Cover image for Vol. 31 Issue 6

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Navin C. Nanda

Impact Factor: 1.261

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 84/124 (Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems)

Online ISSN: 1540-8175


  1. 1 - 100
  2. 101 - 155
  1. Original Investigations

    1. Feasibility of Perflutren Microsphere Contrast Transthoracic Echocardiography in the Visualization of Ventricular Endocardium during Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Validated Ovine Model

      David G. Platts, Sara Diab, Kimble R. Dunster, Kiran Shekar, Darryl J. Burstow, Beatrice Sim, Matthew Tunbridge, Charles McDonald, Saul Chemonges, Jonathan Chan and John F. Fraser

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12695

    2. Assessment of Image Quality in Real Time Three-Dimensional Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography: An Integrated 2D/3D Approach

      Amer M. Johri, David W. Chitty, Lanqi Hua, Gergana Marincheva and Michael H. Picard

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12692

    3. Two-Dimensional Strain and Strain Rate Imaging of the Left Atrium and Left Ventricle in Adult Patients with Atrial Septal Defects before and after the Later Stage of Percutaneous Device Closure

      Sinem Cakal, Elif Eroglu, Onur Baydar, Beytullah Cakal, Mehmet Vefik Yazicioglu, Mustafa Bulut, Cihan Dundar, Kursat Tigen, Birol Ozkan, Goksel Acar, Anil Avci and Ali Metin Esen

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12693

  2. Case Reports

    1. Lone Aortic Insufficiency and Conduction Disease: A Marker of Reactive Arthritis

      Joshua M. Lader, Geoffrey Lam, Robert Donnino, Edward S. Katz, Abe DeAnda Jr., Mark Ettel and Muhamed Saric

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12691


      We report the case of a 48-year-old man with chronic reactive arthritis (previously referred to as the Reiter's syndrome) who presented with a heart failure syndrome due to severe lone aortic insufficiency. The case demonstrates multimodality imaging of the classic cardiac findings associated with the immunogenetic marker HLA-B27.

  3. Case Reports – Pediatric

    1. Ultrasonographic Imaging of the Cervical Thoracic Duct in Children with Congenital or Acquired Heart Disease

      Lazaros K. Kochilas, Charles W. Shepard, James M. Berry and Alvin J. Chin

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12688


      This report describes the feasibility of assessing the cervical segment of the thoracic duct during echocardiographic evaluation in children with various cardiovascular conditions. Systematic evaluation of the thoracic duct may be useful in cardiovascular conditions with congestion of the lymphatic system such as single ventricle following Glenn or Fontan procedures.

  4. Case Reports

    1. Intramural Hematoma and Oozing Rupture of Left Atrium after Resection of Wide-Based Left Atrial Myxoma

      Suguru Ohira, Kiyoshi Doi, Sachiko Maeda and Hitoshi Yaku

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12699


      We describe a rare complication after the resection of the left atrial (LA) myxoma. After tumor resection, a large defect of the endocardium was reinforced with an autologous pericardial patch. Transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated a hematoma and pulsatile flow beneath the patch, without patch perforation or detachment. Bleeding increased after closure of the sternum. Intramural hematoma and oozing rupture of the LA were diagnosed. A small intramural vessel of the LA was identified as the main causative site of bleeding. The pericardial patch was repositioned with fibrin glue. Fibrin sheets and glue were applied for reinforcement of the LA from outside.

  5. Original Investigations

    1. Changes in Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Measures of Ventricular Function after Percutaneous Implantation of the Edwards SAPIEN Transcatheter Heart Valve in the Pulmonary Position

      Shahryar M. Chowdhury, Ziyad M. Hijazi, John F. Rhodes, Saibal Kar, Raj Makkar, Michael Mullen, Qi-Ling Cao, Lazar Mandinov, Jason Buckley, Nicholas P. Pietris and Girish S. Shirali

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12700

    2. Prognostic Value of Total Atrial Conduction Time Measured with Tissue Doppler Imaging to Predict the Maintenance of Sinus Rhythm after External Electrical Cardioversion of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation

      Stefano Maffè, Paola Paffoni, Pierfranco Dellavesa, Lorenzo Cucchi, Franco Zenone, Luca Bergamasco, Anna Maria Paino, Nicolò Franchetti Pardo, Fabiana Signorotti, Lara Baduena and Umberto Parravicini

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12702

  6. Case Reports

    1. Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve Thrombosis Complicating Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome, Successfully Treated with Thrombolysis

      Mohammed A. Chamsi-Pasha, Tareq Alyousef and Samer Sayyed

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12703


      Bioprosthetic valve thrombosis is exceedingly rare with limited experience in diagnosis and treatment. We report the first case of bioprosthetic mitral valve thrombosis caused by antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, successfully treated with thrombolytic therapy.

