Journal of the American Ceramic Society

Cover image for Vol. 101 Issue 3

Edited By: William G. Fahrenholtz

Impact Factor: 2.841

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2016: 3/26 (Materials Science Ceramics)

Online ISSN: 1551-2916

Associated Title(s): International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, International Journal of Applied Glass Science

Aims and Scope

Journal of the American Ceramic Society, published monthly, contains reports of original research on the entire range of ceramic materials. Journal of the American Ceramic Society contains records of original research that provide or lead to fundamental principles in the science of ceramics and ceramic-based composites. These papers include reports of the discovery of new phases, phase relationships, processing approaches and microstructures that relate to ceramic materials and processes. The papers establish the links between processing, structure, characterization and properties of ceramics, including modeling approaches that are founded on basic mechanisms. All the published papers must be of enduring value and relevant to the field of ceramics. Short papers for speedy publication are published as Rapid Communications and should be novel enough to justify swift publication. Full-length papers are published as Articles and must add significantly new and fundamental advances to the field. In-depth articles are published as invited Feature Articles and papers that appraise and assess a particular subject or topic are published as invited Review Articles.

Papers on all aspects of ceramic science are welcome including those in the following areas:

  • Ultra high-temperature ceramics
  • Glass for electronic displays
  • Transparent ceramics
  • Lead-free piezoelectrics
  • Ferroelectrics, Ferromagnetics, and Multiferroics
  • Solid oxide fuel cells
  • Green manufacturing of ceramics
  • Solid state lighting ceramics
  • Electroceramic sensors and actuators
  • Energy harvesting
  • Thermolelectric ceramics
  • Advanced ceramic thermal and environmental coatings
  • Nanostructured ceramics, Nano-tubes, nano-rods and nano-wires
  • Microelectronics and microsystems
  • Bio-ceramics
  • Bio-active ceramics
  • Armor ceramics
  • Multifunctional ceramics
  • Synthesis and morphology of nano-particles
  • Ceramics for drug delivery
  • Ceramics for electro-optics and non-linear optical devices
  • Microwave ceramics
  • Ceramics for high frequency ultrasound
  • Phosphors and luminescent ceramics
  • Photocatalysts
  • Ceramics for solar cells
  • Toxic waste remediation
  • Nuclear waste storage
  • Nuclear fuel coatings and cladding

Editors and Contact Information

Journal of the American Ceramic Society is edited by Bill Fahrenholtz, John Halloran, David W. Johnson Jr., and Lisa Klein. To contact the editorial office, please email Michelle Martin at

Article Types

Articles contain original basic and applied research. These papers must be of enduring value, add significantly new and fundamental advances to the scientific field and be relevant to the field of ceramics. Two qualified individuals review each article and an Associate Editor makes a recommendation to one of the editors.

Rapid Communications are brief scientific or technical reports about significant new ideas, methods, observations or theories relevant to ceramic science and engineering. The subject matter of a Rapid Communication must be of sufficient novelty and impact to justify rapid publication. One qualified individual, named the Contributing Editor, reviews each Rapid Communication; so that the manuscript can be published more rapidly.

Feature Articles are similar to articles but usually are more detailed expositions of the subjects they cover. Feature Articles may include, in part, reviews of recent research on the subject to enable the widest possible audience to understand the technical content. The Feature Article is always the lead paper in the Journal. Feature Articles are submitted by invitation only but authors may send a proposal to the Senior Editor for consideration or be nominated by an Associate Editor. Two qualified individuals review each Feature Article and an Associate Editor makes a recommendation to one of the editors.

Review Articles are comprehensive manuscripts that appraise and assess a particular scientific or engineering topic that is of importance to ceramic science. Review Articles should integrate the important developments in the topic and critically assess the current status. Review Articles are submitted by invitation only but authors may send a proposal to the Senior Editor for consideration or be nominated by an Associate Editor. Two qualified individuals review each Review Article and an Associate Editor makes a recommendation to one of the editors.

The Journal also publishes Comments and Replies. Any reader may submit for publication a comment on any paper that has been published in the Journal, and the author of the paper will be invited to reply.

