Cover image for Vol. 69 Issue 8

Edited By: RUTH G. SHAW, Editor-in-Chief

Impact Factor: 4.612

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 8/46 (Evolutionary Biology); 18/144 (Ecology); 32/167 (Genetics & Heredity)

Online ISSN: 1558-5646

Author Guidelines

The journal Evolution publishes articles in all areas of evolutionary biology. We welcome manuscripts presenting significant and original results that extend our understanding of evolutionary phenomena and processes. Papers follow several formats:

Original Articles report either important additions to evolutionary theory or methodology, or careful empirical studies that bear on significant questions in evolutionary biology. Demonstrating a well-established phenomenon in another taxon or context may fall short of being acceptable. Similarly, papers that simply apply existing models are less likely to be accepted than those that materially extend our understanding or provide practical applications. Original articles should include no more than 7500 words of text, excluding tables, figure captions and literature cited.

Perspectives express new points of view or set out speculations based on a scholarly review of recently published works. They must go beyond the works being reviewed and include discussions of new directions, new syntheses, and/or resolutions to old questions. Perspectives will normally be solicited, but authors may submit proposals to the Editor.

Brief Communications are short papers reporting new data or ideas. They should include no more than 4500 words of text exclusive of references, tables, abstract and figure captions, with no more than a total of 4 figures and tables.

Technical Comments are short papers referring to papers recently published in Evolution that contain new analyses, corrections, criticisms, or alternative interpretations of the data in these papers. They should start with a summary sentence or two and strive to be concise. Normally the original author is allowed to submit a response.

Book Reviews evaluate recently published books or monographs and set the reviewed work in the context of the field. Book Reviews are normally solicited, but aspiring reviewers may propose writing a review to the Book Review Editor.

Outlook on Evolution and Society articles present essays on the relationships between academic evolutionary biology, on the one hand, and other scientific disciplines and social issues on the other hand.

Commentaries are invited, short essays by evolutionary biologists on any topic they believe merits discussion.

All manuscripts except Commentaries are subject to review. Initial review is by one of the handling editors and/or one of the associated editors, who evaluate whether the manuscript is of sufficient general interest and quality for outside review. Manuscripts judged inappropriate at this stage receive an editorial rejection. Manuscripts that pass this initial evaluation are sent to one or more outside reviewers. Once the reviews are returned, the associate editor in charge of the manuscript evaluates both the reviews and the manuscript and makes a recommendation to the handling editor, who issues the final decision.

GUIDELINES FOR MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION. Manuscripts must be in English. All text including tables, figure captions and literature cited should be double-spaced (manuscripts that are not double-spaced will be returned before being sent for review), with line and page numbers. Manuscripts follow The Chicago Manual of Style and The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. Include a full title page with your submission including all authors, affiliations and contact information, your full title, running title and key words. Also include your word, table and figure count.and where you data are archived or where you intend to archive your data, if appropriate. Please note that we print only the corresponding authors email in the final version of your article. Original Articles and Brief Communications are normally organized with Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion sections, but authors should consult recent journal issues for acceptable alternative organizations. The names of journals in the Literature Cited section must be abbreviated according to BIOSIS. Do not hyphenate words at the right margin or justify the right margin. Footnotes to text should be avoided; they can usually be included in the text (parenthetically if necessary). Do not separate tables from their footnotes. Mathematical expressions must be clearly typed; leave two blank lines before and after each equation. Illustrations, when published, will be reduced to a maximum of 88 mm (single column) or 180 mm in width and 230 mm in length; calculate line thickness and symbol sizes accordingly.

LaTex users: If your files are in LaTex, please submit a PDF or PostScript file for peer review. Please ensure no Type 3 fonts are used; all fonts should be included in the PDF or PostScript files. The LaTex files can be uploaded after acceptance and are not required prior to that.


Manuscripts should be submitted via the following Web site:   http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/evo. Before submitting, gather the following information:

Contact Information (for all authors): Please ensure you include first, middle/initial, last names, postal addresses, work telephone numbers, and valid e-mail addresses.

Title (50-word limit)

Running Title (max. 50 characters/spaces)

Abstract (One paragraph up to 200 words. No citations)

Key Words (5-6 words not included in title)

Data Archival Location (on Title Page and within your text where appropriate)

Manuscript Format (Microsoft Word [preferred], LaTeX, or RTF)

Literature Cited. Literature Cited should be double-spaced. References should be listed in alphabetical order at the end of your manuscript. References to papers by one or two authors in the text should be in full; e.g., "(Able and Charles 1986)." If the number of authors exceeds two, they should always be abbreviated. e.g.: "(Frank et al. 1986)." NOTE: Normally authors of cited works are denoted by last name and initials. However, in cases where two or more authors share the same last name and initials, they should be distinguished by inclusion of full names.

