Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 1

Edited By: Donald Welsh

Impact Factor: 2.435

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 34/63 (Peripheral Vascular Disease); 41/70 (Hematology)

Online ISSN: 1549-8719

Author Guidelines

Microcirculation - Instructions for Authors

Note: Effective with the 2013 volume, this journal will be published in an online-only format. No printed issue of this title will be produced.

Submission of Manuscripts:

Microcirculation receives all manuscript submissions electronically via their ScholarOne Manuscripts website located at
http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/umic. ScholarOne Manuscripts allows for rapid and easy submission of original and revised manuscripts, as well as reviewing and internal communication between authors, editors and reviewers via a web-based platform.

The journal to which you are submitting your manuscript employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

General Information:
Microcirculation features original contributions that are the result of investigations contributing significant new information relating to the microcirculation addressed at the intact animal/human, organ, cellular, or molecular level. Suitable papers are those that describe applications of the methods of physiology, biophysics, bioengineering, genetics, cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology and clinical or translational approaches to problems in microcirculation. The journal also publishes state-of-the-art reviews that address frontier areas or new advances in technology in the fields of microcirculatory disease and function. Specific areas of interest include: angiogenesis and growth processes; permeability, transport and exchange; lymphatic biology; rheology and biorheology; endothelial cell biology; endothelial cell interactions with parenchymal cells, smooth muscle cells, leukocytes and platelets; regulation of vasomotor tone; oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange; imaging and morphology of microvascular structures. Papers describing new technical and instrumentational microcirculatory innovations also are considered.

Author Services. Online production tracking is now available for your article through Wiley Blackwell’s Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their article – once it has been accepted – through the production process to publication. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated emails at key stages of production. The author will receive an email with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete email address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit http://authorservices.wiley.com/ bauthor/ for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Copyright.  If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:
CTA Terms and Conditions http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services http://exchanges.wiley.com/authors/faqs---copyright-_301.html and visit http://www.wileyopenaccess.com/details/content/12f25db4c87/Copyright--License.html.

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by certain funders [e.g. The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) or the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)] you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit: http://www.wiley.com/go/funderstatement.

Accepted Articles. Accepted Articles are unedited manuscripts that are published online a few days after final acceptance. Accepted Articles are citable using their DOI, and are included in PubMed. A completed copyright form is required before a manuscript can be processed as an Accepted Article.

Note to NIH Grantees. Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance.  This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication.  For further information, see www.wiley.com/go/nihmandate.

Permissions. For re-use of previously published illustrations and tables, permission must be obtained from the author and the publisher before an article containing such material is submitted. Permission letters should accompany the manuscript. The original source of the material should be mentioned in the illustration legend or table footnote. Articles and any other material published in Microcirculation represent the opinions of the author(s) and should not be construed to reflect the opinions of the Editorial Board.

Pre-submission English-language editing If you are not a native English speaker, we strongly recommend that you have your manuscript professionally edited before submission. A list of manuscripts that will professionally edit your manuscript for a fee can be found here http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/english_language.asp. Professional editing is not compulsory, but will mean that reviewers are better able to read and assess your manuscript. Use of one of these companies does not guarantee acceptance of preference for publication in this journal.

Getting Started:
To submit a manuscript, please follow the instructions below:

Launch your web browser (Internet Explorer 9 or higher, Firefox 32, Chrome 37, Safari 6 or higher) and go to the Microcirculation ScholarOne Manuscripts homepage http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/umic). Log-in using your user name and password or click the “Create Account” option if you are a first-time user of ScholarOne Manuscripts.  Contact the Editorial Office at miccoffice@wiley.com if you have problems logging in.

To create a new account:
Click on “Create Account” and enter your name and e-mail information, then click “Next”. Your e-mail information is very important. Enter your institution and address information as prompted then click “Next.” Enter a user ID and password of your choice (we recommend using your e-mail address as your user ID) and then select your area of expertise. Click “Finish” when done. Log-in and select “Author Center.”