  7. Original Investigations

    1. Impact of Energy Loss Index and Valvuloarterial Impedance in Patients with Aortic Stenosis Using Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

      Takeji Saitoh, Jun Tanaka, Azusa Furugen, Kenji Harada, Masaki Izumo, Yoko Fukuoka and Takahiro Shiota

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12705

    2. The Figure-of-Eight Artifact in the Echocardiographic Assessment of Percutaneous Disc Occluders: Impact of Imaging Depth and Device Type

      Philippe B. Bertrand, Lars Grieten, Christophe J.P. Smeets, Frederik H. Verbrugge, Wilfried Mullens, Mathias Vrolix, Maximo Rivero-Ayerza, David Verhaert and Pieter M. Vandervoort

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12685

  8. Case Reports

    1. Recurrent Right Ventricular Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy in a Patient with Recurrent Aspiration

      Aditya Chandorkar, J. Nicolás Codolosa, Michael L. Lippmann, Gregg S. Pressman and Joanna P. Sta Cruz

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12686


      We describe a case of a 28-year-old male with recurrent episodes of aspiration. On two separate occasions, during episodes of respiratory failure, he developed right ventricular wall motion abnormalities (basal hyperkinesis with apical hypokinesis) without left ventricular involvement. This case is consistent with recurrent right ventricular Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, which has not been described previously.

  9. Original Investigations

    1. Two-Dimensional Measurement of Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion in Children: Can It Substitute for an M-Mode Assessment?

      Muhammad Yasir Qureshi, Benjamin W. Eidem, Chelsea L. Reece and Patrick W. O'Leary

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12687

    2. Normal Pediatric Data for Isovolumic Acceleration at the Lateral Tricuspid Valve Annulus—A Heart Rate – Dependent Measure of Right Ventricular Contractility

      Constance G. Weismann, Michaela C. Bamdad, Sharon Abraham, Stephen Ghiroli, James Dziura and William E. Hellenbrand

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12681

  10. Case Reports

    1. Role of Three-Dimensional Echocardiography in Management of Acquired Intracardiac Shunts

      Tuncay Taskesen, Steven L. Goldberg and Edward Allen Gill

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12682


      Gerbode defect and sinus of Valsalva aneurysm fistula are congenital and acquired forms of intracardiac shunt. The increasing prevalence of invasive cardiovascular procedures has led to more iatrogenic and acquired cases of predominantly congenital shunt. We report 2 cases of acquired intracardiac fistula precisely defined by Real time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. The first case is a 70-year-old male with Gerbode defect after second aortic valve replacement surgery due to prosthetic valve endocarditis and the other case is a 41-year-old male with sinus of Valsalva aneurysm fistula between aorta and right atrium post subclinical infective endocarditis.

  11. Original Investigations

    1. The Effect of Age on Right Ventricular Diastolic Function in Healthy Subjects Undergoing Treadmill Exercise Test

      Murat Celik, Emre Yalcinkaya, Uygar Cagdas Yuksel, Yalcin Gokoglan, Baris Bugan, Hasan Kutsi Kabul and Cem Barcin

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12676

    2. Aortic Valve Stenosis Planimetry by Means of Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography in the Real Clinical Setting: Feasibility, Reliability and Systematic Deviations

      Daniel Saura, Gonzalo de la Morena, Pedro J. Flores-Blanco, María J. Oliva, Luis Caballero, Josefa González-Carrillo, María D. Espinosa, María López-Ruiz, Miguel García-Navarro and Mariano Valdés

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12675

    3. Effect of Remote Ischemic Postconditioning on Left Ventricular Mechanics

      Alper Bugra Nacar, Selim Topcu, Mustafa Kurt, Ibrahim Halil Tanboga, Mehmet Fatih Karakaş, Eyup Buyukkaya, Enbiya Aksakal, Nihat Sen, Adnan Burak Akcay and Emine Bilen

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12677

    4. Prevalence and Long-Term Prognosis of Patients with Complete Bundle Branch Block (Right or Left Bundle Branch) with Normal Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Referred for Stress Echocardiography

      Azhar A. Supariwala, Jose Ricardo F. Po, Sameh Mohareb, Farhan Aslam, Firas Kaddaha, Zainab I. Mian, Farhan Chaudhry, Ahmed Otokiti and Farooq A. Chaudhry

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12680

    5. Left Atrial Deformation Predicts Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients

      Jay Yeh, Ranjit Aiyagari, Robert J. Gajarski, Mary C. Zamberlan and Jimmy C. Lu

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12679

    6. Effects of Ranolazine on Noninvasive Coronary Flow Reserve in Patients with Myocardial Ischemia But without Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease

      Ercole Tagliamonte, Fausto Rigo, Teresa Cirillo, Costantino Astarita, Gaetano Quaranta, Umberto Marinelli, Archimede Caruso, Carlo Romano and Nicola Capuano