Length of Manuscripts

The Journal supports several types of submission, each with limits on the number of published pages. For the most common submission categories, Rapid Communications and Articles, authors are aided in estimating the number of published pages using word count limits. The word count for papers should include the actual word count for the text of the body, references, and all captions as well as equivalent word counts for tables and figures as described below. For estimating purposes, authors must add to the actual word count an equivalent of about 150 words for each average-sized (8.5 cm wide by 8.0 cm deep) micrograph, or line drawing. For multi–part figures, two panels count as 300 words, four panels - 600 words. Composite images that will take up an entire page count as 1000 words. Tables are counted the portion of the page they will occupy (e.g. ¼ page = 250 words).

Rapid Communications will be no longer than three printed pages (~3000 words, including equivalent word counts for figures and tables). If they appear to be longer than three pages, their authors will be notified and asked to decrease the lengths of the papers or to resubmit them as articles.

Articles will be no longer than eight pages (~8000 words, including equivalent word counts for figures and tables). If manuscripts appear to be longer than eight pages, their authors will be notified. Authors will have the option to decrease the length of their paper or to request exceptions to the page limits. Reviewing of longer manuscripts is at the discretion of the selected Editor–in–Chief and should be requested by the corresponding author.

The Journal Editors will determine lengths of feature and review articles. Comments and replies are limited to two printed pages.

Ethics and Misconduct

Publication Ethics

The authors, reviewers, and editors of the Journal of the American Ceramic Society are expected to follow the standards defined by the Committee on Publication Ethics. In particular, authors should not submit manuscripts that contain previously published results, plagiarized material, fictitious results, or intentional /reference omissions. Manuscripts currently being considered for publication elsewhere will not be considered. Publication of abstracts and presentations at scientific meetings will not jeopardize full publication.

Authors should disclose related manuscripts that are under consideration or in press elsewhere, describing their relationship to the submitted manuscript and providing copies preferably at submission, and in any case upon request.

Authors should not submit manuscripts reporting essentially the same research to multiple journals. In addition, authors should not intentionally fragment research into multiple manuscripts if a single report would be more appropriate.

Scientific Misconduct Issues

Any alleged violation of any of the rules of scientific publishing ethics as defined by the Committee on Publication Ethics ( will be investigated confidentially in accord with standard Wiley–Blackwell procedures as outlined in our best practices guide ( If the violations are found to be sufficiently serious, the Editors will request that the authors provide a written explanation. If the authors do not provide an explanation or the explanation is unsatisfactory, such that the Journal's Editorial Team finds that the evidence clearly shows that a violation of our publishing ethics policy has occurred, the manuscript will be rejected or retracted, depending on current status. In such cases, the Editors reserve the right to both notify the authors' institution of the violation of the Journal's scientific ethics policy and impose punitive actions, e.g., a ban on publishing in the Journal. The above course of action will also take effect if it is established that authors have violated any of the basic rules of ethical scientific conduct.

Author Responsibilities


Credit for authorship should be based on:

  • substantial contributions to research design,
  • the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data, drafting the paper or revising it critically,
  • and approval of the submitted and final versions.

Authors should meet all three criteria. All contributors who do not meet all the criteria for authorship but aided significantly to the study should be listed in the acknowledgement section.

The corresponding author should take responsibility for communicating with all other authors and getting their approval for the final version to be published. In addition, the corresponding author must inform the co-authors when and to which journal the paper is submitted and whether the submission was accepted or rejected.

Funding and competing financial interests

Authors must disclose all sources of funding for their research and its publication, or for their publication if it is not a research publication. All authors must provide details of competing financial interests (e.g., employment, significant share ownership, patent rights, consultancy, research funding) in any company or institution that might benefit from their publication.


Authors must declare that the submitted work is their own and that copyright has not been breached in seeking its publication.


Authors should declare that the submitted work has not previously been published in full, and is not being considered for publication, elsewhere. Publication of abstracts and presentations at scientific meetings will not jeopardize a more complete publication of the subject matter.

OnlineOpen (Open access)

OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see

Any authors wishing to make use of our OnlineOpen program for their article will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to do so. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article.They go through the Journal's standard peer review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

National Institute of Health Grantees

Pursuant to National Institute of Health (NIH) mandate, Wiley will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see

Early View Online Publication

Accepted manuscripts will be published online as soon as they have been copyedited, typeset, and proofed by the author. The online publication date is the publication date of record for the paper. Until the paper has been scheduled for a print issue and page numbers assigned, the paper can be cited as "J. Am. Ceram. Soc." with the year and the DOI.