Submitting Your Manuscript:
After you have logged in, click the “Submit a Manuscript” link in the menu bar. Enter data and answer questions as prompted. Click on the “Next” button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen. You will be prompted to upload your files: Click on the “Browse” button and locate the file on your computer. Select the description of the file in the drop down next to the Browse button. When you have selected all files you wish to upload, click the “Upload” button. Review your submission (in both PDF and HTML formats) before sending to the Editors. Click the “Submit” button when you are done reviewing. You may stop a submission at any phase and save it to complete submission later. After submission is complete, you will receive a confirmation via e-mail. You can also log-on to Manuscript Central any time to check the status of your manuscript. You will receive an e-mail once a decision has been made on your manuscript.

Manuscript Preparation:
Manuscripts are to be submitted electronically to Microcirculation via ScholarOne Manuscripts  (http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/umic). For any queries please contact the Editorial Office by email:

Binnazer Madisa

File Formats for Online Submission:
Please submit a Microsoft Word (.doc) file or a Rich Text Format (.rtf) file to the Journal’s online web-based ScholarOne Manuscripts submission system at the following link: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/umic. Separate files must be submitted for all discrete elements of the manuscript [e.g., a separate file for the complete text of the manuscript (including title page, abstract, all main text, bibliography, figure legends and table legends, etc.), separate files for each figure and for each table. Note that ScholarOne Manuscripts will automatically assign a running header and footer, as well as page numbers and line numbers to your manuscript. The best online viewing results for authors and reviewers will be obtained with original files that DO NOT contain page numbers, line numbers, or any information in the manuscript header or footer. Figures for manuscripts accepted for publication must be submitted as high quality digital files (see below for details).

High resolution halftones should be submitted at 300 dpi/ppi or higher as EPS, TIFF, or PSD format files (see below for more information). Figure files may also be submitted as PowerPoint files (.ppt). Line art is preferred in vector-based format with the text converted to outlines (paths) prior to saving as EPS files. If line art digital figures are provided as TIFF files, resolution must be 1200 dpi/ppi or higher. Lines or rules should not be defined as hairline width. Recommended minimum line width is 1/4 point (i.e., 0.0035 inches). When creating figures, the effect of scaling reduction should be considered for text and for rules or lines. Do not submit tables as TIFF or JPG files. Tables should be submitted as Word files. The ScholarOne Manuscripts system will concatenate the various files into a single document for review. If the paper is accepted, the separate files will be moved forward into the final production process. Authors are responsible for verifying that all files have uploaded correctly.

Suggestion of Reviewers:
To expedite the review process, authors may recommend up to 5 reviewers. Please provide the name, address, telephone number, fax number, e-mail address, and area of expertise for each. Note that recommended reviewers will be used at the discretion of the editor.

Submission of Revised Manuscripts:
If you are submitting a revised manuscript, please note that you are required to upload an Author Response document outlining the changes that have been made to your paper. Revised manuscripts cannot be processed without this.
Acknowledgment of receipt of the manuscript by the editorial office will be sent to the corresponding author, including an assigned manuscript number that should be included in all subsequent correspondence. Revised manuscripts should be submitted via ScholarOne Manuscripts’ Author Center to ensure that they are linked to the original submission.

Article Types:

Original Article. Standard Research paper. Please follow the instructions below.

Reviews and Invited Reviews. Manuscripts for Special Issues, Symposia or Conferences, usually invited. Reviews should not normally exceed 4000 to 5000 words, but can be longer if justified. An (un)structured abstract of up to 250 words should be included with the review.

Organization of Manuscripts:
Microcirculation no longer requires a hard-copy of the article text. However, to ensure uniformity, please follow the checklist below. The manuscript must be double-spaced throughout (including references, tables, and figure legends) with 1 inch margins in an 8.5 X 11-inch document. Manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with the CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, Scientific Style and Format, Bethesda, MD: Council of Science Editors. The body of the manuscript should be arranged as follows (all should begin on separate pages):

Title Page. The following information should be included: a concise title of not more than 150 characters; the names of all authors; the department, institution, and address where the research was performed; a short running title of 40 characters or less; grant numbers and source(s) of support; name and address of author to whom correspondence, page proofs.

