Cover image for Vol. 31 Issue 10

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Navin C. Nanda

Impact Factor: 1.254

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 89/125 (Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems)

Online ISSN: 1540-8175


  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 171
  1. Original Investigations

  2. Editorial

  3. Original Investigations

    1. Relation of Epicardial Fat Thickness to the Severity of Heart Failure in Patients with Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy

      Mehmet Mustafa Tabakci, Halil İbrahim Durmuş, Anil Avci, Cuneyt Toprak, Serdar Demir, Uğur Arslantaş, Sinan Cerşit, Serdar Fidan, Şeyhmus Kulahçioğlu, Ulaankhuu Batgerel and Ramazan Kargin

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12796

  4. Research from or in Collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham

  5. Original Investigations

    1. Is Real Time Contrast Echocardiography Useful for Assessment of the Right Ventricular Morphology, Function, and Perfusion?

      Marta Kamińska, Bożena Sobkowicz, Robert Sawicki, Janina Lewkowicz, Anna Tomaszuk-Kazberuk, Renata Glińska and Włodzimierz J. Musiał

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12819

    2. Left Ventricular Strain Modifications after Maximal Exercise in Athletes: A Speckle Tracking Study

      Amato Santoro, Federico Alvino, Giovanni Antonelli, Matteo Cameli, Matteo Bertini, Roberta Molle and Sergio Mondillo

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12791

  6. Case Reports – Pediatric

    1. Prenatal Diagnosis of a Persistent Fifth Aortic Arch, Pulmonary-to-Systemic type: An Unusual Association with Evolving Aortic Coarctation

      Puneet Bhatla, Sujata Chakravarti, Leon Axel, Achi Ludomirsky and Giselle Revah

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12850


      Persistent fifth aortic arch can be diagnosed antenatal by fetal echocardiography. Identification of this anomaly should prompt serial prenatal follow-up to diagnose evolving lesions, which can aid in better delivery planning and anticipate emergent postnatal interventions.

  7. Editorial

  8. Original Investigations

    1. Jet Length/Velocity Ratio: A New Index for Echocardiographic Evaluation of Chronic Aortic Regurgitation

      Tolga Sinan Güvenç, Denizhan Karaçimen, Hatice Betül Erer, Erkan İlhan, Nurten Sayar, Gültekin Karakuş, Elif Çekirdekçi and Mehmet Eren

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12698

    2. Effects of Insulin Resistance on Myocardial Blood Flow and Arterial Peripheral Circulation in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

      José M. Aldrighi, Jeane M. Tsutsui, Ingrid Kowastch, Alessandra L. Ribeiro, Alessandro Scapinelli, Sonia Tamanaha, Ricardo M. Oliveira and Wilson Mathias Jr

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12849

  9. Research from or in Collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham

  10. Case Reports

    1. The Short Life of an Aortic Cusp Aneurysm: A Case Report

      Khashayar Vahdat, Srujal Patel and Jose Banchs

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12844


      This report describes the case of a young man with a history of lymphoma, admitted with symptoms of chest pain, ST elevation changes, and elevated troponins. Immediate bedside echocardiographic evaluation led to an aborted urgent coronary angiography and a diagnosis of presumed endocarditis. Transesophageal echocardiography (TTE) subsequently revealed an aortic noncoronary cusp aneurysm masking as vegetation. The rapid assessment by TTE and transesophageal echocardiogram prevented an alternate course for this patient's management. We reviewed the necessity of heart catheterization in patients with significantly elevated troponins, pericarditis symptoms, and the rare sighting of aortic valve cusp aneurysms.

  11. Image Sections

    1. Respirophasic Forward Diastolic Flow through the Pulmonary Valve in Massive Right Ventricular Infarction

      Alberto Bouzas-Mosquera, Beatriz Bouzas-Zubeldía, Jesús Peteiro and Nemesio Álvarez-García

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12845


      We report a case illustrating Fontan physiology in massive right ventricular infarction. The infarcted right ventricle acted as a passive conduit between the right atrium and the pulmonary artery, and the flow was largely driven by respiratory variations in intrathoracic pressure. During inspiration, the pulmonary valve remained open throughout the whole cardiac cycle and the right ventricular outflow was almost entirely antegrade both in systole and diastole.