Editorial Process

Online Submission

Authors are asked to submit manuscripts electronically using ScholarOne Manuscripts, the Journal's online manuscript management and review system available at

This site is also linked to the Journal home page at Text, tables, and figures should be submitted as electronic files per the guidelines found under the File Formats section below. The files will be converted to PDF and HTML formats by the review system for review purposes.

New users of ScholarOne Manuscripts should start by creating their own account by following the directions given at the web site. Your suggested user name is your e-mail address. If you are an Associate Editor, your account has already been set up. Once entered, you cannot change your user name; however, you may log on to change your password at any time. If your user name or password does not work, click on " Help " in the top right corner of the ScholarOne Manuscripts home page for assistance.

Contact information for the corresponding author, including an e-mail address, fax number, and telephone number, must be provided with all submissions.

All co-authors must be added during the submission process. Perform a search by email address to add co-authors. If no account is found, use the ‘create new co-author’ function to open an account for each co-author on the paper.

Guidelines for preparing your manuscript for submission, including file formats and image resolution, can be found at the end of this document under Manuscript Preparation.

Pre-submission language editing

Occasionally, a paper is submitted in which the English usage is too poor to permit review and editing. In these instances, the manuscript will be rejected and the author advised to make use of a rewrite service, or to otherwise improve the quality of the language usage to a satisfactory level before submitting again. Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. Language editing services, as well as translation and figure formatting, are offered by Wiley at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

Cover letter

Authors must submit a cover letter with their manuscripts (in ScholarOne Manuscripts, a text box is provided for the letter). The cover letter must contain a short statement that explains why your submitted manuscript represents a significantly new scientific advance in the fundamental understanding of ceramic science and why it will have impact (why others will be interested in this work.) This statement should be no more than a few sentences written in style that can be understood by scientists and engineers who are familiar with the general scientific issues in the ceramic science field. An Editor-in-Chief will use this statement to help decide whether the manuscript meets the threshold conditions of novelty and impact before sending for review. This statement is of particular importance for Rapid Communications, in which novelty and impact are required elements. If a manuscript does not meet the requirements for the Journal, it will be rejected without review.

Copyright Transfer Agreement

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs: CTA Terms and Conditions.


Articles and Rapid Communications are edited and published in the order in which they are approved but preference is given to Rapid Communications. It is suggested that authors whose research funds include publication costs will pay page charges. If no such funds are available, authors may indicate that they are unable to pay page charges. A page charge invoice form is sent with page e-proofs and must be returned to avoid issuance of a formal invoice for the charges by the editorial office. Page charges are $400 for Rapid Communications and $800 for Articles. Payment of the page charges does not influence how a manuscript is reviewed or when it is published.

Reprints may be ordered from Wiley. A PDF file of each published paper can be sent to the paper's corresponding author following publication. Free access to the final PDF offprint of your article will be available via author services. Please sign up for author services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint upon publication of your paper, and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers. Visit to sign up for author services.


The review system assigns a manuscript number, forwards the manuscript to the Journal, and sends an e-mail letter to the submitting author acknowledging receipt of the manuscript with cc to each identified co-author. The Journal staff electronically forwards the manuscript to the appropriate Journal Editor. For Articles, Feature Articles and Review Articles, the Journal Editor assigns two reviewers and enables them to access the manuscript on ScholarOne Manuscripts. The journal Editor also selects an Associate Editor, who accesses the manuscript and the reviews. The Associate Editor makes an accept/reject recommendation to the journal Editor. The Journal Editor then makes a final decision on publication of the manuscript: accept as is, accept after minor revisions, reconsider after major revision, or reject. The Journal Editor's decision is sent to the author, with the reviewers' comments. The identities of the reviewers are not revealed to the authors but the reviewers do receive a copy of the decision letter, which gives them insight into the reviewing process and an awareness of the expectations for acceptance. If a manuscript is accepted for publication, the name of the Contributing or Associate Editor is published with the paper. In some instances, the Journal Editor may decide that a manuscript submitted as an Article would better serve as a Rapid Communication, or vice versa, and the author is so apprised.

Rapid Communication manuscripts are reviewed by a single person (an Associate Editor or other highly qualified individual) whose name will be published as the Contributing Editor if the manuscript is accepted.

An author can view the status of his/her manuscript by logging on ScholarOne Manuscripts. The manuscripts are reviewed using the following criteria.

