Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

Cover image for Vol. 95 Issue 3

Edited By: Ganesh Acharya

Impact Factor: 2.426

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 20/79 (Obstetrics & Gynecology)

Online ISSN: 1600-0412



Author Guidelines


Updated 1 December 2015

Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica (AOGS) is an international journal of obstetrics and gynecology and publishes articles on all aspects of women´s health. Priority is given to articles containing original and innovative research data that have clinical relevance. The journal is owned by the Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG) and published by Wiley Blackwell.

Manuscript submission

Submission to the journal is made through http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/aogs. For additional assistance, contact the Editorial Office at: acta.obstet.gynecol@obgyn.gu.se.

It is mandatory that all authors' ORCID IDs are given upon submission of a manuscript. ORCID is a free service for authors/researchers that uniquely identifies their contributions to the scholarly literature. You can obtain an ORCID ID for free at www.orcid.org

Please prepare your manuscript giving careful attention to the journal's language, style and format. Perform a professional linguistic revision before submission and write a cover letter. Follow the specific guidelines for the type of manuscript you plan to submit: original research article, review, commentary, and letter to the Editor.

AOGS does not publish case reports. Editorials and book reviews are by invitation only.

Editorial decision

Evaluation of the manuscript includes a combined editorial and external peer-review process. Decisions are made based on the quality of submitted manuscripts including novelty of the idea/hypothesis, reliability of data, appropriateness of interpretation of findings, validity of results and conclusions. Ethical aspects, language and presentation, clinical implications, relevance to the journal´s readership and overall priority will also be taken into account during the decision making process.

Publication and Copyright

After acceptance for publication, the authors can chose between copyright transfer and open access. Please read the specific information on the possibilities and conditions as well as the timeline of the publication process.  

Publication ethics

AOGS is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and please note that by submitting your manuscript to AOGS you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published articles.

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Manuscript language, style and format

Language

Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission. The English Language Editing Service can help to ensure your paper is clearly written in standard, scientific English language appropriate to your discipline. Visit Wiley English Language Editing Service to learn about the different options. All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

Manuscripts should be written in clear and concise scientific English, and American spelling should be used throughout (see below). It is the responsibility of authors to ensure the quality of the language in submitted manuscripts. Note that command of colloquial English is not sufficient and this is not the same as scientific medical English for which professional services may be needed (see example here).

Style and format

The text of your article must be prepared using a word processing program and saved as a .doc, .rtf, or .ps file (no pdf files please). The text should use 1.5 spacing with generous margins. Times New Roman in 12 pt size is the preferred font style. Smaller spacing and font may be used for the reference list, within tables and figures, but the font style should match that of the text.

Specific advice

Note that “e” and “o” is used instead of “ae” or “oe” (gynecology instead of gynaecology, cesarean instead of caesarean, anemia instead of anaemia, hematology instead of haematology, fetus instead of foetus, and estrogen instead of oestrogen).

Numbers one to nine that are free-standing in the text should be spelt out; for 10 or more people, objects, days, months etc. use Arabic numerals.

“Women” is generally preferred to “patients” where possible and where disease is not the issue in question. The use of the term "subjects" is discouraged as a less than ideal reference to women. “Relation to, with, between” is preferred to “relationship”, which should be reserved for what is interpersonal. Birthweight should be one word, as is "percent". Use appropriate symbols such as ≤, ≥, ±, ®,™ where indicated. Write "such as" or "for example" instead of "e.g." and "vs." instead of "versus".

Cover letter

In a cover letter authors should introduce the material sent to the journal, and comment on its appropriateness for the journal or other reasons that prompted submission to AOGS. Indicate, if appropriate, that you have followed the specific EQUATOR reporting guidelines for your type of study.

For clinical trials involving intervention, authors must provide the trial registration number and the name of the publicly accessible registry in which the trial has been registered.

Please include specific information on ethical committee/institutional review board approval (e.g. name of the ethical committee, reference number and date of approval) and - if applicable - data protection authority permission.

Authors should also inform the Editors of any special circumstances or details regarding the submitted material, including prior submission/publication of the material or parts of the material to another journal or another language.

In case the manuscript has been reviewed elsewhere before this submission, please include the reviews and your responses to prior criticism. Although our peer review will proceed independently of previous evaluation, it may help to expedite the decision process. Preferred and non-preferred reviewers may be mentioned.

A paragraph in the Cover Letter explaining each author's contribution is required, but contributions to authorship are not published in the journal.