  12. Challenging Cases

  13. Original Investigations

    1. Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Evaluation of Mitral Apparatus during Preload Manipulation in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

      Hyemoon Chung, Ji Hyun Yoon, Young Won Yoon, Ji Young Chung, Jung-Joon Cha, Jong-Youn Kim, Pil-Ki Min, Byoung-Kwon Lee, Bum-Kee Hong, Se-Joong Rim, Hyuck Moon Kwon and Eui-Young Choi

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12840

  14. Case Reports

    1. Prenatal Diagnosis of an Aneurysm of the Mitral-Aortic Intervalvular Fibrosa

      Sheng Zhao, Xinlin Chen and Xiaohong Yang

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12841


      Aneurysm of the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa (A-MAIVF) is a rare but potentially fatal condition. The aneurysm is located between the mitral and aortic valves and communicates with the left ventricular outflow tract, and the differential diagnoses include dilated coronary sinuses and coronary arteriovenous fistula. We describe the first reported case of an A-MAIVF diagnosed in the fetus.

  15. Original Investigations

    1. Quality Control and Reproducibility in M-Mode, Two-Dimensional, and Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Acquisition and Analysis: The CARDIA Study, Year 25 Examination Experience

      Anderson C. Armstrong, Erin P. Ricketts, Christopher Cox, Paul Adler, Alexander Arynchyn, Kiang Liu, Ellen Stengel, Stephen Sidney, Cora E. Lewis, Pamela J. Schreiner, James M. Shikany, Kimberly Keck, Jamie Merlo, Samuel S. Gidding and João A. C. Lima

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12832

    2. Combining Coronary with Carotid and Cerebrovascular Angiography Using Prospective ECG Gating and Iterative Reconstruction with 256-slice CT

      Jin-Ling Zhang, Bai-Lu Liu, Yan-Ming Zhao, Hong-Wei Liang, Guo-Kun Wang, Yong Wan, Ya-Hua Huang and Bao-Zhong Shen

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12830

    3. Combined Circumferential and Longitudinal Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Patients with Asymptomatic Aortic Stenosis

      Giovanni Cioffi, Carmine Mazzone, Giulia Barbati, Andrea Rossi, Stefano Nistri, Federica Ognibeni, Luigi Tarantini, Andrea Di Lenarda, Pompilio Faggiano, Giovanni Pulignano, Carlo Stefenelli, Giovanni de Simone and Richard B. Devereux

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12825

  16. Image Sections

    1. Ruptured Aneurysm of Anterior Mitral Leaflet in Aortic Valve Infective Endocarditis

      Isabel Zegrí, Vanessa Moñivas, Susana Mingo, Carlos Garcia-Montero and Miguel A. Cavero

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12831


      We report the case of a 71-year-old man admitted with acute heart failure and suspicion of infective endocarditis (IE). Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) showed ruptured aneurysm of anterior mitral leaflet (AAML) in scallop A2 with severe mitral regurgitation and perforation of right and noncoronary aortic cusps with severe aortic regurgitation. TEE is more sensitive than transthoracic echocardiography for the diagnosis of AAML and 3DTEE provides further morphological information as well about the relationship with adjacent structures. This information has important implications for medical and surgical purposes.

  17. Original Investigations

    1. Improvement in Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion with Pulmonary Hypertension Therapy in Pediatric Patients

      Maria Bano, Usama B. Kanaan, Alexandra C. Ehrlich, Courtney McCracken, Gemma Morrow, Matthew E. Oster and Ritu Sachdeva

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12835

    2. Optimal Analysis of Left Atrial Strain by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography: P-wave versus R-wave Trigger

      Shuji Hayashi, Hirotsugu Yamada, Mika Bando, Yoshihito Saijo, Susumu Nishio, Yukina Hirata, Allan L. Klein and Masataka Sata

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12834

    3. Left Atrial Function Assessed by Left Atrial Strain in Patients with Left Circumflex Branch Culprit Acute Myocardial Infarction

      Dong Hyun Lee, Tae-Ho Park, Jung Eun Lee, Young-Rak Cho, Kyungil Park, Jong Sung Park, Moo-Hyun Kim and Young-Dae Kim

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12828

    4. The Biplane Modified Simpson's Method Accurately Estimates Pericardial Effusion Volume: A Comparison with Pericardiocentesis

      Khashayar Khosraviani, Ythan Goldberg, Behzad Salari, Nariman Nezami, Chang-Fu Peng and Cynthia C. Taub

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12833

    5. Evaluation of Peak Pressure Gradients in Patients after Melody Valve Implantation: A Comparison of Cardiac Catheterization and Doppler Echocardiography

      Brenton S. Bauer, Sybil Zachariah, Daniel Levi, Abraham Rothman, Alvaro Galindo and Jamil A Aboulhosn

      Article first published online: 1 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12827

    6. Predictive Role of Stress Echocardiography before Carotid Endarterectomy in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

      George Galyfos, Constantinos Tsioufis, Dimitris Theodorou, Stilianos Katsaragakis, Georgios Zografos and Konstantinos Filis

      Article first published online: 1 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12826

