Cover image for Vol. 70 Issue 12

Edited By: MOHAMED A. NOOR, Editor-in-Chief

Impact Factor: 4.007

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 11/46 (Evolutionary Biology); 25/150 (Ecology); 36/166 (Genetics & Heredity)

Online ISSN: 1558-5646

Author Guidelines


The journal Evolution publishes articles in all areas of evolutionary biology. We welcome manuscripts presenting significant and original results that extend our understanding of evolutionary phenomena and processes.

Mohamed Noor, Editor-in-Chief
Peter Tiffin, Editor
Maria Servedio, Editor

Biographies and scientific backgrounds of the Editors and Associate Editors can be found on the journal homepage under Editorial Board.

For questions concerning manuscript preparation and submission to our online ScholarOne Manuscripts submission site at
https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/evo, please contact:

Katie Simmons
Managing Editor
Evolution Editorial Office

Changes for 2017

Double-Blind Review
Beginning January 1, 2017 Evolution will follow a double-blind review process. To facilitate double-blind reviewing, authors must submit the title page and acknowledgements separately from the remainder of the manuscript.

Author Contributions
Final versions of Evolution submissions must have a section entitled “Author Contributions” listing what each author contributed to the published work.

Online publication from 2017
Evolution will be published in online-only format effective with the 2017 volume. This is a proactive move towards reducing the environmental impact caused by the production and distribution of printed journal copies and will allow the journal to invest in further digital development. Published articles will continue to be disseminated quickly through the journal’s broad network of indexing services, including ISI, MEDLINE and Scopus. Articles will also continue to be discoverable through popular search engines such as Google. All color images will now be reproduced digitally and published free of charge.

Evolution will consider several types of articles:

Original Articles report substantive empirical studies or important theoretical advances that bear on significant questions in evolutionary biology. Demonstrating a well-established phenomenon in another taxon or context may fall short of being acceptable. Similarly, papers that simply apply existing models are less likely to be accepted than those that materially extend understanding.

Brief Communications are short papers reporting new data or ideas. The total number of figures and tables should not exceed four.

Perspectives express new points of view or interpretations based on a scholarly review research. They must go beyond the works being reviewed by proposing new directions, new syntheses, and/or resolutions to old questions. Perspectives are normally solicited; however, authors may submit proposals to the Editorial Office: evoedoffice@wiley.com.

Digests. Starting January 2017, the journal Evolution will include a new “Digests” section, which will contain short (~500 word) news articles about selected original research included in the journal. These digests will be published online and linked to their corresponding original research articles. For instructions on Digests preparation and submission, please visit the following link: https://sites.duke.edu/evodigests/ .

Technical Comments are short papers offering new analyses, corrections, criticisms, or alternative interpretations of findings in papers recently published in Evolution . They should be clearly, but concisely, lay out the overall context and the point at issue. Normally, the authors of the original contribution are invited to submit a response.

Book Reviews evaluate recently published books or monographs and set the reviewed work in the context of the field. Book Reviews are normally solicited, but aspiring reviewers may propose writing a review to the Editorial Office: evoedoffice@wiley.com.

Outlook on Evolution and Society articles present essays on the relationships between academic evolutionary biology, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, other scientific disciplines and social issues.

Commentaries are invited, short essays by evolutionary biologists on any topic they believe merits discussion. Authors may submit proposals to the Editorial Office: evoedoffice@wiley.com.

Manuscripts should be as concise as possible, consistent with clarity. For Original Articles and Perspectives, the usual limit is 7500 words of text, excluding tables, figure captions and literature cited. For the other article types, the usual limit is 4500 words.

All manuscripts except Commentaries and Digests are subject to peer-review.


Peer Review
Handling Editors and Associate Editors choose manuscripts for outside peer review based on the quality of the described research, its importance, and its interest to the broad community of evolutionary biologists. Manuscripts deemed unsuitable for Evolution at this stage receive an editorial rejection and are normally returned to the author within six days.