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12674

  12. Case Reports

    1. Exacerbation of Pulmonic Regurgitation by Diastolic Tricuspid Regurgitation

      Dali Fan, John N. Makaryus, Bishoy Wassef, Mina Masry and Amgad N. Makaryus

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12673


      Few cases of diastolic mitral regurgitation (MR) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) have been reported in the world literature. We report the case of a 63-year-old woman admitted for syncope, with a permanent pacemaker following complete heart block. Echocardiography revealed that the timing of the diastolic TR (and noted MR) coincided with the second phase of the pulmonic insufficiency (PI) jet. The uniqueness of this case is the rare occurrence of the exacerbation of PI as the result of diastolic TR.

  13. Original Investigations

    1. Echocardiography Detects Elevated Left Ventricular Filling Pressures in Heart Transplant Recipients

      Odd Bech-Hanssen, Waleed Al-Habeeb, Waqas Ahmed, Giovanni Di Salvo, Valeria Pergola, Mohammed Al-Admawi, Mohammed Al-Amri, Maie Al-Shahid, Jehad Al-Buraiki and Bahaa M. Fadel

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12683

  14. Research from or in Collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham

    1. Live/Real Time Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiographic Assessment of the Spinal Cord

      Mustafa I. Ahmed, William A. Crosland, Gulay Gok, Burcu Yuzbas, Mostafa Elguindy, Ahmed Hesham Esmat Ahmed, Benjamin C. Tuck, Oluseun O. Alli, William S. McMahon and Navin C. Nanda

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12669

  15. Review Articles

    1. Left Atrial Appendage Aneurysm: A Systematic Review of 82 Cases

      Madan Raj Aryal, Fayaz A. Hakim, Sailu Ghimire, Sushil Ghimire, Smith Giri, Anil Pandit, Yashoda Bhandari, Naresh Bhandari, Ranjan Pathak, Paras Karmacharya and Rajesh Pradhan

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12667

  16. ECHO Rounds Section Editor: Edmund Kenneth Kerut, M.D.

    1. Carcinoid Heart Disease with Right to Left Shunt across a Patent Foramen Ovale: A Case Report and Review of Literature

      Mohammed Andaleeb Chowdhury, Mohammed Taleb, Mashhood Ajaz Kakroo and Jodi Tinkel

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12671

  17. Original Investigations

    1. Right Ventricular Strain in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A 2D Echocardiography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Study

      Benjamin H. Freed, Wendy Tsang, Nicole M. Bhave, Amit R. Patel, Lynn Weinert, Megan Yamat, Beatriz Miralles Vicedo, Karin Dill, Victor Mor-Avi, Mardi Gomberg-Maitland and Roberto M. Lang

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12662

    2. Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Prognostic Parameters in Patients after Acute Myocardial Infarction

      Maciej Haberka, Jerzy Liszka, Andrzej Kozyra, Maciej Finik and Zbigniew Gąsior

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12666

    3. Repeatability and Agreement of Real Time Three-dimensional Echocardiography Measurements of Left Ventricular Mass and Synchrony in Young Patients

      Tiina Ojala, Sujeev Mathur, Anu Vatanen, Manish D. Sinha, Kirsi Jahnukainen and John Simpson

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12672

    4. Usefulness of the Parameters of Quantitative Myocardial Perfusion Contrast Echocardiography in Patients with Chronic Total Occlusion and Collateral Flow

      Jung Sun Cho, Sung-Ho Her, Ho-Joong Youn, Chan Joon Kim, Mahn-Won Park, Gee Hee Kim, Woo-Baek Chung, Chan Seok Park, Eun-Joo Cho, Mi-Jeong Kim, Hae-Ok Jung and Hui-Kyung Jeon

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12663

  18. Image Sections

    1. A Case of a Fistula between Myxoma and a Branch of Right Coronary Artery

      Antonio D'Aloia, Ivano Bonadei, Enrico Vizzardi, Riccardo Rovetta, Edoardo Sciatti and Marco Metra

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12664


      Atrial myxoma is a benign cardiac mass often seen during echocardiographic examinations. These masses often may present communication with coronary arteries due to the rupture of their vessel wall. We show the images of an incidental finding of two atrial myxomas with a fistula communication between them and a branch of right coronary artery.

    2. Echocardiography: A Case of Coronary Sinus Endocarditis

      Clara Kwan, On Chen, Svetlana Radionova, Adnan Sadiq and Manfred Moskovits

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12665


      We present a case of a 23-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis (HD) via a permacath for the past year, who was found to have endocarditis of the coronary sinus (CS). While patients on HD have higher rates of infective endocarditis (IE), involvement of the CS is rare with only a few cases reported. In our case, the presence of a HD catheter may have predisposed her to IE of the CS. Furthermore, her blood cultures were positive for Acinetobacter baumannii which is a rare pathogen but can be found in hospital settings and in patients on HD.