Examples of the Evolution reference style are given below:

Carlson, L. D., and M. Schmidt, eds. 1999. Global climatic change in the new millennium. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. The coming deluge. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, U.K.

IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global amphibian assessment. Available at www.globalamphibians.org. Accessed October 15, 2008.

Michaels., D. R., Jr., and V. Smirnov. 1999. Postglacial sea levels on the western Canadian continental shelf: revisiting Cope’s rule. Marine Geol. 125(Suppl.):1654-1669.

Michaels, D. R., and V. Smirnov. 2001. Postglacial sea levels on the western Canadian continental shelf: revisiting Cope’s rule. Marine Geol.: In press.

Sidlauskas, B. 2007. Data from: Testing for unequal rates of morphological diversification in the absence of a detailed phylogeny: a case study from characiform fishes. Dryad Digital Repository. doi:10.5061/dryad.20.

NOTE: The basic format for citing electronic resources is: Author's Last Name, First initial. Title of data package (e.g., Data from “Article name”). Data Repository Name, Data identifier (or DOI), address/URL.

Tables: Table files included in the manuscript file or in external files in either tab-separated or Microsoft Excel format.

Figure Legends should be typed on a separate page following Literature Cited. If you select color on the web for your figures, your figure legend should be readable for both color and black and white.

Figures: At the time of submission of final files, figures should not be embedded in the manuscript file; each figure should be uploaded as a separate file as any of the preferred file formats: Encapsulated PostScript (EPS), Portable Document Format (PDF), and Tagged Image Format (TIF). We suggest that line art be saved as EPS files. Alternately, these may be saved as PDF files at 600 dots per inch (dpi) or better at final size. Tone art, or photographic images, should be saved as TIF files with a resolution of 300 dpi at final size. For combination figures, or artwork that contains both photographs and labelling, we recommend saving figures as EPS files, or as PDF files with a resolution of 600 dpi or better at final size. More detailed information on the submission of electronic artwork can be found at http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/illustration.asp If you select color on the web only please note that we can accept only one file per figure - please be sure your color figure converts well to greyscale for printing.

Equations: If you are file sharing with your co-authors and your manuscript contains equations do not save them in a lower version of Word than the manuscript was initially created - your equations will result as images and will be uneditable, we cannot edit these during production and may need these equations re-provided.

Suggested reviewers: Contact information for suggested reviewers (if any), including name, institution, and valid e-mail.

Non-Preferred Reviewers: Authors may indicate people whom they prefer not to review the manuscript. Any name listed must be accompanied by a short explanation of why the authors believe the person is not appropriate or is not likely to produce an unbiased review. Editors will take these reasons into account, but retain the option of asking these persons for reviews.

Current e-mail addresses: This is particularly important in receiving information on the status of proofs, for sending eProofs, for review of proof queries, and approval, and for access to AuthorServices.


Copyright Information. If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the ELF

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the Exclusive License Form (ELF) to sign. The terms and conditions of the ELF can be previewed here: ELF Terms and Conditions. Please do not complete this PDF until you are prompted to login into Author Services as described above.

Note to Contributors on Deposit of Accepted Version

Funder arrangements
Certain funders, including the NIH, members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) and Wellcome Trust require deposit of the Accepted Version in a repository after an embargo period. Details of funding arrangements are set out at the following website: http://www.wiley.com/go/funderstatement. Please contact the Journal production editor if you have additional funding requirements.

Wiley has arrangements with certain academic institutions to permit the deposit of the Accepted Version in the institutional repository after an embargo period. Details of such arrangements are set out at the following website: http://www.wiley.com/go/funderstatement

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA
To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp and visit http://www.wileyopenaccess.com/details/content/12f25db4c87/Copyright--License.html.

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit: http://www.wiley.com/go/funderstatement.