Abstract and Keywords. A structured abstract of no more than 200 words should be prepared on a separate page. The abstract should be subdivided into four sections: Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Keywords should be listed on the same page as the abstract.

List of Abbreviations. Prior to the Introduction section of the manuscript, authors are requested to define all abbreviated terminology into one consolidated list as a separate page. With this in place, authors are not required to define abbreviations at the location of first usage within the body of the manuscript.

Text. The main text should be divided into: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Acknowledgments. The text should be clear and concise, conforming to accepted standards of American English style and usage. Avoid jargon, cliches, and laboratory slang. Use metric units throughout. Do not use abbreviations in the title or abstract, and limit their use in the text. The first time an abbreviation appears it should be preceded by the words for which it stands.

All authors must include a brief section (3 sentences) after the ‘Discussion’ of their manuscript titled: ‘Perspectives’. This will provide a brief summary of the work and its importance from the perspective of clinical and/or translational relevance. These Perspectives’ will be highlighted in the paper.

ImageJ should be cited as part of the reference list (in alphabetical order) as follows:
. Rasband, W.S., ImageJ, U. S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/, 1997-2012.

References. All references should be numbered consecutively in order of appearance and should be as complete as possible. In text citations should cite references in consecutive order using Arabic superscript numerals. Please abbreviate all journal titles in italics and abbreviated with period at the end of the title only and not for all abbreviated terms. Please note that journal title abbreviations should conform to the practices of Chemical Abstracts. Sample references follow:

Journal articles:

1. King VM, Armstrong DM, Apps R, Trott JR. Numerical aspects of pontine, lateral reticular, and inferior olivary projections to two paravermal cortical zones of the cat cerebellum. J Comp Neurol. 1998;390:537-551.


1. Institute of Medicine. A Population-based Policy and Systems Change Approach to Prevent and Control Hypertension. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2010.

Edited Book:

1. Namey E, Guest G, Thairu L, Johnson L. Data reduction techniques for large qualitative data sets. In: Guest G, MacQueen KM, eds. Handbook Team- Based Qualitative Research. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press; 2008:137–161.

Web references:

Many reports are being published primarily, if not exclusively, on the World Wide Web. Such articles should be cited in the “online” style as shown below.

1. Salvatore S. Study links lupus to Epstein Barr virus. [CNN website]. December 15, 1997. http://cnn.com/HEALTH/9712/15/lpus.discovery/. Accessed August 31, 1998.

In press:
To be used only for papers accepted for publication. Cite as for journal with (in press) in place of volume and page numbers. If the submitted manuscript makes reference to articles in press, copies of the article should be included.

Citing Unpublished Observations and Personal Communications:
The reference list should only include published or accepted work. Citations of submitted papers still in preparation, in peer review, or of other unpublished materials cannot be included in the reference list. Citation of such material can be provided in parentheses in text as “unpublished observations” (e.g., “J. M. K. Smith, unpublished observations”). Microcirculation discourages the use of personal communications. However, if they are used, the author(s) must have in their file a letter granting permission from the communicant and stating that the person whose opinion is cited has seen and approved the actual wording of the citation. If requested, the author will send the letter to the Microcirculation Editorial office. For both unpublished observations and personal communications, provide the cited person’s last name and all initials.

Tables. Each table should be double-spaced, on a separate page, and placed at the end of the text. Number the tables sequentially as Table 1, Table 2, etc, and ensure each table is cited in the text. A short descriptive title should appear above each table with a clear legend and any footnotes suitably identified below. Information in table legends should not duplicate information contained in the body of the text.

Figure Legends. Each figure cited in the text must have a legend. Legends should be double spaced and placed after tables. Information in figure legends should not duplicate information contained in the body of the text. Information in figure legends should not duplicate information contained in the body of the text.

Special Symbols. For special characters not available on the standard 104-key keyboard (e.g., Greek characters, mathematical symbols, figure symbols), use the Symbol font or use the “Insert Symbol” function in Microsoft Word; do not use math font or image files (e.g., GIF) within the text for special characters or text constructions. Please also note that Microcirculation cannot process files prepared in LaTex.