Manuscripts that pass this initial evaluation are normally sent to at least two experts for evaluation. Peer review for Evolution is closed, i.e. reviewer identities are not disclosed to the author except by choice of the reviewer. Once the reviews are returned, the Associate Editor in charge of the manuscript develops an overall evaluation of it, based on the reviews and his/her own assessment of the manuscript, making a recommendation to the Handling Editor, who will return a decision to the authors. The average time from submission to first decision via this route is approximately forty days.

Authors must suggest Associate Editors they consider well positioned to consider the manuscript. The Handling Editor takes these suggestions into account, as well as current loads of Associate Editors and conflicts of interest, in making assignments of Associate Editors to manage the review process and evaluate each manuscript.

Authors are requested to submit the names and emails of two potential referees well suited in expertise and free from concerns of conflict of interest. Authors may also indicate referees they would prefer not to review the manuscript. Any name listed must be accompanied by a short explanation of why the authors consider the individual likely to render an unfair review. Editors will take these comments into account but retain the option of soliciting review from these individuals, weighing the resulting review in light of the authors' concerns.

Evolution does not consider manuscripts containing results that have previously been published in full, or are being considered for publication, elsewhere. Authors should disclose related manuscripts that are under consideration or in press elsewhere, describing their relationship to the submitted manuscript and providing copies upon request.

Publication of abstracts and presentations at scientific meetings will not jeopardize full publication.

Authorship of a paper carries with it responsibility as well as credit. All those whose names appear as authors should have played a significant role in designing or carrying out the research, writing the manuscript, or providing extensive guidance to the execution of the project. They should be able to present and defend the work in a public forum. Honorary authorship is to be avoided. All authors of a given manuscript must be in agreement on its submission and full content. Violation of these conditions constitutes scholarly misconduct and will be subject to penalty.

Policy on Conflicts of Interest and Ethical Conduct
Evolution follows NSF guidelines in regards to ethical conduct and conflicts of interest. Evolution requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, that might be perceived as influencing an author’s objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include but are not limited to patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker’s fees from a company.

If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and to collectively list in the cover letter to the Editor-in-Chief, in the manuscript (under the Acknowledgment section), and in the online submission system ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.

Evolution follows the code of conduct of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). It is expected that manuscripts submitted to the Journal will be the author(s)’s own work; the unreferenced use of another’s published or unpublished work or ideas (i.e. plagiarism) is prohibited. If plagiarism is discovered the manuscript will be rejected; the author(s)’s superiors may also be informed.

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will be prompted by email to log in to Author Services and, via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS), to complete and sign the Exclusive License Form (ELF) on behalf of all authors of the paper. . The terms and conditions of the ELF can be previewed here: ELF Terms and Conditions.

Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright in their article and have a choice of Creative Commons licenses. Click here for more information.

Publication Fees
Authors are billed $55.00 per printed page. Color figures are billed $500.00 per printed figure. Authors with research grants are expected to pay page charges. Authors without access to funds for page charges may request a waiver. Authors are strongly encouraged to maintain membership in the Society for the Study of Evolution (SSE), entitling them to publish up to 12 black-and-white pages per year free of charge.

Open Access
OnlineOpen is available to authors who choose to make an article freely available via open access, or whose funding agency requires grantees to publicly archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made freely available to non-subscribers upon publication, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive (such as PubMed Central). Authors of OnlineOpen articles are also permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on a website, institutional repository, or other free public server, immediately on publication. The cost for OnlineOpen is US $3000 and US $1500 for memers of the Society for the Study of Evolution. More information available here.

OnlineOpen is fully compliant with open access mandates.

Self-Archiving Policy
Authors of Evolution are permitted to self-archive the submitted (preprint) version of the article at any time, and may self-archive the accepted (peer-reviewed) version after an embargo period. For more information on self-archiving, please click here.

Funder Mandates
Some funders, such as NIH and the Research Councils UK (RCUK) have specific requirements for depositing the accepted manuscript in a repository. Separate agreements with these organizations exist and the details are set out on our Funder Policies page. Authors funded by these organizations should follow the self-archiving terms of these separate agreements.