    3. Large Pseudoaneurysm of the Mitral Annulus as an Infective Endocarditis Complication: A 3D Echocardiography Role in Diagnosis and Surgical Procedure

      Nuno Moreno, Cristina Sánchez-Enrique, Pedro Marcos-Alberca, José Alberto de Agustín, Pablo Luengo, Luis Maroto, Leopoldo Pérez de Isla and Carlos Macaya

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12644


      In this report, we present the case of an 85-year-old patient with a recent history of an infective endocarditis (IE) referred to our hospital for severe mitral regurgitation. After closer observation, echocardiography showed a large pseudoaneurysm in the posterior mitral annulus opening into the left ventricle. Anatomical assessment by 2D and 3D transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) was essential for a detailed morphologic characterization and surgical procedure delineation. This type of IE mitral periannular extension is uncommon and early surgical intervention is critical, however the outcome is still often adverse.

  19. Original Investigations

  20. Case Reports

    1. Intracardiac Mass as Initial Cardiac Manifestation of Behçet's Disease: Think before You Cut

      David Leibowitz, Maya Korem, Dan M. Livovsky, Hagit Peleg, Tova Chajek-Shaul and Nurith Hiller

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12653


      Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic multisystemic inflammatory disorder. Cardiac abnormalities including intracardiac thrombi have been described in up to 16% of cases. The clinical presentation of cardiac complications in BD may include fever, dyspnea, chest pain, hemoptysis, and edema. As intracardiac masses may be the presenting manifestation of BD, it is crucial for echocardiographers to consider BD in the differential diagnosis. A careful history and physical exam looking for signs and symptoms of BD is critical before considering surgical excision of unexplained intracardiac masses. If the final diagnosis is BD anti-inflammatory therapy should be considered the basis of treatment.

  21. Image Sections

    1. Persistent Left and Absent Right Superior Vena Cava: Combined Functional and Anatomic Assessment with Transthoracic Echocardiography and Computed Tomography

      Christopher Naoum, Vincent Khoury, Lloyd Ridley and Seymour Maze

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12654


      We present the case of a 42-year-old man with incidentally noted dilatation of the coronary sinus who underwent bilateral upper limb agitated saline injection to confirm a diagnosis of persistent left and absent right superior vena cava. The case highlights the ability of selective bilateral upper limb agitated saline injection during transthoracic echocardiography to conclusively characterize venous return patterns. Anatomical confirmation of the diagnosis was subsequently made by thoracic computed tomography.

  22. Original Investigations

    1. Carotid Adventitial Vasa Vasorum and Intima-Media Thickness in a Primary Prevention Population

      Uchechukwu K. A. Sampson, Frank E. Harrell Jr, Sergio Fazio, Sam Nwosu, Nate Mercaldo, George A. Mensah, Michael H. Davidson, Blai Coll and Steve B. Feinstein

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12646

    2. “3D Fusion” Echocardiography Improves 3D Left Ventricular Assessment: Comparison with 2D Contrast Echocardiography

      Daniel Augustine, Mohammad Yaqub, Cezary Szmigielski, Eduardo Lima, Steffen E. Petersen, Harald Becher, J. Alison Noble and Paul Leeson

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12655

    3. Left Atrial Appendage Wall-Motion Velocity Associates with Recurrence of Nonparoxysmal Atrial Fibrillation after Catheter Ablation

      Miyuki Ariyama, Ritsushi Kato, Makoto Matsumura, Harumi Yoshimoto, Yoshie Nakajima, Shintaro Nakano, Takatoshi Kasai, Jun Tanno, Takaaki Senbonmatsu, Kazuo Matsumoto and Shigeyuki Nishimura

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12647

  23. Image Sections

    1. Echocardiographic Analysis of an Extracellular Matrix Tricuspid Valve

      Clifford L. Cua, Kevin Kollins and Patrick I. McConnell

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12650


      Tricuspid valve construction using extracellular matrix (ECM) is a relatively new procedure. In this case, a 26-year-old woman with a history of severe tricuspid valve regurgitation secondary to congenital valve dysplasia underwent tricuspid valve surgery. Tricuspid valve repair was unsuccessful and thus a 34-mm extracellular matrix cylinder valve (ECM-CV) was constructed for valve replacement. The ECM-CV is clearly imaged using echocardiography, especially three-dimensional imaging that can help define valve function. As the use of ECM for valve construction increases, echocardiography will play an essential role in evaluating the function and mechanics of these novel valves.