Original Research Article

Manuscript structure

Title page, Conflicts of Interest statement, Abstract, Keywords, Abbreviations, Key Message, Main text, including; Introduction, Material and methods, Results, and Discussion, Acknowledgments, Funding Statement, References, Legends of Tables and Figures, and Tables and/or Figures.

Title page – should include: a) full title of the article (title should be descriptive, clear, concise and incorporate keywords/phrases without using abbreviations or proprietary names) b) running headline (for page heading, max 49 characters), c) all contributing authors with full name (first name, middle name(s) if appropriate, and surname followed by degrees, and d) affiliation(s) (institution, town and country) in English. Affiliations are marked with superscript numbers. Provide separately the corresponding author (only one) details to whom all decision letters and page proofs will be communicated (give the professional address and include telephone with country code and e-mail).

Conflicts of Interest notification - all authors must state explicitly whether potential conflicts of interest do or do not exist on a separate page following the title page. Authors are responsible for disclosing all financial and personal relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest (such as patent or stock ownership, consultancies, speaker's fees, personal, political, intellectual or religious interests).

Abstract – a structured abstract of no more than 250 words is required, subdivided into the following sequential sections: Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, and Conclusions.

Keywords - include 5-8 keywords for indexing services and other search facilities for published material. Standardized medical subject headings (MeSH terms) are preferred.

Abbreviations - Provide a list of abbreviations used in the text after the key words. Use only widely accepted and conventional abbreviations. If an abbreviation appears four times or less in the manuscript it should not be used.

Key Message - Provide a key message from the article, which will be published in a box at the front of the article. This should contain one to three short sentences (maximum of 40 words) phrased differently from the conclusion. Emphasize the main problem targeted and to what degree it was solved or new knowledge was added.

Main text - The text should be 1000-3000 words and structured with the following headings (bold, lower case): Introduction (including hypothesis, aims and objectives), Material and methods (including information on consent, ethics approval and statistical analysis), Results and Discussion (including interpretation of main findings, validity of results, strengths and limitations of the study and conclusion). Subheadings should be limited except when describing complicated methodology.

Introduction
Provide a relevant background and introduce the problem being investigated citing key published work. Clearly state the purpose or objective of the research and what questions are to be addressed or answered – preferably in one page or less.

Material and methods
The design of investigations, methods of analysis, source of data and outcome measures should be described in sufficient detail to permit the study to be repeated by others and must include specification of all statistical methods. See also EQUATOR reporting guidelines on www.Equator-network.org.

Present methods of statistical analyses and, when appropriate, power calculations in a separate subdivision or paragraph. State what statistical methods were used for different parts of the study and give details of test values as appropriate. Cite statistical software programs used. Express probability values (p, small letter in italics) to no more than three decimals after the first 0 before the decimal point (such as 0.001). Confidence intervals (CI) should be reported using a semi-colon and with a dash between values (such as CI; 1.84-3.26), and in tables they should be in a separate marked column. Write “percent” in one word or use %. In tables use the % mark above a column or percentage values and avoid internal brackets/parentheses in the tables. For mathematical equations use italic type for variables and single letters and write them on a single line if possible.

Measurements should be expressed in SI units with the exception of blood pressure (mmHg). See also the IUB Biochemical Nomenclature on http://www.chem.qmw.ac.uk/iubmb/ for further information.

Decimals should be indicated by points (not commas) after the whole number (for example 0.5; 0.001) and thousands by an extra space for figures over 9999, but not by commas or points (for example 1000, 20 500).

Generic names of drugs should be used unless a proprietary name is directly relevant. Any specialized equipment, chemical or pharmaceutical product cited in the text must be accompanied by the manufacturer's web-address. This section should also state details of ethical committee (institutional review board) approval (including relevant reference numbers and approval dates) and study participants´ informed consent. For the clinical trials involving intervention, authors must provide the trial registration number and the name of the publicly assessable registry it is registered in.

Results
Present the findings in appropriate detail. Duplication between text and tables or figures should be avoided. Related subject matters should be joined in paragraphs (avoid one sentence paragraphs).

Discussion
Raise implications of the findings reported and compare them with those of earlier reports. The focus of this section should be the importance of the actual main findings to clinicians and patient care. It may be helpful in developing arguments to reiterate some of the findings, but avoid repetition of results given earlier in the article. A complete review of the literature is not necessary, nor to restate in detail findings from other studies. Strengths and limitations of the study should be discussed. A final concise summary (conclusions) in one short paragraph at the end of discussion can be helpful. Although some degree of speculation is permissible, avoid unfounded conclusions.