Policy on Data Archiving
Evolution requires, as a condition for publication, that data supporting the results in the paper should be archived in an appropriate public archive, such as GenBank, TreeBASE, Dryad, the Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity or other suitable long-term and stable public repositories. Data are important products of the scientific enterprise, and they should be preserved and usable into the future. Authors may elect to have the data publicly available at time of publication, or, if the technology of the archive allows, may opt to embargo access to the data for a period of up to a year after publication. Exceptions may be granted at the discretion of the Editor in Chief, especially for sensitive information such as a human subject data or the location of endangered species.


Online Submission
All manuscripts must be submitted to Evolution using our online system at https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/evo.
Please study the instructions given at the site carefully, and then let the system guide you through the submission process. You will be able to exit and re-enter the system at any stage before finally submitting your work. All submissions are kept strictly confidential.

Cover Letter
Each manuscript must be accompanied by a cover letter that briefly describes how the work advances understanding in evolutionary biology. This letter should also describe other manuscripts the authors have published or intend to publish on closely related work and the relationship of the current submission to these other manuscripts.

First Submissions
At the outset, manuscripts may be submitted as a single PDF or Word document that includes title page, abstract, text, literature cited, figure legends, tables, figures and acknowledgments. For the convenience of reviewers, you may choose to embed your tables and figures, with their legends, within the main text.. This also applies to submission of revised versions subject to further review.

Revised submissions
All revised manuscripts must include two versions of the main text: (1) clean document (2) document with highlighted and/or tracked changes. The exception to this is manuscripts created in LaTeX.

Final Submissions
Final submissions must be as editable, production-ready files: for typesetting purposes, text and tables must be formatted as Microsoft Word or LaTeX. Figure captions and tables must be on separate pages after the reference list and not incorporated into the main body of text. For high quality print production, each Figure must be uploaded separately in PDF, TIFF or EPS format with a resolution of at least 300 DPI.

Manuscript Preparation

Please review the author guide for Search Engine Optimization (SEO) as you compose your article.

General Style Points
Manuscripts must be in English. All text should be in 12-point font (Times Roman preferred), double-spaced and formatted to be US letter size (8.5 × 11 in). Authors are encouraged to download a copy of the Wiley House Style Guide. The guide is designed to help authors, copyeditors, and proofreaders maintain consistency in language, formatting, and visual style.

Manuscript Assembly
Arrange the manuscript in the following order: Title Page, Abstract, Text, Acknowledgments, Literature Cited, Tables, Figure Legends, Figures, Supplementary Material. Number all pages and number the lines of the text continuously from the first page through the figure legends. Mathematical expressions must be clearly typed; leave two blank lines before and after each equation.

Title Page
The Title Page should contain the following information:

• Title of article (50 word limit)
• Authors’ names, authors’ affiliations, and contact information*
• Running head (not to exceed 50 characters and spaces)
• Keywords
• Data archival location

*You will be asked to provide the full address information for the corresponding author. Please be sure to do this. Otherwise, the processing of your manuscript may be delayed.

Describe the research clearly and concisely, emphasizing main questions and goals, results, and conclusions (maximum of 200 words). The abstract contains no citations.

Original Articles and Brief Communications are normally organized with Introduction, Material and Methods, Results and Discussion sections, but authors should consult recent journal issues for acceptable alternative organizations. The length of the manuscript should be in accordance with the kind of manuscript described in the Article types section. To view sample articles click here.

List acknowledgments and funding sources with grant numbers. Wiley collaborates with FundRef to use a standard taxonomy of funder names.

Literature Cited
References should be listed in alphabetical order at the end of the manuscript. NOTE: Normally authors of cited works are denoted by last name and initials. However, in cases where two or more authors share the same last name and initials, they should be distinguished by inclusion of full names. The names of journals in the Literature Cited section must be abbreviated according to BIOSIS. In-text references to papers by one or two authors should be in full; e.g., "(Able and Charles 1986)." If the number of authors exceeds two, they should always be abbreviated. e.g.: "(Frank et al. 1986)."