Spelling and Compounding. Authors should follow Webster’s Third New International Dictionary or Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition, for spelling and compounding. Microcirculation uses American English rules for spelling.

Drugs, Chemicals and Trade Names. Proprietary (trademarked) names should be capitalized, with the spelling checked carefully. The chemical or generic name should precede the trade name or abbreviation of a drug the first time it appears.

Animals and Human Subject Usage. For animals used in experiments, state the species, strain, number used, and other pertinent descriptive characteristics. When describing surgical procedures on animals, identify the preanesthetic and anesthetic agents used and state the amount or concentration and the route and frequency of administration for each. The use of paralytic agents, such as curare or succinylcholine, is not an acceptable substitute for anesthetics. For other invasive procedures on animals, report the analgesic or tranquilizing drugs used. If none were used, provide justification for such exclusion. Generic names of drugs must be given. Manuscripts that describe studies on animals must indicate that the studies were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee and follow all local, state and federal guidelines for the humane care and use of animals. Manuscripts that describe studies on humans must indicate that the study was approved by an institutional review committee, and that the subjects gave informed consent. Please provide sex-specific and/or racial/ethnic-specific data, when appropriate, in describing outcomes of epidemiologic analyses or clinical trials; or specifically state that no sex-based or racial/ethnicbased differences were present. Reports of studies on both animals and humans must indicate that the procedures followed were in accordance with institutional guidelines.

Cell Lines and Reagents. The source of cells utilized (species, sex, strain, race, age of donor, whether primary or established) should be indicated clearly. The source of reagents should be stated (name, city, and state within parentheses) when first cited. If tests to rule out the presence of mycoplasmal contamination were not performed, this fact should be clearly stated. Other data relating to unique biological, biochemical, and/or immunological markers should also be included if available, with their source identified. Publication of results is based on the principle that results must be independently verifiable. Authors are expected to make unique reagents available to qualified investigators either directly or through a recognized distributor.

Unique Materials and Data Banks. Work published in Microcirculation must necessarily be independently verifiable. Authors describing results derived from the use of antibodies, recombinant plasmids and cloned DNAs, mutant cell lines or viruses, and other similarly unique materials are expected to make such materials available to qualified investigators on request. Authors should also submit published nucleic acid/amino acid sequences to a widely accessible data bank. Sequence data for the United Protein Database (UniProt) should be submitted directly to UniProt using SPIN, a new web-based tool for submitting protein sequences (see http://www.pir.uniprot.org/).

Figures. Microcirculation uses digital publishing methods throughout the journal production process. We have several specific requirements for digital graphics formats to ensure the best possible reproduction. These guidelines are intended to help you prepare image files that will provide high quality reproductions in Microcirculation. Authors may be asked to prepare new figures if those submitted are not suitable for publication; this will most likely delay publication of the paper. Each figure must have a legend (see above).

Preparing Original Graphics: Always prepare original at high-resolution and you will be able to create low-resolution versions for online submission and use during the review process.

Acceptable File Formats: Use applications capable of creating high-resolution TIFF, EPS or PSD files. Microsoft PowerPoint (.ppt) files are also acceptable. These file formats ensure the highest success rate for reproduction and are supported by both Apple and Windows platforms and applications.

Figure Style Guidelines:
Size. Figures should be generated at the size they are to appear in the journal (1:1). Figures may be published in two formats: single column (3.25 in.) or full page width (6.625 in.) If it is necessary to submit figures that require reduction, the indicated size characteristics must be achievable after resizing. Multi-paneled figures should be assembled in a layout that leaves the least amount of blank space and does not exceed 6.625 X 8.625 in. All digital files should be cropped to remove non-printing borders. Figures with multiple panels should be submitted as single, composite images. Images should be flattened prior to submission; that is, files should not contain layers and/or transparent or hidden objects.
Type. For serif fonts, use Times Roman or Times New Roman. For sans-serif, use Helvetica or Arial. Fonts should be used consistently throughout all figure(s). Freehand, typewritten, and dot-matrix lettering are not acceptable.
Recommended Font Sizes for Figures Formatted at Final Publication Size:
• Primary (axis labels): 8–10 points
• Secondary (key information): 7–8 points
• Tertiary (numeric values): 5–7 points
• Panel Labels (i.e., A, B, C): 12–14 points
All lettering and key information should be within the framework of the illustration, unless the figure is so filled that symbols need to be explained in the legend.

