Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

Cover image for Vol. 93 Issue 4

Edited By: Reynir Tomas Geirsson

Impact Factor: 1.85

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 33/78 (Obstetrics & Gynecology)

Online ISSN: 1600-0412

Author Guidelines

Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica (AOGS) is an international journal on obstetrics and gynecology and related matters concerning reproductive health. The journal publishes original research in the form of main research articles and short research reports, reviews, commentaries, as well as editorials, letters to the editor and by specific agreement consensus statements, guidelines, conference reports and other comparable material. A manuscript will be considered on the understanding that it has been submitted exclusively to AOGS, that the material presented has not been published before and is not under simultaneous consideration elsewhere. Priority is given to articles containing original and innovative research data with a clinical emphasis and to articles or reviews using a systematic or evidence-based approach.

The journal is owned by the Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology, encompassing the professional societies of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, but is lead independently from the Federation by a Chief Editor and an Editorial Board. The publisher is Wiley-Blackwell.

Online manuscript submission

Submissions to the journal must be made through an online submission service. Please direct your browser to the following address:

For first time users, start by creating a new account, and then follow the instructions provided. For existing/prior users, log into your account and then enter your ‘Corresponding Author Center’. For additional assistance, contact the Editorial Office via e-mail at:

IthenticatePlease note that by submitting your manuscript to AOGS you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published articles.

Please prepare your manuscript according to the information provided below and with exact attention to the journal's style and format as seen in any recent issue and articles on similar topics in the journal.

A Cover Letter should be provided, where authors introduce the study or material sent to the journal, comment on its appropriateness for the journal or other reasons/circumstances that prompted submission to AOGS, and vouch for accuracy of the manuscript according to the guidelines given here. Authors may also inform the Editors of any special circumstances or details regarding the submitted material, including prior submission/publication of the material or parts of the material to another journal or in a minority language. We wish to be informed about such matters in an open way and be told about reasons for prior rejection, as this helps in the evaluation of a manuscript. Information about responses to prior criticism received is useful. A prior reason for rejection may not apply to this journal and our peer review proceeds independently. Include a copy of your previous related publications, if relevant for clarification. State contributions to authorship (note our comments on authorship). Although not published in the journal, this is necessary information for the editors.

Please be accurate and comprehensive in all information supplied during the submission process. You will be asked to name some preferred reviewers, if this can be done (not obligatory). Please note that these should not be from within your own institution and if possible from another country and unconnected to you or your research group. Non-preferred reviewers may also be named.

Manuscript design
Manuscripts should be arranged according to rules stated in the “Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals”; see also: Ann Intern Med 1997;126:36-47, or JAMA 1997;277:927-34 or The journal specific requirements are detailed below.

Manuscripts should be structured in this order as follows:
1) Title page, 2) Conflicts of Interest statement, 3) Abstract, 4) Keywords and Abbreviations, 5) Key Message, 6) Main text, including; a) Introduction, b) Material and methods, c) Results, and d) Discussion and for larger studies a separate Conclusion, 7) Acknowledgments, 8) Funding Statement, 9) References, 10) Legends of Figures and Tables, 11) Tables and/or Figures.

Title page – should include: a) full title of the article b) running headline (for page heading, max 49 characters), c) all contributing authors with full name (first name(s), followed by initials if appropriate, then surname), title/degrees and d) affiliation(s) (institution, town and country) in English. Affiliations are marked in superscript numbers. Provide separately the corresponding author details (only one) to whom all decision letters and page proofs will be communicated (give a professional, not private, address and include telephone with country code and e-mail).

Conflicts of Interest notification on a separate page – all authors must state explicitly whether potential conflicts of interest do or do not exist. Authors must include the statement in the manuscript on the page following the title page, providing additional detail, if necessary, in the Cover Letter.

Abstract – a structured abstract of no more than 250 words is required for Main Research and Review Articles, subdivided into the following sequential sections: Objective, Design, Setting, Population or Sample, Methods, Main outcome measures, Results, Conclusions.

Short Research Reports, Commentaries and Case Reports require a maximum 150-word “block” style, non-structured abstract, which also may be used for more narrative-style reviews or commentaries.

Please note that clear, descriptive and search-optimized titles and abstracts are important considerations to the journal. Guidelines are available here.

Note also the journal’s Checklist for Authors.

Title -this should describe the article content clearly and concisely. Do not use abbreviations or proprietary names in the title and avoid lengthy titles.

Keywords - Include in the manuscript file 5-8 keywords representative of your article immediately after the abstract. These are used for indexing services and other search facilities for published material. One or two should be from topics provided in the relevant part of the submission procedure, others are selected by the submitting author. Standardized medical subject headings (MeSH) are preferred.