Examples of the Evolution reference style are given below:

Carlson, L. D., and M. Schmidt, eds. 1999. Global climatic change in the new millennium. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. The coming deluge. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, U.K.

IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global amphibian assessment. Available at www.globalamphibians.org. Accessed October 15, 2008.

Michaels., D. R., Jr., and V. Smirnov. 1999. Postglacial sea levels on the western Canadian continental shelf: revisiting Cope’s rule. Marine Geol. 125(Suppl.):1654-1669.

Michaels, D. R., and V. Smirnov. 2001. Postglacial sea levels on the western Canadian continental shelf: revisiting Cope’s rule. Marine Geol.: In press.
Sidlauskas, B. 2007. Data from: Testing for unequal rates of morphological diversification in the absence of a detailed phylogeny: a case study from characiform fishes. Dryad Digital Repository. doi:10.5061/dryad.20.

NOTE: The basic format for citing electronic resources is: Author's Last Name, First initial. Title of data package (e.g., Data from “Article name”). Data Repository Name, Data identifier (or DOI), address/URL.

Supporting Information and Appendices
In addition to article content, Evolution offers the opportunity to publish supporting information such as video, extra color figures, and large data sets as supplementary material available only online. Supporting information provides additional information that enhances the main text. However, the print version of the paper must be self-contained, and stand on its own merits. Supporting information is reviewed along with the paper and must be approved by the editors. Only material referred to directly in the main text may be included in supporting information. Explanatory material should be prepared with the same care as for the main text, and should be kept to the minimum that is necessary. Please find full instructions on the preparation of supporting information for Evolution at http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/suppmat.asp.

Supporting Information should not be entitled Appendix as appendices are typeset, copyedited and subject to page charges along with the full manuscript. Appendices should be no longer than a page or two, if longer please move material to Supporting Information.

Each table should have a brief title above it. All tables must be cited in the text in the order that they should appear. Do not separate tables from their footnotes.

Figure Legends
List all figure legends on a single page. Give a brief explanation of the figure itself, including each panel and any symbols that may appear in the figures. If you select color on the web for your figures, your figure legend should be readable for both color and black and white.

Figure Preparation and Formatting
At the time of submission of final files, figures should not be embedded in the manuscript file; each figure should be uploaded as a separate file as any of the preferred file formats: Encapsulated PostScript (EPS), Portable Document Format (PDF), and Tagged Image Format (TIF). We suggest that line art be saved as EPS files. Alternately, these may be saved as PDF files at 600 dots per inch (dpi) or higher at final size. Tone art, or photographic images, should be saved as TIF files with a resolution of 300 dpi at final size. For combination figures, or artwork that contains both photographs and labelling, we recommend saving figures as EPS files, or as PDF files with a resolution of 600 dpi or better at final size. More detailed information on the submission of electronic artwork can be found at http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/illustration.asp.
If you select color on the web only please note that we can accept only one file per figure - please be sure your color figure converts well to greyscale for printing.

Do not save equations in a lower version of Word than the manuscript was otherwise produced. Your equations will result as images that cannot be edited during production and will have to be provided again at the production stage.


Author Services
This service enables authors to track articles, once accepted, through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production to avoiding having to contact the Managing Editor to check on progress. Registered authors benefit from free access to the full text of their papers online, as well as a 20% discount on publications. More information on this service can be found at the Author Services website.

Accepted Articles
'Accepted Articles' have been accepted for publication and have undergone full peer review but have not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process. Accepted Articles are published online a few days after final acceptance in PDF format only with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows them to be cited and tracked. A license agreement form is required before a manuscript can be processed as an Accepted Article.

Early View
Evolution is covered by Wiley’s Early View service. Early View articles are complete, full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors’ final corrections have been incorporated. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready. This is considered the publication date, and the article will be citable as published according to this date. Because this is the final published article, no changes can be made after Online publication in Early View. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.