Left Atrioventricular Valves in a Patient with Endocardial Cushion Defect: A Rare Case Report

      Maryam Nabati, Valiolla Habibi, Aria Soleimani and Mojtaba Shokri

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12858


      Discontinuities between the leaflets of the aortic and left atrioventricular valves are uncommon congenital malformations. We describe a rare case of Down syndrome with transient complete atrioventricular block and discontinuity between the leaflets of the aortic and left atrioventricular valves. It caused severe eccentric jet of regurgitation into the left atrium. He underwent cardiopulmonary bypass. Permanent epicardial pacing was inserted during cardiac surgery.

  57. Original Investigations

    1. Prognostic Value of Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated with Late Percutaneous Intervention

      Tao Cong, Yinghui Sun, Zhijuan Shang, Ke Wang, Dechun Su, Lei Zhong, Shulong Zhang and Yanzong Yang

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12864

    2. Long-Term Cardiac Remodeling in Elite Athletes: Assessment by Tissue Doppler and Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

      Selami Demirelli, Cemil Tugrulhan Sam, Emrah Ermis, Husnu Degirmenci, Ilhan Sen, Arif Arisoy, Kursat Arslan, Hakan Duman and Ziya Simsek

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12860

    3. Association of Mitral Annular Calcification with Left Ventricular Mechanics: A Speckle Tracking Study

      Tayyar Gökdeniz, Faruk Boyaci, Engin Hatem, Hüseyin Bektaş, Ezgi Kalaycıoğlu, Mustafa Ozan Gürsoy, Ahmet Çağrı Aykan, Banu Şahin Yıldız and Bernas Altıntaş

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12861

  58. Case Reports

    1. A Case of Isolated Cardiac Hydatid Cyst that Mimics Lymphoproliferative Malignancy

      Cenk Eray Yildiz, Ümit Yaşar Sinan, Ahmet Yildiz, Gürkan Çetin and Serdar Küçükoğlu

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12856


      Hydatid cyst is a parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. The liver and the lungs are the most frequently involved organs in primary hydatidosis. Isolated cardiac involvement is extremely rare. We present a case of isolated cardiac cystic echinococcosis mimicking lymphoproliferative malignancy.

  59. Original Investigations

    1. The Relationships between Atrial Electromechanical Delay and CHA2DS2-VASc Score in Patients Diagnosed with Paroxysmal AF

      Gökay Nar, Sinan İnci, Gökhan Aksan, Korhan Soylu, Selami Demirelli and Rukiye Nar

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12855

    2. Prevalence, Determinants, and Prognostic Significance of Pulmonary Hypertension in Elderly Patients Admitted with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: A Report from the BIO-HF Registry

      Daniel Vanhercke, Sofie Pardaens, Caroline Weytjens, Barbara Vande Kerckhove, Nancy De Laet, Emilie Janssens, Guy Van Camp and Johan De Sutter

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12857

    3. Endothelial Function and Vascular Properties in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

      Khaled Hadeed, Sébastien Hascoet, Marie-Pierre Castex, Caroline Munzer, Philippe Acar and Yves Dulac

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12851

    4. Is Real Time Contrast Echocardiography Useful for Assessment of the Right Ventricular Morphology, Function, and Perfusion?

      Marta Kamińska, Bożena Sobkowicz, Robert Sawicki, Janina Lewkowicz, Anna Tomaszuk-Kazberuk, Renata Glińska and Włodzimierz J. Musiał

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12819

    5. Left Ventricular Strain Modifications after Maximal Exercise in Athletes: A Speckle Tracking Study

      Amato Santoro, Federico Alvino, Giovanni Antonelli, Matteo Cameli, Matteo Bertini, Roberta Molle and Sergio Mondillo

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12791

    6. Effects of Insulin Resistance on Myocardial Blood Flow and Arterial Peripheral Circulation in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

      José M. Aldrighi, Jeane M. Tsutsui, Ingrid Kowastch, Alessandra L. Ribeiro, Alessandro Scapinelli, Sonia Tamanaha, Ricardo M. Oliveira and Wilson Mathias Jr

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12849

    7. Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Evaluation of Mitral Apparatus during Preload Manipulation in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

      Hyemoon Chung, Ji Hyun Yoon, Young Won Yoon, Ji Young Chung, Jung-Joon Cha, Jong-Youn Kim, Pil-Ki Min, Byoung-Kwon Lee, Bum-Kee Hong, Se-Joong Rim, Hyuck Moon Kwon and Eui-Young Choi

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12840

    8. Quality Control and Reproducibility in M-Mode, Two-Dimensional, and Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Acquisition and Analysis: The CARDIA Study, Year 25 Examination Experience

      Anderson C. Armstrong, Erin P. Ricketts, Christopher Cox, Paul Adler, Alexander Arynchyn, Kiang Liu, Ellen Stengel, Stephen Sidney, Cora E. Lewis, Pamela J. Schreiner, James M. Shikany, Kimberly Keck, Jamie Merlo, Samuel S. Gidding and João A. C. Lima

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12832

    9. Combining Coronary with Carotid and Cerebrovascular Angiography Using Prospective ECG Gating and Iterative Reconstruction with 256-slice CT

      Jin-Ling Zhang, Bai-Lu Liu, Yan-Ming Zhao, Hong-Wei Liang, Guo-Kun Wang, Yong Wan, Ya-Hua Huang and Bao-Zhong Shen

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12830

    10. Combined Circumferential and Longitudinal Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Patients with Asymptomatic Aortic Stenosis

      Giovanni Cioffi, Carmine Mazzone, Giulia Barbati, Andrea Rossi, Stefano Nistri, Federica Ognibeni, Luigi Tarantini, Andrea Di Lenarda, Pompilio Faggiano, Giovanni Pulignano, Carlo Stefenelli, Giovanni de Simone and Richard B. Devereux

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12825

    11. Improvement in Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion with Pulmonary Hypertension Therapy in Pediatric Patients

      Maria Bano, Usama B. Kanaan, Alexandra C. Ehrlich, Courtney McCracken, Gemma Morrow, Matthew E. Oster and Ritu Sachdeva

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12835

    12. Optimal Analysis of Left Atrial Strain by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography: P-wave versus R-wave Trigger

      Shuji Hayashi, Hirotsugu Yamada, Mika Bando, Yoshihito Saijo, Susumu Nishio, Yukina Hirata, Allan L. Klein and Masataka Sata

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12834

    13. Left Atrial Function Assessed by Left Atrial Strain in Patients with Left Circumflex Branch Culprit Acute Myocardial Infarction

      Dong Hyun Lee, Tae-Ho Park, Jung Eun Lee, Young-Rak Cho, Kyungil Park, Jong Sung Park, Moo-Hyun Kim and Young-Dae Kim

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12828


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