Data archiving. As a condition for publication, Evolution requires that data used in the paper are archived. DNA sequence data must be submitted to GenBank and phylogenetic data to TreeBASE. Other types of data must be deposited in an appropriate public archive such as Dryad, the NCEAS Data Repository, or as supplementary online material associated with the paper published in Evolution. The data should be given with sufficient detail that, together with the contents of the paper, they allow each result in the published paper to be recreated. Authors may elect to have the data publicly available at time of publication, or, if the technology of the archive allows, may opt to embargo access to the data for a period up to a year after publication. Exceptions may be granted at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief, especially for sensitive information such as the location of endangered species. Authors must state their intention to archive their data when they submit their manuscript and must confirm that this has been done before the manuscript is sent to press. If a repository is to be cited, the citation should include the sequence name and accession number, if available. The basic format for citing electronic resources is: Author's Last Name, First initial. Title of data package (e.g., Data from “Article name”). Data Repository Name, Data identifier (or DOI), address/URL. Please include on your title page the location of your data or where you intend to archive your data.

Conflict of Interest. Evolution requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest.  Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, that might be perceived as influencing an author’s objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include but are not limited to patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker’s fees from a company.  The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal.   If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and to collectively list in the cover letter to the Editor-in-Chief, in the manuscript (under the Acknowledgment section), and in the online submission system ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.

Note to NIH Grantees. Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, click here.

Statement on authorship. Authorship of a paper carries with it responsibility as well as credit. All those whose names appear as authors should have played a significant role in designing or carrying out the research, writing the manuscript, or providing extensive guidance to the execution of the project. They should be able to present and defend the work in a public forum. Honorary authorship is to be avoided. All authors must be in agreement on both the submission and full content of any article carrying their names. Any violation of these conditions represents academic misconduct and will be dealt with accordingly.

Supporting Information. In addition to article content, Evolution offers the opportunity to publish supporting information such as video, extra color figures, and large data sets as supplementary online only material. Supporting information provide additional information that enhances the main text. However, the print version of the paper must be self-contained, and stand on its own merits. Supporting information is reviewed along with the paper and must be approved by the editors. Only material referred to directly in the main text may be included in supporting information. Explanatory material should be prepared with the same care as for the main text, and should be kept to the minimum that is necessary. Please find full instructions on the preparation of supporting information for Evolution at http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/suppmat.asp. Please be sure to appropriately entitle your supporting information file and provide an appropriate legend or title within the file. All files should be clearly labeled as "Supporting Information" (e.g., use SuppInfo, Supp, in the filename; example - Figure_6_SuppInfo.pdf). Supporting information is published online only as provided by authors. Supporting Information should not be entitled Appendix as appendices are typeset, copyedited and subject to page charges along with the full manuscript. Appendices should be no longer than a page or two, if longer please move material to Supporting Information.

Page and color charges. Authors are billed $55.00 per printed page. Color figures are billed $500.00 per printed figure. Authors with research grants are expected to pay page charges. Authors without access to funds for page charges may request a waiver by joining the Society for the Study of Evolution (SSE). As a benefit of membership, each member of the SSE is entitled to publish up to 12 black-and-white pages per year free of charge. In addition, black and white page charges are waived for Associate Editors.


OnlineOpen. OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/onlineopen#OnlineOpen_Terms

Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at: https://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/onlineopen_order.asp The cost for OnlineOpen is US $3000 and US $1500 for Society for the Study of Evolution members.

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

Please see the "Copyright Information" section above for instructions on submitting the correct copyright form for your OnlineOpen article.

Author Services. Wiley-Blackwell’s Author Services enables authors to track their article—once it has been accepted—through the production process to Online and print publication. Free access to the final PDF offprint or your article will also be available via Wiley-Blackwell’s Author Services. Once an article has been received at Wiley-Blackwell, authors may register for Author Services to access their article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers. For instance, authors may check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit http://authorservices.wiley.com for more details, for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

AcceptedArticles. 'Accepted Articles' have been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but have not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process. Accepted Articles are published online a few days after final acceptance, appear in PDF format only, are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows them to be cited and tracked. A completed copyright form is required before a manuscript can be processed as an Accepted Article.

EarlyView. Evolution is covered by Wiley-Blackwell’s EarlyView service. EarlyView articles are complete, full-text articles published Online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors’ final corrections have been incorporated. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. This is considered the publication date, and the article will be citable as published according to this date. Because this is the final published article, no changes can be made after Online publication in EarlyView. The nature of EarlyView articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. When you cite an article that is not yet published in print but is Online published on EarlyView, you may do so by citing the DOI. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article. For more information, visit http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/onlineopen.asp

Evolution Guidelines Updated August 2012