Manuscripts published in the Journal must:

  • Fit within the scope of the Journal and be of interest to its readers. Report original research and contain substantially new and interesting results that are of sufficient importance to justify publication.
  • Be written using proper English style and grammar.
  • Be well organized with an abstract that concisely conveys the contribution of the manuscript to the technical literature (purpose, approach, results and consequences). In addition, the introduction should describe the reason for the study and describe how the present study differs from past studies.
  • Include a thorough literature review with an appropriate list of references from relevant studies or other sources.
  • Include a methodology or experimental procedure that is well conducted, designed, and described. This should include the number of tests performed, the number of specimens used, their dimensions, etc. The use of standard experimental procedures is encouraged. If appropriate, the authors should also perform suitable statistical tests to justify their conclusions.
  • Clearly display the information in the micrographs and figures, including magnifications and captions that clearly convey their intended message.
  • Multi-part figures can be used but they should involve discussion of one or two topics.
  • Contain only the number of figures and tables that are necessary in describing the technical content.
  • Logically discuss the results in way that leads to a set of sound conclusions.


The Journal Editor forwards an accepted paper to Wiley Publishing. When composed page e-proofs are available, Wiley forwards them to the author for final review and to answer any editorial questions that may have resulted from editing the manuscript. The author should return the corrected page proofs as directed by Wiley. If none are returned, Wiley will proceed with publication as edited.

Comments, Replies, and Corrections

Any reader may comment on a Feature, Review, Article, or Rapid Communication published in the Journal. The comment should be submitted in ScholarOne Manuscripts and addressed to the appropriate Journal Editor. A comment must address a subject of significant technical interest, must be clearly written, and cannot be frivolous. Authors of a paper commented upon will be invited to reply. The person making the comment will not be shown the reply prior to publication. The Comment and Reply will be printed in the same issue of the Journal.

No subsequent comment or reply by the same persons regarding the same paper will be considered for publication. The appropriate Journal Editor will make any necessary judgments as to whether a particular comment or reply is suitable for publication.

Corrections to papers will be published as soon as possible after receipt from the author. Corrections should be kept as brief as possible. They must be limited to corrections in presenting or explaining original data and may not be used as a vehicle for presenting new data or new interpretation of results.


When an author does not accept the position taken by the Society, the following steps may be taken. Substantial reasons for differing with the position of the editor should first be brought to the attention of the editor who made the original decision. If no compromise or satisfactory agreement is attained, the author may elect to bring the substantial reasons to the attention of the Senior Journal Editor for the Journal. If an agreement is again not attained, the author may request the Committee on Publications Chair to refer the matter to the Committee on Publications whose decision shall be final.

Manuscript Preparation

Page Format

All manuscripts must be in double-spaced format, including the abstract, references, and figure and/or table captions. They should be formatted to print on 8 ½ in. by 11 in. or A4 paper with left and right margins of at least 1 in (approximately 2.5 cm) each.

File Formats

Authors should submit manuscripts electronically using ScholarOne Manuscripts, the Journal's online manuscript management and review system. Acceptable file formats for electronic manuscript submission in ScholarOne Manuscripts are shown below:

Text: Manuscripts must be submitted in one or more of the formats listed; Microsoft Word, WordPerfect, LaTex and RTF. The file formats for tables and figures are discussed later.

Title, Authors, and Abstract


The title should 1) Unambiguously describe the content of the paper; 2) Distinguish the paper from others on a similar topic; 3) Not be too complicated and 4) Catch the reader's attention and interest. Introductory words, such as 'On,' 'Observations on,' 'Some,' and 'Study of' are to be avoided. For indexing purposes, chemical names rather than formulas are preferred in titles. The titles have a limit of 90 characters including spaces. Authors should refrain from using acronyms in the title.

Footnotes should be used to document the following general types of information about a paper: notice that the paper was presented at a technical meeting, information regarding a thesis or dissertation upon which the current paper is based, and the source of financial support for the work.

Authors' Names and Affiliations

Authors' first and last names should be provided. The Journal, as is customary in the United States, displays the full names of authors in the following order: given name, middle name or initial, family name. This applies to names from all sources, regardless of cultural practices that follow other rules.

The affiliations of the authors at the time the work was performed should be presented with the institution and department names (if applicable) presented in full, with the city, state/ prefecture/province, postal code, and country (if not United States). Do not include local address information, such as street name, on the manuscript; however, this information should be included in the online submission form or cover letter.

If authors' current or permanent affiliations are different from the above, this should be explained in a footnote.

The e-mail address of a corresponding author may be shown in a footnote at the beginning of the article.