    7. Relation of Left Atrial Stiffness to Insulin Resistance in Obese Children: Doppler Strain Imaging Study

      Ragab A. Mahfouz, Abdelaziz Gomma, Mohamed Goda and Mohamed Safwat

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12824

  18. Case Reports

    1. Infective Endocarditis Related to a Coronary Artery Fistula with an Unusual Localization and Ectatic Coronary Arteries

      Demet Menekse Gerede, Aynur Acibuca, Caglar Uzun, Huseyin Goksuluk, Aydan Ongun, Mustafa Kilickap and Cetin Erol

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12822


      Coronary artery fistulas (CAF) are a rare congenital anomaly. They are usually asymptomatic but can present with clinically significant complications. We describe a patient presenting infective endocarditis involving a coronary artery fistula between the left ventricle and a giant circumflex coronary artery. Diagnosis was first made by echocardiography and confirmed by coronary computed tomography (CT). While discussing this case, we also review the literature on coronary artery fistula and coronary artery ectasia.

  19. Original Investigations

    1. Evaluation of Adult versus Pediatric Transesophageal Echocardiography Probe Efficiency for Guiding Septal Puncture during Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

      Ekrem Guler, Gamze Babur Guler, Gultekin Gunhan Demir, Filiz Kizilirmak, Hacı Murat Gunes, İrfan Barutcu, Mehmet Muhsin Turkmen and Fethi Kilicaslan

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12821

    2. Left Atrial Appendage Flow Velocity and Time from P-Wave Onset to Tissue Doppler–Derived A' Predict Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence after Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation

      Keiko Fukushima, Noritoshi Fukushima, Koichiro Ejima, Ken Kato, Yasuto Sato, Shoko Uematsu, Kotaro Arai, Tetsuyuki Manaka, Atsushi Takagi, Kyomi Ashihara, Morio Shoda and Nobuhisa Hagiwara

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12823

    3. The Effects of Successful Percutaneous Mitral Balloon Valvuloplasty on Acute and Intermediate Term Aortic Stiffness

      Sinan Inci, Gökay Nar, Mustafa Kemal Erol, Selami Demirelli, Hakan Duman, Serkan Serdar and Fatih Erol

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12799

  20. Image Sections

    1. Metastatic Cardiac Sarcoma Arising from the Left Posterior Pulmonary Vein Treated with Combination Therapy of Surgical Resection and Preoperative Chemotherapy Treatment

      Constantina Aggeli, Stilianos Kastellanos, Kika Pliarchopoulou, Ioannis Felekos and Christodoulos Stefanadis

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12780


      A 44-year-old man with pulmonary sarcoma presented symptoms of dyspnea, cough, chest pain, and fatigue. During echocardiographic examination, a large mass was revealed inside the left atrium causing severe mitral valve obstruction. The patient underwent chemotherapy with alleviation of symptoms. Follow-up echocardiogram revealed decreased mass size and no mitral valve obstruction. The mass stemmed from the left posterior pulmonary vein. After surgical resection, the mass was revealed to be a sarcoma. Postsurgery echocardiogram was normal. The patient has remained asymptomatic. Chemotherapy may decrease the size of a cardiac sarcoma and alleviate mitral valve obstruction symptoms, thus facilitating complete resection.

  21. Original Investigations

    1. Right Ventricular Strain before and after Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy in Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

      Nicholas Marston, Jason P. Brown, Nicholas Olson, William R. Auger, Michael M. Madani, Darrin Wong, Ajit B. Raisinghani, Anthony N. DeMaria and Daniel G. Blanchard

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12812

  22. ECHO Round Section Editor: Edmund Kenneth Kerut, M.D.

    1. Pseudoaneurysm in the Mitral–Aortic Intervalvular Fibrosa—Case Report and Literature Review

      Oana Năstase, Bogdan Rădulescu, Marinela Şerban, Ioana Smărăndiţa Lăcău, Şerban Bubenek, Bogdan Alexandru Popescu, Carmen Ginghinã and Ruxandra Jurcuţ

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12807

  23. Case Reports

    1. Fetal and Neonatal Imaging and Strategy of Primary Neonatal Heart Transplantation in Hypoplastic Left Heart with Ebstein's Anomaly

      James M. Hammel, David A. Danford, Robert L. Spicer and Shelby Kutty

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12820


      We report a case of mitral stenosis/aortic atresia variant of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Ebstein's anomaly, and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return. The prenatal and postnatal echocardiography findings guided therapy toward primary transplantation rather than conventional staged surgical palliation.