Acknowledgments - Persons who have made a valuable contribution but do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgments section at the end of the manuscript. Use plain language and avoid adjectives.

Funding – Financial and material support must be acknowledged. Grant bodies and major financial contributors should be listed. If no specific funding was obtained, this should also be stated.

References –The ‘Vancouver style’ of references must be applied (straight variety). No more than 30 references are accepted as a general rule.

State the references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text, using full-size Arabic numerals within parentheses (not in superscript) and before a period or comma. References cited only in tables or in legends to figures should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. List all authors when six or fewer, when seven or more, list the first six and add ‘et al.’. Abbreviations of journal titles are shown in the List of Journals in Index Medicus.

Unpublished data, personal communications, statistical programs, "papers" presented at meetings, abstracts and manuscripts submitted for publication cannot be used as a reference. Information from such sources including web-pages may be cited in the text with the sources given in parentheses. Articles accepted by peer reviewed publications but not yet published are not acceptable as references until they are in Epub format when a DOI number may be cited.

Examples of the most commonly used reference types are provided here:

Standard journal article:
Milland M, Christoffersen JK, Hedegaard M. The size of the labor wards: is bigger better when it comes to patient safety? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2013;92:1271-6.

Siassakos D, Fox R, Bristowe K, Angouri J, Hambly H, Robson L et al. What makes maternity teams effective and safe? Lessons from a series of research on teamwork, leadership and team training. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2013;92:1239-43.

If the language is not English, add the translated title in brackets, such as:
Janson PO, Friden B. Du sköna nya värld. Mänskliga embryon genom kloning: Vad är möjligt och vad är önskvärt? [Brave New World". Human embryo cloning: what is possible and what is eligible?] (in Swedish.) Lakartidningen. 2004;101:760-3.

Book:
Boe K, Berghmans B, Mørkved S, Van Kampen M (eds.). Evidence-based physical therapy for the pelvic floor. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2007.

Chapter in book:
Geirsson RT. Midpregnancy problems. In: James DK, Weiner CP, Steer PJ, Gonik B (editors). High Risk pregnancy. 3rd edition. Philadelphia PA: Elsevier Saunders, 2006. pp. 125-37.

For more examples of how to refer to different sources, consult the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals: Sample References. Link here.

Tables and Figures - The total number of tables and figures combined should not exceed eight. Large tables or figures may have to be published as Supporting Information (see section on Supporting Information). Authors are encouraged to consider this option themselves when the manuscript is being prepared. The journal will decide on the final location of tables and figures in the article (do not indicate this in the text). Legends should be provided after the references and before the tables. Legends must be fully explanatory so that they can be interpreted independently. Avoid abbreviations when possible and define any abbreviations used.

Tables – Should be made using Excel or the table feature provided in Word. Tables may be placed on separate pages with their legends placed above the body of the table. Tables must be concise and self-explanatory. Keep the format simple, with no background color. Use sequential Arabic numerals for tables in both text and legends. Footnotes may be used to define any abbreviations used in the table and annotations in superscript letters in italics.

Figures - Figures should be submitted as separate files. All figures should be cited in the text in numerical order using Arabic numerals. When submitting artwork electronically, please read the information on the Wiley-Blackwell website here. Vector graphics (such as line artwork) should be saved in Encapsulated Postscript Format (EPS), and bitmap files (e.g. photographs) in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). Other compatible figure formats are .jpg, .gif, .bmp, .xls and .ppt, but not PDF. Line art must be scanned at a minimum of 800 dpi, photographs at a minimum of 300 dpi. Figures based on previously published material must be accompanied by evidence of full permission to reproduce the figure from author(s)/publisher(s) or copyright holder.

Color figures may be published for free in the online version of the article, i.e. free color-on-the-web (CoW) service. For the print version of the journal, authors are required to pay for any color illustrations. If you are willing to pay for the color figures for the print publication you must complete and return a color work agreement form before your article can be published. If you are unable to download the form, please contact the Editorial office.

Please return the completed form to the following postal address:

Customer Services (OPI)
John Wiley & Sons Ltd,
European Distribution Centre
New Era Estate, Oldlands Way, Bognor Regis
West Sussex PO22 9NQ
United Kingdom

Please note that if you have chosen this option your article will not be published until OPI has received your original hard copy color work agreement form.