An abstract not exceeding 200 words must be provided with each paper. Preferably, the abstract will be of the informative type, presenting a condensed version of the information in the paper. The abstract should briefly state the purpose of the research (unless given in the title), new or unusual techniques used in the experimental procedure, and significant results.

No footnotes or references may appear in the abstract.

Text Sections

The text of each paper should be divided into three or more sections. Typical section titles are as follows:

  • Introduction
  • Experimental Procedure
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions (or Summary)
  • Appendix (optional)

It is permissible to combine the Results and Discussion sections. Supplementary Materials may be submitted for on-line publication. Figures and Tables in Supplementary Materials should be numbered S1, S2, S3, etc. and all such material should be referred to in the main text as Supplementary Materials available on line.

The background and context of a paper should be presented in an Introduction, and the main points of the paper should be reiterated in the Conclusions or Summary section. An Appendix can be added to make the paper more readable. For example, a lengthy mathematical derivation could be included as an Appendix.

Sections can be divided into two or more subsections. The titles of subsections should be brief, and the subsections should reflect an organized breakdown of the section subject. Subsection titles should be as brief as clarity permits and should be parallel in structure.

Rapid Communications need not have separate sections but must have a separately labeled Abstract and Conclusions.

Acknowledgement and Support

If the author wishes to acknowledge non-financial support (for example, donation of materials or use of laboratory equipment), a brief Acknowledgment section may be presented immediately preceding the Reference section. The source of financial support for the work represented by a paper should also appear in this section.


Manufacturer–specific information regarding materials or equipment used in the work should be included in parentheses following the generic name for the material or equipment, for example, '... microscope (Model 123, Wabash Instruments, Center City, IN).'


Several categories of information should be presented as footnotes in a paper. These categories include the following:

  • Notice that the paper was presented in part or in whole at a technical meeting. The footnote should be presented in the following style: 'Presented at the 97th Annual Meeting of The American Ceramic Society, Cincinnati, OH, May 9, 1995 (Basic Science Division, Paper No. 99-B-95).'
  • An author's current or permanent affiliation, if different from that shown in the affiliation information at the beginning of the paper.
  • Corresponding author's e-mail address.


Journal of the American Ceramic Society {or International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology or International Journal of Applied Glass Science} uses a numbering system for citations and the corresponding references. Complete information is essential. Manuscripts without complete references will be sent back to authors prior to entering the review process.

General Notes

  • Within the text denote each citation as a superscript number attached to the appropriate word. Additional text (e.g. author or journal name) is not necessary.
  • Citations are numbered sequentially, first in the text, then through the figure and table captions.
  • The bibliography (reference list) appears after the body of the manuscript in a numbered-list format with double-spaced lines.
  • Each reference can be listed only once and must have its own number that corresponds to the citation number in the text.
  • Each reference is formatted using the Vancouver style described below. A complete guide can be found at http://net/files/Ref/VANCOUVER%20Reference%20guide.pdf
  • Any reference to a personal communication should be given a number in the text and placed, in correct sequence, in the references.
  • Papers that are "in press" can be cited in a submission, but the paper must be available to provide to reviewers. If possible, the reference should be updated during copy-editing.
  • The use of software tools, such as EndNote for reference management and formatting are recommended. EndNote reference styles can be searched at

Formatting Author Names

  • Each author is listed by last name followed by initial(s), separated by a space.
  • A sole author or the final author in a list is followed by a period.
  • For 2 to 6 authors, a comma separates each author.
  • References with more than 6 authors are limited to the first 6 followed by “et al.”


Green AB. (one author)

Green AB, Yashida C. (2-6 authors)

Green AB, Yashida C, Small BE, Jones Q, Han S, Simpson, H, et al. (more than 6 authors)

Journal Articles

  • Article title in sentence case (only first word is capitalized) followed by a period.
  • Journal title abbreviated in accordance with the Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index (CASSI) in standard format (no italics, bold, quotations, etc.) followed by a period.
  • Year(month in parentheses, optional);Volume(issue in parentheses if available):1st page-lastpage
  • DOI is optional for “print” journals; cited papers published only electronically must include the DOI.
  • End each listing with a period.