  24. Original Investigations

    1. Quantification of Mitral Regurgitation by Real Time Three-Dimensional Color Doppler Flow Echocardiography Pre– and Post–Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair

      Christiane Gruner, Bernhard Herzog, Dominique Bettex, Christian Felix, Saurabh Datta, Matthias Greutmann, Oliver Gaemperli, Simon A. Müggler, Felix C. Tanner, Juerg Gruenenfelder, Roberto Corti and Patric Biaggi

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12809

    2. Early Improvement in Left Atrial Remodeling and Function after Mitral Valve Repair or Replacement in Organic Symptomatic Mitral Regurgitation Assessed by Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

      David C. S. Le Bihan, Dorival Julio Della Togna, Rodrigo B. M. Barretto, Jorge Eduardo Assef, Lúcia Romero Machado, Auristela Isabel de Oliveira Ramos, Camilo Abdulmassih Neto, Valdir Ambrosio Moisés, Amanda G. M. R. Sousa and Orlando Campos

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12817

    3. Effects of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation on Left Ventricular and Left Atrial Morphology and Function

      Antonello D'Andrea, Roberto Padalino, Rosangela Cocchia, Enza Di Palma, Lucia Riegler, Raffaella Scarafile, Giovanni Rossi, Renato Bianchi, Donato Tartaglione, Maurizio Cappelli Bigazzi, Paolo Calabrò, Rodolfo Citro, Eduardo Bossone, Raffaele Calabrò and Maria Giovanna Russo

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12808

  25. Image Sections

    1. A Distinctly Rare Case of Candida Endocarditis Involving the Bioprosthetic Pulmonary and the Eustachian Valve Diagnosed on 3D Transesophageal Echocardiography

      Ahmed K. Pasha, Branden A. Snyder, Tirdad T. Zangeneh, Jess L. Thompson, Richard E. Sobonya and Aiden Abidov

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12804


      We describe a unique case where a 53-year-old man with history of intravenous drug abuse and prior endocarditis presented with fever and chest pain. He was found to have a eustachian valve vegetation and bioprosthetic pulmonary valve vegetation. The causative organism was Candida albicans. In this case, three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography clearly identified the pulmonic valve vegetation which was not well seen on two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography.

  26. Original Investigations

    1. Reference Values for Right Ventricular Strain in Patients without Cardiopulmonary Disease: A Prospective Evaluation and Meta-Analysis

      Nowell M. Fine, Libo Chen, Paul M. Bastiansen, Robert P. Frantz, Patricia A. Pellikka, Jae K. Oh and Garvan C. Kane

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12806

  27. Case Reports

    1. Blunt Chest Trauma Resulting in Both Atrial and Ventricular Septal Defects

      Yahaira Ortiz, Adam J. Waldman, Jeff N. Bott, Steve J. Carlan and Mario Madruga

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12801


      Disruption of both the atrial and ventricular walls occurred after violent blunt chest trauma.

  28. Image Sections

    1. Post-TAVR Ventricular Septal Defect in the Presence of Subaortic Membrane

      Christina W. Lee, Sheila M. Hegde, Steven M. Ewer and Lucian Lozonschi

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12802


      Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has traditionally been reserved for patients who are high-risk with significant comorbid conditions. We present a case of an 80-year-old female who sustained a small, restrictive ventricular septal defect (VSD) following TAVR. This patient was thoroughly evaluated preoperatively and the decision was made to proceed with nonconventional repair given significant comorbid conditions in conjunction with subvalvular stenosis secondary to a subvalvular membrane. The objective of this presentation is to direct special focus to the echocardiographic images of this unique case in the setting of this unique anatomic variant.

  29. Original Investigations

    1. The Effect of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation on Pulmonary Hypertension

      Tahir Durmaz, Hüseyin Ayhan, Telat Keleş, Abdullah Nabi Aslan, Hacı Ahmet Kasapkara, Cenk Sarı, Emine Bilen, Nihal Akar Bayram, Murat Akçay and Engin Bozkurt

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12811

  30. Research from or in Collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham

  31. Case Reports

    1. Prenatal Diagnosis of Giant Left Ventricular Diverticulum: Case Report

      Fadli Demir, Nazan Ozbarlas, Uğur Gocen and Selim Buyukkurt

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12781


      The distinction between a ventricular aneurysm and diverticulum is difficult. The differences between these two are based on anatomical, histological, and functional criteria. We present a case of prenatal diagnosis of a giant left ventricular outpouching at 28 weeks gestation. During the postnatal period, the neonate underwent surgical correction for the outpouching. Histopathological examination reported the resected segment was a cardiac diverticulum. Our case indicates that differentiating between the two diagnoses during the intrauterine period is not always straightforward and possible. Histopathological examinations are sometimes necessary to make a precise differentiation. Treatment should be individualized depending on the clinical presentation.