  24. Case Reports

    1. Isolated Left Ventricular Diastolic Collapse in Pericardial Tamponade: An Uncommon Echocardiographic Finding

      Vikas Singh, Sudhanshu K. Dwivedi, Sharad Chandra, Ritesh Sanguri and Ram Kirti Saran

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12642


      A case of circumferential moderate pericardial effusion causing isolated collapse of left ventricular cavity on two-dimensional echocardiography is reported. Pericardial effusion, mostly of infective etiology, is relatively common in this part of the world. When large enough to cause tamponade, collapse of right atrium, right ventricle, and uncommonly left atrium can be seen. Left ventricular collapse is rare, both due to the larger muscle mass and higher chamber pressure.

    2. A Serendipitous Identification of a Lead Extraction Complication

      George Madden, Omar Farrukh, Stavros Stavrakis and C. A. Sivaram

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12651


      A 57-year-old male with a dual chamber pacemaker and atrial fibrillation (AF) presented for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)-guided cardioversion. TEE revealed a large 2.5 cm × 2.3 cm, mobile mass on the right atrial lead. Following device and lead extraction, he developed progressive shortness of breath. Serial TEE revealed a 1.8 cm × 1.6 cm mass in the distal left pulmonary artery, which was corroborated by a 1.4 cm × 2.5 cm filling defect in the descending left pulmonary artery on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). This case illustrates the risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with large endocardial lead vegetations undergoing transvenous lead extraction.

    3. Multimodality Imaging of Cor Triatriatum Sinister in an Octagenerian

      Tahir Bezgin, Yiğit Çanga, Ali Karagöz, Fatih Yılmaz, Cem Doğan, Ali Elveran and Cihangir Kaymaz

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12660


      Cor triatriatum sinister (CTS) is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly in which a fibromuscular membrane divides the atrium into two chambers. As CTS can occur as an isolated anomaly, it is frequently associated with other cardiac anomalies. We herein, present an 82-year-old patient with a typical late diagnosis of asymptomatic CTS.

  25. Original Investigations

    1. Pocket Echocardiography System for Detection of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Neonates

      Roberto Murgas Torrazza, Arun Chandran, Jennifer Co-Vu and Curt DeGroff

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12656

  26. Review Articles

  27. Special issue: Echo in Adult Congenital Heart Disease

    1. Echo in Adult Congenital Heart Disease

    2. Review Articles

      Echocardiographic Evaluation of Patent Foramen Ovale and Atrial Septal Defect

      Pawan Hari, Ramdas G. Pai and Padmini Varadarajan

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12625

    3. Echo in Adult Congenital Heart Disease

    4. Review Articles

      Echocardiographic Evaluation of Tetralogy of Fallot

      Pooja Swamy, Aditya Bharadwaj, Padmini Varadarajan and Ramdas G. Pai

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12437

    5. Echo in Adult Congenital Heart Disease

    6. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Univentricular Physiology and Cavopulmonary Shunts

      Elisa Zaragoza-Macias, Rebecca G. Schwaegler and Karen K. Stout

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12133

    7. Review Articles

  28. ViewPoints

  29. Original Investigations

    1. Regional Strain Determination and Myocardial Infarction Detection by Three-Dimensional Echocardiography with Varied Temporal Resolution

      Meihua Zhu, Cole Streiff, Jill Panosian, Zhijun Zhang, Xubo Song, David J. Sahn and Muhammad Ashraf

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12632

    2. The Association between Aortic Distensibility and Coronary Flow Reserve in Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Patients

      Gulhan Yuksel Kalkan, Mustafa Gur, Filiz Eksi Haydardedeoğlu, Sinan Kırım, Ahmet Oytun Baykan, Osman Kuloğlu, Hakan Uçar, Durmuş Yildiray Sahin, Zafer Elbasan, Taner Seker, Caner Turkoğlu, Arafat Yildirim and Murat Cayli

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12631

    3. Comparison of Quantitative Wall-Motion Analysis and Strain for Detection of Coronary Stenosis with Three-Dimensional Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography

      Katherine M. Parker, Alexander P. Clark, Norman C. Goodman, David K. Glover and Jeffrey W. Holmes

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12636

    4. Analysis of Left Atrial Performance in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus without Overt Cardiac Disease and Inducible Ischemia: High Prevalence of Increased Systolic Force Related to Enhanced Left Ventricular Systolic Longitudinal Function

      Carmine Mazzone, Giovanni Cioffi, Giorgio Faganello, Pompilio Faggiano, Riccardo Candido, Antonella Cherubini, Luigi Tarantini, Stefania De Feo and Andrea Di Lenarda

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12639

  30. Image Sections

    1. Peri-Aortic Fluid: A Critical Finding in Acute Aortic Syndrome

      Walid Barake, Zardasht Oqab, Syed Samir Najib, Andrew Hamilton and Amer M. Johri

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12640


      A case of acute aortic syndrome (AAS) in a 70-year-old patient is described. Peri-aortic fluid on echocardiography was a key for early diagnosis and surgical intervention. Peri-aortic fluid, even in the absence of dissection on imaging, is a critical finding in AAS which has been underappreciated in the literature.