Line Drawings. Line art uses only black and white to convey its information. Line art is preferred in vector-based format with the text converted to outlines (paths) prior to saving as EPS files. If line art digital figures are provided as TIFF or PSD files, resolution must be 1200 dpi/ppi or higher. Lines or rules should not be defined as hairline width. Recommended minimum line width is 1/4 point (i.e., 0.0035 inches). If figures require reduction to fit into a particular column width, all lettering, line weights, and symbols must be of a size and weight that will meet the guidelines for final size.

Halftone Figures. Many graphics include shades of gray. These grays may be simple fills (screened dot patterns to simulate grays) or they may be subtle and complex tones in digitized photographs or intricate drawings. Halftones should be submitted at 300 dpi/ppi or higher as EPS, TIFF, or PSD format files. Halftone graphics that contain text and symbols should be saved or exported as EPS, TIFF or PSD files at 600 dpi in resolution. When necessary, include an internal scale marker to account for any needed reduction. Special features on digital photomicrographs should be designated by letters, numerals, arrows, and other symbols that contrast with the background of the image. Photographs of equipment should be used sparingly; good line drawings are usually more informative. Photographs of animals or humans are acceptable if they are the only way to show results and only with the approval of the Editor. For a photograph of a human, you will need to provide a signed permission from the photographed subject, agreeing to the publication of his or her image.

Tips for Reducing the Size of Image files: There is a limit to the size of individual files and the total size of all files uploaded. Therefore, the following steps should be taken to reduce the size of image files. These steps can be performed in Adobe Photoshop or equivalent software.
1. Flatten the images to eliminate layers and hidden objects.
2. For black and white figures, save as gray scale, not RGB.
3. Size images exactly to fit in the journal space: 3.25 inches wide for single column, 6.625 inches wide for double column. Eliminate excess white space in borders.
4. Save the file using LZW compression.

Illustrations. Digital versions of your figures should be provided. It is best if you can supply figures in TIFF format; however, it is also possible to use Illustrator or Photoshop software saved in the format ‘.eps’ or ‘.tif’. If you are unable to provide these specified formats, please provide the figures in as many different file formats as possible. The figure resolution/specification for various types of original figures, at their final size, should be as follows:
Line art - Minimum 600 dpi
Halftone (i.e. both B/W and Colour photographs) - Minimum 300 dpi
Line and tone (line art and halftone combined) - Minimum 600 dpi
As a guide, if the electronic files are viewed at 400% on the computer screen and they look pixellated in any way then they will NOT be of sufficient quality for reproduction. For further information on file formats, please see the instructions on our website at site http://authorservices.wiley.com/prep_illust.asp.
Figures should be numbered (Arabic numerals) seriatim and legends must be typed on a separate sheet.

Tables. Tables should be typed on separate sheets and should be given Arabic numerals . Units should appear in parentheses in the column headings but not in the body of the table. Words or numerals should be repeated on successive lines: ditto should not be used.

Supporting Information. Supporting Information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supporting Information include additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. Supporting Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format. For further information on recommended file types and requirements for submission, please visit: http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/suppinfo.asp

Proofs. Page proofs will be sent electronically to the corresponding author and should be returned within 3 days of receipt to the Production Editor. Significant textual alterations are unacceptable at proof stage without the written approval of the Editor, and they are likely to result in the delay of publication. The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a secure web site. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. In the absence of the corresponding author, please arrange for a colleague to access the e-mail to retrieve the proofs. Please note that you have final responsibility for what is stated in the proofs of your manuscript.

Author material archive policy. Please note that unless specifically requested, the Publisher will dispose of all submitted hardcopy or electronic material 2 months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the Editorial Office or Production Editor (micc@wiley.com) as soon as possible if you have not yet done so.