  32. Original Investigations

    1. Left Ventricular Mechanics in Untreated Normotensive Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Two- and Three-dimensional Speckle Tracking Study

      Marijana Tadic, Sanja Ilic, Cesare Cuspidi, Biljana Stojcevski, Branislava Ivanovic, Ljiljana Bukarica, Ljilja Jozika and Vera Celic

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12790

  33. Case Reports

    1. Collagenous Fibroma of the Right Coronary Cusp: A Case Report and Literature Review

      Yanbo Zhu, Xiuhong Zhang, Xin Guan and Lianqun Wang

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12789


      Collagenous fibroma (desmoplastic fibroblastoma) is a rare benign tumor reported recently. This is the first description of collagenous fibroma in human heart.

  34. Image Sections

    1. A Residual Intramyocardial Cystic Dissection after Cardiac Fibroma Resection

      Wenjuan Bai, Lijun Zeng and Li Rao

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12798


      The article discusses a residual intramyocardial cystic dissection as a complication after cardiac fibroma resection. It indicates the usefulness of echocardiography, especially three-dimensional echocardiography, to get a complete picture of the entire lesion.

  35. Original Investigations

    1. Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion Is Reduced in Infants with Pulmonary Hypertension

      Dala Zakaria, Ritu Sachdeva, Jeffrey M. Gossett, Xinyu Tang and Matthew J. O'Connor

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12797

  36. Review Articles

    1. Foreign Bodies in the Heart

      Marina Leitman and Zvi Vered

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12795

  37. Original Investigations

    1. Application of Intravascular Ultrasound in the Emergency Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

      Hong-Xia Wang, Ping-Shuan Dong, Zhi-Juan Li, Hong-Lei Wang, Ke Wang and Xiang-Yong Liu

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12794

  38. Case Reports

    1. An Interesting Case of Tricuspid Aortic Valve with a Quadricuspid Function

      Elena Tessitore, Hajo Müller, Chris Nadege Nganou-Gnindjio, Philippe Grisel and Lučka Šekoranja

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12793


      Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital heart defect, often related to severe aortic regurgitation, and usually detected by echocardiography or at the time of aortic valve surgery. We report a case of an interesting and extremely rare variant of “false” QAV, detected preoperatively by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, in a severely symptomatic patient, admitted to our hospital for dyspnea. Three leaflets of aortic valve appeared quadricuspid, because the left coronary cusp was divided into two parts, as confirmed by MRI and pathology.

  39. Image Sections

    1. Tuberculous Pericarditis Mimicking a Pericardial Tumor

      Roman Komorovsky, Ulyana Slaba and Svitlana Smiyan

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12792


      The image and the clinical message focus on an unusual presentation of tuberculous pericardial involvement appearing as a loculated organized pericardial effusion mimicking a pericardial tumor. Antituberculous combination therapy resulted in complete resolution of the pericardial mass. To the best of our knowledge, such presentation of tuberculous pericarditis has not been previously reported.

  40. Original Investigations

    1. Right Ventricular Global Longitudinal Strain Is an Independent Predictor of Right Ventricular Function: A Multimodality Study of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Real Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography and Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

      Ken J. Lu, Janet X. C. Chen, Konstantinos Profitis, Leighton G. Kearney, Dimuth DeSilva, Gerard Smith, Michelle Ord, Susan Harberts, Paul Calafiore, Elizabeth Jones and Piyush M. Srivastava

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12783

  41. Book Reviews

    1. Complex Cases in Echocardiography

      Ramdas G. Pai

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12784

  42. Original Investigations

    1. Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve in Patients with Ascending Aorta Aneurysm

      Ahmet Oytun Baykan, Gülhan Yüksel Kalkan, Mustafa Gür, Hakan Uçar, Armağan Acele, Taner Şeker, Ömer Şen, Onur Kaypakli, Hazar Harbalioğlu and Murat Çayli

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12782

    2. Pulmonary Pulse Transit Time: A Novel Echocardiographic Indicator of Hemodynamic and Vascular Alterations in Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Fibrosis

      Thomas Wibmer, Stefan Rüdiger, Dominik Scharnbeck, Michael Radermacher, Sinisa Markovic, Kathrin M. Stoiber, Wolfgang Rottbauer and Christian Schumann

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12772

    3. Reliability of Doppler-Based Measurement of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance in Congenital Heart Disease with Left-to-Right Shunt Lesions

      Srinivas Bhyravavajhala, Vanajakshamma Velam, Nishanth V. Polapragada, Pranav Pallempati, Tammi Raju Iragavarapu, Amar Narayan Patnaik and Seshagiri Rao Damera