    2. Real Time Three-Dimensional Transthoracic Echocardiography of a Supracristal Ventricular Septal Defect Associated with a Bicuspid Aortic Valve

      Alexis Théron, Benjamin Obadia, Guillaume Bonnet, Johan Pinto, Loïc Mace and Frederic Collart

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12630


      A 21-year-old man was referred to our department for surgical treatment of a nonrestrictive supracristal ventricular septal defect (VSD) associated with a Sievers' type 0 bicuspid aortic valve (type 0, ap, I) (BAV). Cardiac catheterization revealed a significant left-to-right ventricular shunt (Qp/Qs 3:1) with pulmonary hypertension. Surgical intervention was performed to close the VSD through the pulmonary artery trunk using a Gore-Tex patch. Live 3D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed before and after the intervention. We compared the live 3DTTE features with the surgical findings.

  31. Case Reports

    1. Echocardiography and Cardiac MRI in Mutation-Negative Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in an Older Patient: A Case Defining the Need for ICD

      Fatima Rodriguez, Kathleen O. Degnan, Christine E. Seidman and Judy R. Mangion

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12614


      We report the case of a 67-year-old man with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who presented for a second opinion about implantable cardio-defibrillator (ICD) placement after a witnessed syncopal episode. Despite his older age, being mutation-negative, and having a maximal septal thickness of 2.2 cm on echocardiography, he demonstrated rapid progression of myocardial fibrosis on cardiac MRI, correlating to ventricular tachyarrhythmias and syncope. We review the role of echocardiography and cardiac MRI in optimizing medical care for such patients who may not otherwise meet criteria for an ICD placement or further interventions.

  32. Original Investigations

    1. Speckle Strain Echocardiography Predicts Outcome in Patients with Heart Failure with both Depressed and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

      Mark R. Stampehl, Douglas L. Mann, John S. Nguyen, Francisco Cota, Cristina Colmenares and Hisham Dokainish

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12613

  33. Case Reports – Pediatric

    1. Fetal Echocardiographic Characteristics of Fused Heart in Thoracopagus Conjoined Twins

      Yu Wu, Qing Lv, Ming-Xing Xie, Lin-Yuan Wan, Ping-Ping Ren, Andrew Ge and Shuping Ge

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12622


      Conjoined twins (CT) are rare with possible serious malformations in which soft tissue, bone, or some organs are joined in utero. The extent of cardiac fusion and intracardiac anatomy of CT determine the viability, natural history, and outcome of potential surgical intervention. Early prenatal diagnosis and assessment may provide a window of opportunity to counsel the family for their informed decision on the pregnancy and to plan for prenatal and perinatal care. In this report, we describe a case of thoracopagus twins diagnosed by fetal echocardiography at 23-week gestation. The 2 hearts fused at the atrial and ventricular levels. The outcome and review of literature on fetal echocardiographic characteristics of this malformation are discussed.

  34. Image Sections

    1. An Unusual Appearance of Fibrin Sheaths after Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Removal Because of Infective Endocarditis

      Juan Lacalzada, Martín J. García-González, Alejandro de la Rosa, Esther González, Francisco J. Díaz and Ignacio Laynez

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12628


      The radiological detection of “fibrin sheaths” after removing central catheters is a well-known delayed complication. “Fibrin sheaths” after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) removal because of infective endocarditis is unusual. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman with an ICD who developed infective endocarditis. A transesophageal echocardiography showed an image of “fibrin sleeve” on the superior vena cava (SVC). The patient had no history of SVC central catheter placement. The coexistence of vegetation and “fibrin sheaths” at different moments, as in our case, requires an awareness of this situation for differential diagnosis and treatment.

  35. Case Reports

    1. Large Unruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm Dissecting into Interventricular Septum and Presenting as a Complex Myocardial Cystic Mass

      Nagamani Alur Chikkabasavaiah, Soumya Patra, Ramesh Basavappa, Beeresh Puttegowda, Syed Tanveer Akmal Khateeb and Manjunath Cholenahally Nanjappa

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12616


      Unruptured aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva (SOV) is extremely rare. They may be asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally or can present with either fatal outcome following rupture or manifest acutely with compression of surrounding structures. Dissection of unruptured aneurysm of left SOV into interventricular septum (IVS) and presenting as intramyocardial mass is not reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of 21-year male who was referred to us following a seizure episode and was incidentally diagnosed with aneurysm of left SOV dissecting into IVS. Multimodality imaging confirmed the diagnosis. He successfully underwent surgical repair and was asymptomatic during follow-up.