If you are not willing or able to cover the costs of reproducing color figures in print, your figures may be published in color for free in the online version of the article, but they will appear in black and white in the print version. To take advantage of the free color-on-the-web (CoW) service, please ensure that the figures are suitable for both color and black and white reproduction. If you have any questions, please contact the Production Editor at kpeermoham@wiley.com

Supporting Information - Supporting Information is linked to the article on the web and should enhance the parent article but should not be essential to understand the article content in the print edition of the journal. Please do not include Supporting Information within the main manuscript file, but upload as separate file(s).

Provide a legend on each Supporting Information item after the References, in the order in which the material is cited in the text. Include a title and a brief summary of the content. For audio and video files, include also the author's name(s), videographer, participants, length (minutes), and size (MB). Permission statements from patients or other relevant individuals may be required.

All Supporting Information must be uploaded as separate file(s) named Supporting Information, table S1, table S2, figure S1 etc.

Supporting Information content may include text documents, questionnaires, tables, figures, graphics, illustrations, audio and DVD/video material, research protocols and mathematical calculations. Videos will be included as supporting information. For further instructions, click here. Supporting document information with a web-directory as to where they are found will be at the back of the text.

Authors reporting results from a questionnaire survey should include a copy of the questionnaire used (original language and/or English translation) together with the manuscript, unless the questionnaire is in common use and/or published before, when a reference will suffice. Supporting Information is subject to the terms in the Copyright Transfer Agreement form, but authors are solely responsible for the accuracy and content of the material provided (a publisher's disclaimer is added).

Authors are encouraged and may even be asked to submit anonymized raw data as supporting information to make their study more transparent and reproducible by others.

Review Articles

Review articles should be based on a systematic literature search with or without meta-analyses as appropriate. We prioritize reviews with a clinical implication. The main text should not exceed 4000 words. The reviews should follow general guidelines on using original evidence, weighted for methodological quality and provide recommendations based on a grading system when needed. Before undertaking a systematic review it is recommended that authors submit a protocol to PROSPERO – please include registration number in the cover letter. For other formats, which may be considered for special issues, please consult the Chief Editor.

The number of references is not restricted by a maximum number but should be reasonable and in general no more than 60 references should be used.

Clinical reviews should be systematic, dealing with an important and clearly defined question or issue of clinical relevance. It should include a description of how the relevant evidence was identified, gathered, assessed for quality, and selected for inclusion. It should present a synthesis of the available results of research in such a way that the best-quality articles receive the greatest emphasis. Levels of strength of evidence to support main clinical recommendations need to be used and stated. Finally, the controversial aspects and unresolved issues should be discussed.

The data sources should be as current as possible, the search having been conducted within months of manuscript submission. The systematic reviews must be in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines and the checklist should be filled in and attached at submission

The manuscript should follow the format outlined for original research articles with the following specifications for a structured abstract and the main text:

1) Structured abstract of no more than 250 words, using the following headings:

• Introduction: Background and purpose of the review.
• Material and methods: Data sources searched, including dates, terms, and constraints. Number of studies reviewed and selection criteria, including guidelines for extracting data.
• Results: Main results of the review.
• Conclusion: Primary conclusions and their clinical applications.

2) Main text: This should be organized in a manner similar to the structured abstract.

• Introduction: Indicates why the topic is important and states the specific objective(s) of the review.
• Material and methods: Identifies what was searched and how; if a computerized system was used, specify the period searched, the language(s) covered, and the search terms. Provide the number and nature of reports reviewed, the basis of selection (exclusion and inclusion criteria) and the reports in the final tabulation.
• Results: Describe how observations across studies were tabulated and integrated into a cohesive whole. Tabulate material if possible, including major summary points, but try to ensure that tables are not necessarily bulky and contain brief text.
• Discussion: Consider the findings, along with clinical implications and need for additional research. The strength and validity of the literature that supports the discussion should be evaluated with reference to meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials with important outcomes, well designed non-randomized clinical trials, clinical cohort and case-control studies, and if relevant, historical, observational and epidemiological studies.

For further advice on writing systematic reviews authors may consult the Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook. See also reporting guidelines to be found through the EQUATOR Network.

Commentary

Commentaries are discussion essays on subjects of current interest or controversy, giving room for the authors own views supported by evidence as they choose.

They should not exceed 2000 words, be concise and factual and not use more than 25 references. A maximum 150-word block Abstract, a Key Message of maximum 40 words and full disclosure of interests and/or prior publications on related issues are required.

Letter to the Editor

In general, letters to the Editor should comment on and refer to articles published recently in AOGS. The original authors will be given an opportunity to present a reply in the same issue, at the discretion of the Chief Editor.

Letters on other matters of current interest (specific topics of general interest, new surgical techniques, points of debate/controversy) may also be considered.