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12779

    4. Evaluation of Global Function of the Heart in Scleroderma Patients

      Demet Menekse Gerede, Sibel Turhan, Refika Hural, Aynur Acıbuca, Orhan Kucuksahin, Ozgur Ulas Ozcan, Huseyin Goksuluk, Veysel Kutay Vurgun and Cetin Erol

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12774

    5. Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Type I Gaucher Disease: An Echo Doppler Study

      Francesco Lo Iudice, Antonio Barbato, Riccardo Muscariello, Carlo Di Nardo, Francesco de Stefano, Michelina Sibilio, Pasquale Strazzullo, Giovanni de Simone and Maurizio Galderisi

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12759

  43. Doppler Hemodynamics

    1. Respiratory Hemodynamics in the Hepatic Veins—Abnormal Patterns

      Bahaa M. Fadel, Ahmad Alkalbani, Aysha Husain, Ziad Dahdouh and Giovanni Di Salvo

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12757

  44. Original Investigations

    1. Left Atrial Volume Index as a Predictor for Persistent Left Ventricular Dysfunction after Aortic Valve Surgery in Patients with Chronic Aortic Regurgitation: The Role of Early Postoperative Echocardiography

      In-Jeong Cho, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Geu-Ru Hong, Ran Heo, Ji Min Sung, Sang-Eun Lee, Byung-Chul Chang, Chi Young Shim, Jong-Won Ha and Namsik Chung

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12756

  45. Image Sections

    1. A Thrombotic Right Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm Causing Acute Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Stroke

      Nihat Polat, Abdulkadir Yildiz, Murat Yuksel, Halit Acet and Sait Alan

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12755


      Aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva (ASV) is an uncommon condition which may be congential or acquired. Here, we describe a case of ASV thrombosis presented with both acute myocardial infarction and acute stroke.

  46. Case Reports

    1. Diagnosis of Pentacuspid Aortic Valve with Severe Regurgitation Using Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography

      Sinem Ozyilmaz, Ozgur Akgul, Alper Guzeltas and Isa Ozyilmaz

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12752


      We describe a 48-year-old female patient with a pentacuspid aortic valve and severe aortic regurgitation that was diagnosed using three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

    2. Fibrous Cyst of the Chordae Tendineae of the Mitral Valve: Echocardiographic Appearance and Literature Review

      Yan-Bo Zhu, Xiu-Hong Zhang, Lian-Qun Wang and Xin Guan

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12750


      Mitral chordae fibrous cyst is defined as a fibrous cyst arising from the chordae tendineae of the mitral valve. It is extremely rare and its etiology is not clear. Only one case has been reported in the past years. We present a case of mitral chordae fibrous cyst.

  47. Original Investigations

    1. Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiographic Study of Aortic-Mitral Valve Coupling after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

      Shao-Hui Qu, Ming-Chon Hsiung, Xiao-Ping Leng, Jeng Wei, Guo-Qing Du, Helene Houle, Wei-Hsian Yin and Jia-Wei Tian

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12748

  48. Image Sections

    1. Unusual Myocardial Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Isolated Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy

      Sherif Moustafa, David J. Patton, Mansour Al Shanawani, Michael S. Connelly, Nanette Alvarez, Timothy Prieur and Farouk Mookadam

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12778


      Noncompaction cardiomyopathy is characterized by prominent ventricular trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses with high risk of mortality and morbidity secondary to heart failure, thromboembolic events, and malignant arrhythmias. We herein report a 19-year-old man with isolated noncompaction cardiomyopathy in which the echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance were very useful in decision making regarding his optimal management.

  49. ViewPoints

  50. Doppler Hemodynamics

    1. Spectral Doppler of the Hepatic Veins in Tricuspid Valve Disease

      Bahaa M. Fadel, Khaled Almulla, Aysha Husain, Ziad Dahdouh, Giovanni Di Salvo and Dania Mohty

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12773

  51. Special Issue: Imaging the Right Heart

    1. Editorial

      Imaging the Right Heart: A Challenging Road Map

      Eduardo Bossone, Navin C. Nanda and Robert Naeije

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12563

    2. Right Heart and Pulmonary Vessels Structure and Function

      Michele D'Alto, Giancarlo Scognamiglio, Kostantinos Dimopoulos, Eduardo Bossone, Dario Vizza, Emanuele Romeo, Anton Vonk-Noordergraaf, Sean Gaine, Andrew Peacock and Robert Naeije

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12227

    3. Right Heart Structural and Functional Remodeling in Athletes

      Antonello D'Andrea, Andrè La Gerche, Enrica Golia, Arco J. Teske, Eduardo Bossone, Maria Giovanna Russo, Raffaele Calabrò and Aaron L. Baggish