  36. Original Investigations

    1. Prognostic Implications of Tissue Doppler Imaging–Derived E/Ea Ratio in Acute Heart Failure Patients

      Enrique Santas, Sergio García-Blas, Gema Miñana, Juan Sanchis, Vicent Bodí, David Escribano, Jaime Muñoz, Francisco J Chorro and Julio Núñez

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12617

  37. ECHO Rounds Section Editor: Edmund Kenneth Kerut, M.D.

    1. Anatomic versus Effective Orifice Area in a Bicuspid Aortic Valve

      Chad M. House, Katie A. Moriarty and William B. Nelson

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12619

  38. Original Investigations

    1. Assessment of the Helical Ventricular Myocardial Band Using Standard Echocardiography

      Yasunobu Hayabuchi, Miho Sakata and Shoji Kagami

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12624

    2. Impact of Asymptomatic Acute Cellular Rejection on Left Ventricle Myocardial Function Evaluated by Means of Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Heart Transplant Recipients

      Martín Ruiz Ortiz, María Luisa Peña, Dolores Mesa, Mónica Delgado, Elías Romo, Marta Santisteban, Miguel Puentes, Amador López Granados, Juan Carlos Castillo, José María Arizón and José Suárez de Lezo

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12623

    3. Effects of Paclitaxel and Carboplatin Combination on Mechanical Myocardial and Microvascular Functions: A Transthoracic Doppler Echocardiography and Two-Dimensional Strain Imaging Study

      Cihan Altin, Leyla Elif Sade, Saadet Demirtas, Emir Karacaglar, Suleyman Kanyilmaz, Vahide Simsek, Ali Ayhan and Haldun Muderrisoglu

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12621

    4. Reliability of Contrast Echocardiography to Rule Out Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations and Avoid CT Irradiation in Pediatric Patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

      Carma Karam, Jacques Sellier, Nicolas Mansencal, Carole Fagnou, Sandra Blivet, Thierry Chinet, Pascal Lacombe and Olivier Dubourg

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12615

    5. The Additional Value of Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography in Complex Aortic Prosthetic Heart Valve Endocarditis

      Wilco Tanis, Arco J. Teske, Lex A. van Herwerden, Steven Chamuleau, Folkert Meijboom, Ricardo P.J. Budde and Maarten-Jan Cramer

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12602

  39. Case Reports

    1. Isolated Supravalvular Pulmonary Stenosis: A Rare Echocardiographic Finding

      Stefano Maffè, Pierfranco Dellavesa, Paola Paffoni, Franco Zenone, Lorenzo Cucchi, Anna Maria Paino, Luca Bergamasco, Lara Baduena, Nicolò Franchetti Pardo, Marco Zanetta and Umberto Parravicini

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12612


      Here, we report a case of a 76-year-old patient with isolated, severely obstructive, pulmonary supravalvular stenosis. The peculiarity of the present case is the paucity of symptoms and lack of changes in right heart sections, despite of the importance of stenosis. The report confirms the utility of transthoracic two- and three-dimensional echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography in the detection and quantification of this rare anomaly.

  40. Original Investigations

    1. Blood Flow Imaging in Transesophageal Echocardiography during Atrial Septal Defect Closure: A Comparison with the Current References

      Siri Ann Nyrnes, Lasse Løvstakken, Gaute Døhlen, Eirik Skogvoll, Hans Torp, Terje Skjærpe, Gunnar Norgård, Stein Samstad, Torbjørn Graven and Bjørn Olav Haugen

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12610

  41. Image Sections

    1. An Unusual Cause of Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve Obstruction: Calcified Septum of Cor Triatriatum Sinister

      Macit Kalcik, M. Ozan Gursoy, Cüneyt Toprak, Mahmut Yesin, Suleyman Karakoyun, M. Altuğ Tuncer and Mehmet Ozkan

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12607


      Cor triatriatum sinister is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly in which the left atrium is divided into 2 chambers by a fibromuscular septum. Although the disease is generally diagnosed in early childhood, some patients remain asymptomatic until adulthood. Here, we present an unusual presentation of cor triatriatum sinister as a unique cause of mitral bioprosthetic valve obstruction. The calcified septum of the cor triatriatum sinister was delineated with the utility of two-dimensional and real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

  42. Original Investigations

    1. Identification of Prolapsing Mitral Valve Scallops by a Three-Dimensional Multiplanar Reconstruction Method

      Nausheen Akhter, Qiong Zhao, Adin-Cristian Andrei, Bonnie Kane, Patrick McCarthy and Vera H. Rigolin

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12608

    2. Ia Diastolic Dysfunction: An Echocardiographic Grade

      Anil Pandit, Farouk Mookadam, Fayaz A. Hakim, Eoin Mulroy, Rayya Saadiq, Mairead Doherty, Stephen Cha, James Seward and Susan Wilansky

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12600

  43. Images – Pediatric

    1. Intracardiac Echocardiography of Ebstein's Anomaly

      Claire Dauphin, Aurélie Chalard and Jean-René Lusson

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12599


      We report the case of a 9-year-old girl with a severe form of Ebstein's anomaly. Intracardiac echocardiography used for guidance in closure of the atrial septal defect (ASD) showed a clear picture of nondelamination of the septal and posterior leaflets of the tricuspid valve.