Letters should comprise of no more than 500 words, with no more than five references, including one to the article under discussion. A topical heading is required, also for Replies, and the manuscript must include the full names and affiliations of the signatories.

Editorial

Editorials and Editors´ messages are supplied by the Chief Editors, members of the editorial board and International Editors, or by Guest Editors invited by the Chief Editor. No abstract is required.

Book Review

The main text should not exceed 500 words.

Tips on book reviewing:

1. Briefly summarize the book's content in one paragraph.
2. Discuss whether the text was appealing. While the ultimate goal of a science book is to share information, it is also advantageous if the text is engaging.
3. Analyze the soundness of the scientific facts presented in the text. Keep the focus on the scientific value of the information provided. Please consider if the book is well illustrated, and covers all the important aspects of the topic. Evaluate whether it is up to date or outdated, does it have an international outlook or only focuses on for example, U.S. practice. Present an overall assessment of the book's merits, utility and special features, along with its deficiencies.
4. If possible, reference other important books - and even articles or other bodies of work - on a similar topic, comparing scope and content. This allows readers to see where the text fits within the genre and how it stands up against them.
5. State whether you would recommend the text and, if so, to whom. Give readers your final recommendation in a sentence or two.

Editorial board decisions and peer review

The Chief Editor and/or editorial board members will screen and decide on the suitability of submitted manuscripts to AOGS in accordance with the aims and scope of the journal and specific editorial board policy decisions.

A manuscript may be rejected before or after peer-review, if it is deemed out of scope or if it does not meet general standards of the journal as defined at any time by the editorial board. This may be due to the general competition or for specific reasons such as insufficient scientific originality, methodological rigor (poor design or execution) or inadequate scientific English.

All articles that enter the review system will be subject to peer-review by the Chief Editor and/or an editorial board member and selected experts within the field. This is to ensure the quality and relevance of published research. Usually, at least two reviewers will be invited to evaluate each manuscript and the responsible Editor will take their comments into consideration when making a final decision subject to approval by the Chief Editor.

The review process is single-blinded, which means that the reviewers know the identity of the authors, but the authors will not know the identity of the reviewers. Letters to the Editor are not peer-reviewed but subject to review and approval by the Chief Editor.

Manuscript handling times will be kept as short as possible, but a minimal time cannot be guaranteed.

Publication and copyright

The copyright Transfer Agreement

If your manuscript is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author will receive an email prompting her/him to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors.

The corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below: CTA Terms and Conditions

OnlineOpen

OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. The full list of terms and conditions is available here.

Any authors wishing to make their article OnlineOpen will be required to complete the OnlineOpen Order Form. Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your manuscript OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit. The OnlineOpen article publication fee is $3,000 (corresponding authors with NFOG membership: $2,000).

Self-Archiving Policy

Authors of articles published in AOGS are permitted to self-archive the submitted (preprint) version of the article immediately on acceptance, and may self-archive the accepted (peer-reviewed) version after an embargo period. For further details, follow this link.

Accepted Articles

AOGS uses Wiley's Accepted Articles service for all articles within a short time of acceptance. Immediately after acceptance in AOGS, the manuscripts of articles are made publicly available online. 'Accepted Articles' have not been subject to copyediting, composition or proof correction. The service has been designed to ensure the earliest possible circulation of research articles after acceptance. Accepted Articles appear in pdf format only and are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, which allows them to be cited and tracked. The DOI remains unique to a given article in perpetuity and can continue to be used to cite and access the article further to publication. Neither the Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG) nor Wiley-Blackwell can be held responsible for errors or consequences arising from the use of information contained in Accepted Articles; nor do the views and opinions expressed necessarily reflect those of the NFOG or Wiley-Blackwell.

Early View

AOGS is covered by Wiley Blackwell's Early View service. Early View articles are complete, final full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in an issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled issue. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier number (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue.

Proofs

The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a website. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a pdf file from this site. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof.

Offprints

Authors can download an electronic pdf offprint of their article upon publication through Wiley-Blackwell's Author Services. Additional paper offprints may be ordered from the publisher.

Author Services

Author Services enable authors to track their article, once it has been accepted, through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive and e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit Wiley Online Library Author Services here for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

NIH grantees

Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see here, Author Material Archive Policy. Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley-Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible if you have not already done so.

Disclaimer

The Publisher and Editors cannot be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in this journal; the views and opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the Publisher and Editors, neither does the publication of advertisements constitute any endorsement by the Publisher and Editors of the products advertised.

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