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12226

    4. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: The Key Role of Echocardiography

      Michele D'Alto, Emanuele Romeo, Paola Argiento, Giovanni Di Salvo, Roberto Badagliacca, Anna P. Cirillo, Harald Kaemmerer, Eduardo Bossone and Robert Naeije

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12283

    5. Imaging of the Right Heart—CT and CMR

      Jonathan Kochav, Lauren Simprini and Jonathan W. Weinsaft

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12212

    6. Nuclear Assessment of Right Ventricle

      Paola Gargiulo, Alberto Cuocolo, Santo Dellegrottaglie, Maria Prastaro, Gianluigi Savarese, Roberta Assante, Emilia Zampella, Stefania Paolillo, Oriana Scala, Donatella Ruggiero, Fabio Marsico and Pasquale Perrone Filardi

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12180

    7. Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathies: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Diagnosis

      Giuseppe Limongelli, Alessandra Rea, Daniele Masarone, M. Paola Francalanci, Aris Anastasakis, Raffaele Calabro', Russo Maria Giovanna, Eduardo Bossone, Perry Mark Elliott and Giuseppe Pacileo

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12399

    8. Review Articles

      Echocardiography and Heart Failure: A Glimpse of the Right Heart

      Adam Pleister, Rami Kahwash, Garrie Haas, Stefano Ghio, Antonio Cittadini and Ragavendra R Baliga

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12678

  52. Original Investigations

    1. Assessment of Quality of Fetal Heart Views by 3D/4D Ultrasonography Using Spatio-Temporal Image Correlation in the Second and Third Trimesters of Pregnancy

      Luciane Alves Rocha, Liliam Cristine Rolo, Fernanda Silveira Bello Barros, Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza, Antonio Fernandes Moron and Edward Araujo Júnior

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12743

    2. Association of Left Atrial Booster-Pump Function with Heart Failure Symptoms in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

      Junichi Imanishi, Hidekazu Tanaka, Takuma Sawa, Yoshiki Motoji, Tatsuya Miyoshi, Yasuhide Mochizuki, Yuko Fukuda, Kazuhiro Tatsumi, Kensuke Matsumoto, Yutaka Okita and Ken-ichi Hirata

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12733

  53. Original Investigation

  54. Case Reports

    1. Real Time Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography Demonstration of Membranous Septal Aneurysm Causing Severe Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

      Saktheeswaran K. Mahesh, Senthil Kumar, Santhosh Satheesh and Balachander Jayaraman

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12739


      In addition to infundibular muscular hypertrophy and anomalous muscle bundles in the right ventricular body, large membranous septal aneurysms (MSA), sinus of Valsalva aneurysms, and aneurysms derived from the embryonic venous valve protruding through the tricuspid valve can cause right ventricular outflow obstruction in a patient with ventricular septal defect. Here we describe an adult with a small perimembranous ventricular septal defect complicated by a large MSA causing severe right ventricular outflow obstruction evaluated with real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

    2. Real Time Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography Guided Coronary Sinus Cannulation during CARILLON Mitral Annuloplasty Device Therapy for a Patient with Chronic Severe Mitral Regurgitation

      Hani M. Mahmoud, Mohammed A. Al-Ghamdi and Abdullah E. Ghabashi

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12745


      The coronary sinus (CS) has become a clinically important structure especially through its role in providing access for different cardiac procedures. Fluoroscopy with or without two dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (2DTEE) is the widely used method for guidance. A 78-year-old female patient was undergoing percutaneous CARILLON mitral annuloplasty device therapy for chronic severe symptomatic mitral regurgitation. After insertion of the coronary sinus catheter through the right internal jugular vein, multiple trials for coronary sinus cannulation guided by fluoroscopy and 2DTEE were unsuccessful. So, real time three-dimensional zoom mode was used to get the anatomically oriented en face view of the interatrial septum from the right atrial perspective. The CS ostium was identified then the catheter was reintroduced through the SVC into the right atrium then easily navigated to cannulate the coronary sinus ostium.

    3. Right Ventricular Mass: Intracardiac Ectopic Thyroid Tissue: A Case Report

      Murat Bulent Rabus, Nertila Poçi, Fatih Yılmaz, Onur Yerlikhan, Tugba Aktemur, Akin Arslan, Selcuk Ozturk, Ibrahim Oztek and Mehmet Balkanay

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12741


      Ectopic thyroid tissue is a result of abnormal migration of thyroid tissue during the embryonic state. Most of these rare cases, almost 90% of them, are located in the base of the tongue and a minority of them are located anteriorly near the hyoid bone area. We report the case of a young patient with an intracardiac mass first diagnosed with three-dimensional echocardiography and after successfully being treated surgically.