  1. Wang L, Huang H, Shen D, Zhang J, Chen H, Wang Y, et al. Room temperature continuous–wave laser performance of LD pumped Er:Lu2O3 and Er:Y2O3 ceramics at 2.7 μm. Opt Exp. 2014;22(16):19495–19503. [more than 6 authors]
  2. Shimotsuma Y, Kubota S, Murata A, et al. Tunability of form birefringence induced by femtosecond laser irradiation in anion-doped silica glass. J Am Ceram Soc. 2017;00:1–8. [online article]


Book and Conference Proceedings References

Include in the following order and format as applicable (see examples)

  • Authors' names (according to rules above)
  • Chapter/ section/article title in sentence case followed by a period
  • “In:” editors' names, followed by “, editors.”
  • Book title in sentence case followed by a period
  • Non–English titles of books should include the English translation of the title, in parentheses, following the non–English title.
  • Publisher's location: name, year of publication; and page range as “p. start-end”
  • Papers from proceedings should include conference and/or proceedings title in title case (see examples)

Book examples

  1. Snell RS. Clinical Anatomy by Regions. 9th Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012. [complete authored book]
  2. Blaxter M. Social class and health inequalities. In: Carter C, Peel J, editors. Equalities and inequalities in Health. London: Academic Press, 1976; p. 369– [article or chapter in edited book]

Proceedings examples

  1. Poulsen FW, Buitink P, Malmgren–Hansen B. Van der Pauw and conventional 2– point conductivity measurements on YSZ–plates. In: Grosz F, Zegers P, Singhal SC, Yamamoto O, eds. Proceedings of the 2nd international Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Pennington, NJ: The Electrochemical Society; 1991:p. 755–767. [proceedings paper – published]
  2. Gu WH, Faber KT. Crack propagation in SiC–TiB2 composites. Paper presented at the 93rd Annual Meeting of the American Ceramic Society; April 30, 1991; Cincinnati, OH. [proceedings paper – not published]


Zeigler JM. Interrupted polysilanes useful as photoresists. U.S. Patent 4,761,464. 1988. [patent]


Tables should be prepared on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. The title should be as concise as possible, similar to a section title; explanatory information should be presented as table footnotes. Column headings also should be concise, but understandable. Units of measurements, where applicable, should be presented as SI units in parentheses. Preferably added as text file, such as .doc or .docx.

An example of a table in Journal format is shown as Table I.


Illustrations must be submitted as separate electronic files (*.tif or *.tiff preferred) at the appropriate resolution and the size intended for publication. No artwork in PDF format will be accepted. The minimum acceptable resolution for figure files is 300 DPI x 85 mm (1000 pixels) wide for figures that are 1 panel wide or 300 DPI x 170 mm (2000 pixels) wide for images that are composites that are 2-3 panels wide. For uploading large files more quickly, LZW compression will reduce file size without affecting quality. Figure files must be clearly labeled with a figure number (e.g. file name = Figure 1).


  • Photographic and other bitmap images submit as Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) is preferred. Other formats without compression are acceptable, including *.png, *jpg, *bmp and others
  • Line drawings (vector graphics) submit in original file format (*.xls, *.xlsx, *.ppt, *.pptx, *.ai), Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) or as a vector graphic in Word format. Refer to previous bullet point if converting to an image
  • Tables preferred submission as Microsoft Word
  • Color images should be submitted in full color
  • Files must meet resolution requirements listed above.

Image Processing

While a certain degree of image processing is acceptable, and sometimes unavoidable, images submitted for publication should be minimally modified, and any modification to original raw data should be clearly and fully disclosed. Images submitted must accurately represent the original data, and authors must provide, if requested by the editors, unprocessed and raw data to aid in the reviewing process.

Image-processing details should be disclosed in full, either in the figure captions or in the Experimental section. This should include the software used and the settings and methods applied in manipulations. Processing should be applied equally to the entire image and also to controls. Processing that obscures data or emphasizes certain regions at the expense of others should not be employed. When used, false-color and nonlinear adjustments, such as gamma correction, deconvolution, filtering, thresholding and projection, should be clearly indicated in the manuscript.

Do NOT use imaging software to increase or decrease the pixel count. Increasing pixel count does not add image information. Submit the highest resolution you can get from the instrument/software you are using, even if it falls below the minimum requirements. Decreasing pixel count may blur your image, losing vital information. If image is much too large, crop the image to show only the most important features.