  44. Image Sections

    1. Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography for Guiding Percutaneous Fontan Fenestration Closure

      George Giannakoulas and Vasilios Thanopoulos

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12606

      Mini Abstract

      The presented case highlights the important complementary role of real time 3D transesophageal echocardiography in the guidance of transcatheter closure of a surgically created fenestration after Fontan operation.

  45. Original Investigations

    1. Clinical Settings Leading to Presystolic Tricuspid Regurgitation

      Piotr Szymański, Magdalena Lipczyńska, Anna Klisiewicz and Piotr Hoffman

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12604

    2. Atrial Mechanics after Surgical Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot

      Jia Hou, Hong-kui Yu, Sophia J Wong and Yiu-fai Cheung

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12611

  46. ECHO Rounds Section Editor: Edmund Kenneth Kerut, M.D.

    1. Role of Echocardiography in the Treatment of Cardiac Tamponade

      P. A. N. Chandraratna, Dilbahar S. Mohar and Peter F. Sidarous

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12605

  47. Original Investigations

    1. Accuracy of Conventional Transthoracic Echocardiography for the Diagnosis of Intracardiac Right-to-Left Shunt: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

      Mohammad Khalid Mojadidi, Jared S. Winoker, Scott C. Roberts, Pavlos Msaouel, Muhammad Omer Zaman, Rubine Gevorgyan and Jonathan M. Tobis

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12583

    2. Effects of Batroxobin with Continuous Transcranial Doppler Monitoring in Patients with Acute Cerebral Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

      He Yitao, Ma Kefu, Tang Bingshan, Fu Xuejun, Zhan Ying, Cai Zhili, Jiang Xin and Yi Guo

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12559

    3. Relation of Myocardial Systolic Mechanics to Serum Ferritin Level as a Prognosticator in Thalassemia Patients Undergoing Repeated Transfusion

      Ming-Ren Chen, Ho-Shun Ko, Tze-Fan Chao, Hsi-Che Liu, Jen-Yuan Kuo, Bernard E. Bulwer, Hung-I Yeh and Chung-Lieh Hung

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12590

    4. Does Gestational Diabetes History Increase Epicardial Fat and Carotid Intima Media Thickness?

      Mustafa Caliskan, Ozge Telci Caklili, Zuhal Caliskan, Cevdet Duran, Faika C. Çiftçi, Enver Avci, Hakan Güllü, Mustafa Kulaksizoglu, Harun Koca and Haldun Muderrisoglu

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12597

  48. Image Sections

    1. Unroofed Coronary Sinus Atrial Septal Defect: Diagnosis by Multimodality Cardiac Imaging

      Ahmed Aljizeeri, Carole J. Dennie, Kwan-Leung Chan and Luc M. Beauchesne

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12588


      Unroofed coronary sinus is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly. It is a communication between the coronary sinus and the left atrium. The associated interatrial shunt can cause right atrial volume overload and possible paradoxical embolization. It is classified into four subtypes on the basis of the extent of the roof absence and the presence of persistent left superior vena cava. Although the diagnosis can be suspected by two-dimensional echocardiography, three-dimensional echocardiography and computerized cardiac tomography provide incremental value in delineating the precise anatomy of this condition.

    2. A Vanishing Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Mass: An Uncommon Manifestation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

      Rajiv Ananthakrishna, Nagaraja Moorthy, Prabhavathi Bhat and Manjunath C Nanjappa

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12598


      A 27-year-old female with a history of second trimester abortion was referred for evaluation of transient ischemic attack. Echocardiography revealed a large, irregular, mobile mass attached to the right coronary cusp of aortic valve. Investigations were consistent with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus. She was started on oral anticoagulation. Serial echocardiography showed regression of the mass, with complete resolution at 2 months. We highlight an uncommon manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus, in the setting of a prothrombotic milieu. Prompt recognition is essential for appropriate therapy and averts the need for surgery.

  49. Original Investigations

    1. Left Ventricular Vortices as Observed by Vector Flow Mapping: Main Determinants and their Relation to Left Ventricular Filling

      Daniel Rodríguez Muñoz, José Luis Moya Mur, Covadonga Fernández-Golfín, Derly Carlos Becker Filho, Ariana González Gómez, Sara Fernández Santos, Carla Lázaro Rivera, Luis Miguel Rincón Díaz, Eduardo Casas Rojo and José Luis Zamorano Gómez

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/echo.12584


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