  55. Original Investigations

    1. Best Method for Right Atrial Volume Assessment by Two-Dimensional Echocardiography: Validation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

      Mahasti Ebtia, Darra Murphy, Kenneth Gin, Pui K. Lee, John Jue, Parvathy Nair, John Mayo, Marion E. Barnes, Darby J. S. Thompson and Teresa S. M. Tsang

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12735

  56. Doppler Hemodynamics

    1. Respiratory Hemodynamics in the Hepatic Veins—Normal Pattern

      Bahaa M. Fadel, Ahmad Alkalbani, Aysha Husain, Ziad Dahdouh and Giovanno Di Salvo

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12744

  57. Original Investigations

    1. Biventricular Response of the Heart to Endurance Exercise Training in Previously Untrained Subjects

      Aleksandra Rojek, Dariusz Bialy, Monika Przewlocka-Kosmala, Marta Negrusz-Kawecka, Andrzej Mysiak and Wojciech Kosmala

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12737

  58. Image Sections

    1. Primary Intimal (Spindle Cell) Sarcoma of the Left Atrium

      Bo Fu, Hui Yu and Jian Yang

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12777


      A previously healthy 50-year-old man presented to our hospital with a history of progressive shortness of breath and diminished exercise tolerance for 3 months. A transthoracic echocardiogram was interpreted as showing a left atrial mass that was mobile and protruding into the left ventricle and noted that it was “like a myxoma, though its attachment was not visualized.” He was taken to the operating room with the initial diagnosis of left atrial myxoma, but upon surgical inspection of the left atrium, it was noted that the appearance of the tumor was more suggestive of malignancy. Pathologic examination revealed sheets of high-grade densely packed spindle cells replacing and infiltrating into the atrial wall.

  59. ECHO ROUNDS Section Editor: Edmund Kenneth Kerut, M. D.

    1. The Role of Jet Eccentricity in Generating Disproportionately Elevated Transaortic Pressure Gradients in Patients with Aortic Stenosis

      Amr E. Abbas, Laura M. Franey, Steven Lester, Gilbert Raff, Michael J. Gallagher, George Hanzel, Robert D. Safian and Philippe Pibarot

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12712

  60. Original Investigations

    1. Cardiac Strain during Upright Cycle Ergometry in Adolescent Males

      Viswanath B. Unnithan, Thomas Rowland, Martin R. Lindley, Denise M. Roche, Max Garrard and Piers Barker

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12708

    2. Different Implication of Elevated B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Level in Patients with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction and in Those with Reduced Ejection Fraction

      Takako Ishigaki, Takashi Yoshida, Hiromi Izumi, Yoshihisa Fujisawa, Shoko Shimizu, Kasumi Masuda, Toshihiko Asanuma, Hidetoshi Okabe and Satoshi Nakatani

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12707

    3. Assessment of Atrial Electromechanical Delay and Left Atrial Mechanical Functions in Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris

      Gökhan Aksan, Gökay Nar, Korhan Soylu, Sinan İnci, Serkan Yuksel, Hande Serra Ocal, Esra Pancar Yuksel and Okan Gulel

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12706

  61. ECHO Rounds Section Editor: Edmund Kenneth Kerut, M.D.

    1. Bad Company: Supracristal VSD Presenting with Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm. A Case Presentation with Echocardiographic Depiction and an Analysis of Contemporary Literature

      Gregory R. Hartlage, Michelle A. Consolini, Maria A. Pernetz, B. Robinson Williams III, Stephen D. Clements, Edward P. Chen and S. Tanveer Rab

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12718

  62. Original Investigations

    1. Effects of Frame Rate on Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking–Derived Measurements of Myocardial Deformation in Premature Infants

      Aura A. Sanchez, Philip T. Levy, Timothy J. Sekarski, Aaron Hamvas, Mark R. Holland and Gautam K. Singh

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12716

    2. Utility of Intracardiac Echocardiography for Catheter Ablation of Complex Cardiac Arrhythmias in a Medium-Volume Training Center

      David Filgueiras-Rama, Fernando de Torres-Alba, Sergio Castrejón-Castrejón, Alejandro Estrada, Jorge Figueroa, Óscar Salvador-Montañés, Teresa López, Mar Moreno-Yanguela, José L. López Sendón and José L. Merino

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12714

  63. Doppler Hemodynamics

    1. Spectral Doppler Interrogation of the Patent Foramen Ovale–A Window to Left Heart Hemodynamics

      Bahaa M. Fadel, Aysha Husain, Hatem Bakarman, Ziad Dahdouh, Giovanni Di Salvo and Dania Mohty

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12723


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