  • Normally, figures and micrographs are submitted and published in black and white. Figures submitted in color will appear in color when published online. However, if color print reproduction is desired, the author must indicate this and commit to paying costs of printing in color, $500 per figure with color.
  • Each figure submitted must be clearly identified with a figure number and caption. Captions of all figures should be grouped in a single list after the Reference section within the manuscript file. The captions should be formatted double-spaced. This grouping of captions is in addition to the presentation of each individual caption with its appropriate figure.
  • If there are two images used for a single figure and caption, they should be prepared in a vertical layout with one image above the other, for better image processing. If it is necessary for the figures to be side by side for comparison, or there are several image parts to the figure, please format however necessary, making note of this in the submission. Authors will be notified if there is a problem with the layout. Figures with multiple parts/images (each part of the figure should be distinguished with labels a, b, c, d, etc., but with one caption) should be assembled into one piece and be submitted as one file. All labeled parts require an explanation in the caption (see Fig. 1). Note that composited figures must adhere to the resolution/pixel guidelines above.
  • Spelling in figures should be checked carefully, because figures are not corrected or redrawn before publication. As in text, only SI units of measurement should be used (see Style).
  • Micrographs will usually be sized to approximately 8.5 cm (3.3 in.) in width. Magnification indicators, e.g., '1000X', must not be used, because micrographs are typically reduced before publication. The machine-generated information must be removed from the micrographs and replaced with professional scale markers that are easy to read. If there is other critical information in the machine-generated legend, it should be added to the caption (see Fig. 2).
  • Line drawings should be drawn boldly to ensure clear reproduction. Lettering within each figure should be sized with a regard to its appearance when the drawing is reduced for publication. Sans serif fonts (for example, Arial or Tahoma) are preferable for figure labels and legends.
  • If a figure has been taken directly from another published source, the author must obtain written permission to reprint from the original publisher. (This is not required if the original publisher is The American Ceramic Society.) This permission should be uploaded as a supplemental file when the article is being submitted for publication, and the source of the figure should be cited as a reference in the figure caption. Alternatively, if the author has modified the original figure in any significant way, no permission to reprint is required. However, the reference to the published paper containing the source figure should be cited at the end of the figure caption in the form '(After Smith and Jones.8).'
  • Authors are responsible for submitting publication-quality figures following the guidelines presented. Unacceptable format or quality may result in delays in publication. Where possible, optimize the contrast and brightness of figure submissions. When in doubt, we recommend printing the image to verify whether the contrast is high enough; do not rely on a computer on-screen image.

General and Math Style


Authors are expected to follow generally accepted rules of grammar and punctuation and to use American spelling (e.g., center and color, not centre and colour). Jargon and slang should be avoided. Abbreviations and acronyms may be used, but they must be defined the first time they are used. Abbreviations and acronyms should not be used in manuscript title, abstract or conclusions.

Terminology should be used consistently. Either a formula or a chemical name can be used for a substance, but it should be used throughout the manuscript.

SI Units

The Society insists on the use of metric units of measurement, specifically SI units, in the Journal. English or other non-metric units may appear in a manuscript, but they should appear only in parentheses following the SI units, e.g., 32 mm (1.25 in.).

The primary acceptable SI units are the base units, supplemental units, and derived units (See Tables II, III, and IV). In addition, certain units not part of SI are so widely used that it is impractical to abandon them. These exceptions (Table V and VI) are permitted in the Journal, although SI equivalents are preferred whenever possible. Other non–SI units are not permitted as primary measurements: these include calorie, degree Fahrenheit, dyne, erg, gal, gauss, inch, kilogram–force, micron, oersted, poise, pounds per square inch, and torr. If these non-SI units are included in a paper, they should appear only in parentheses following the SI units. An excellent guide to the use of SI units is found at

Mathematical Expressions

All mathematical expressions should be presented in a clear and unambiguous manner. Every symbol must be defined, and care should be taken to avoid multiple meanings for the same symbol. Be particularly careful to avoid confusion in the use of the numeral '1', the lower-case letter '1', and the capital letter 'I', and between the numeral '0' and the capital letter 'O', because many type fonts do not clearly distinguish between them. If necessary, make a marginal note to identify the character.

In display equations using fractions (except superscripts), numerators should be stacked over denominators rather than placed on a single line and separated by a slash (/).

Very large and very small numbers should not be expressed in scientific notation, e.g., 3.62 x 109 and 3.62 x 10-9 but rather the prefixes available for SI units should be used. For example, 3.62 x 109 Pa should be written as 3.62 GPa and 3.62 x 10-9 m should be 3.62 nm. If possible, the prefix should be chosen so the number is less than 1.000. The SI prefixes are given in Table VII.