Abbreviations - Provide a list of abbreviations used in the text after the key words (see later).

Key Message box - For all Main Research Articles and Review Articles we ask authors to provide a key message from the article which will be in a box at the front of the article. This should be 1-3 short sentences differently phrased from the Abstract conclusion, and maximally 40 words. Emphasize what main problem is targeted and to what degree it was solved or knowledge added.

Main text - The text for Main Research Articles and Short Research Reports should be structured with the following headings (bold, lower case): Introduction, Material and methods (including statistical analysis, ethics and consent issues), Results and Discussion. Subheadings or subdivisions of the main headings (in non-bold italics) may be used for clarification in larger and more detailed articles, but should be limited to methodologic key aspects and then mainly in the Material and methods and Results sections. The usual exception is Statistical or Data analysis in Main Research Articles. For longer articles and those involving complicated methodology subdivisions/subheadings may be appropriate. Secondary subheadings require approval by the editors. Subheadings/subdivisions are not used in Short Research Reports.

Organize original research manuscripts in the following manner:

Introduction: Orient the reader to the problem(s) addressed, preferably in one page or less, and clearly state the purpose or objective of the research, the problem being investigated, relevant background and key published work, and what questions are to be addressed or answered. Avoid a detailed literature review in this section.

Material and methods: Describe the research methodology in sufficient detail so that others can duplicate the work. This section should state details of ethical committee (institutional review board) approval (including relevant reference numbers or approval dates) and study participants´ informed consent. Identify methods of statistical analysis and when appropriate power calculations in a separate subdivision or paragraph. State what statistical methods were used for different parts of the study and give details of test values as appropriate. Cite statistical software programs used. Express probability values (p, small letter in italics) in general to no more than three decimals after the first 0 before the decimal point. Indicate whether p-values are one- or two-sided. Reports in which a statistical difference was not found must provide some indication of the study’s power to detect such a difference, and this information must be included in the abstract. For decimal fractions less than 1.00 use a zero in the whole number position (such as 0.001). In the text confidence intervals should be reported using a colon and with a dash between values. In tables they should have the same format and be in a separate marked column. Be careful with the correct use of terms such as odds ratio, relative risk or hazard ratio. Write percent in one word or use %. In tables use the % mark above a column or percentage values and avoid internal brackets/parentheses in the tables. For mathematical equations use italic type for variables and single letters and write them on a single line if possible.

Results: Present the findings in appropriate detail. Duplication between text and tables or figures must be avoided. Related subject matters should be joined in paragraphs (avoid one sentence paragraphs).

Discussion: Raise implications of the findings reported and compare them with those of earlier reports. The focus of this section should be the importance of the actual main findings to clinicians and patient care. It may be helpful in developing arguments to reiterate some of the findings, but avoid repetition of results given earlier in the article. A complete review of the literature is not necessary, nor to restate in detail findings from other studies. Although some degree of speculation is permissible, avoid unfounded conclusions. A final concise summary in one short paragraph can be helpful. For longer articles a separate Conclusion(s) section may be appropriate.

Acknowledgments: Persons who have made a valuable contribution but do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgments section at the end of the manuscript. This may include a specified patient group, associations and voluntary bodies, but linguistic revision, general patient populations, regular staff members or databases are in general not included, except by editorial permission. Use plain language and avoid adjectives.

Funding - Financial and material support must be acknowledged. Grant bodies and major financial contributors are to be listed. If no specific funding was obtained, this should also be stated.

Conflicts of interests - (see details below).

References – in straight Vancouver style (see details below).

Figure and Table legends – clearly marked with a heading above, not below, for each table/figure. Note our style of referring to such material in the text. Legends must be fully explanatory.

Tables – If created using the tables tool in Word processing software, tables can be included in the main document, after the main text and the references. Use the table feature provided in Word for formatting. Tables should not be placed within the main text and a space for them there should not be indicated. Keep tables on separate pages with their legends placed above the body of the table. Use sequential Arabic numerals for tables in both text and legends. Tables must be concise and self-explanatory, including the legend which must provide details on the study such as location, time and population if relevant. Use a single top rule, a single rule below the headings, straddle rules for column headings of subcategories and add a single bottom rule, but avoid other rules, including vertical ones, in the body of the table. Use a grid for the whole table and not for each row. Tabs are preferred to spacing for aligning columns. Footnotes may be used and are marked by superscript letters in italics. The number of tables and figures should be kept to a minimum. Repetition/overlap of information given in tables/figures/text should be avoided as possible.

Figures – should be submitted as separate files in the best possible quality. All figures should be cited in the text in numerical order. Arabic numerals are used for figures as well. Legends for figures should be on a separate page in the main text, after the references and before the tables. When submitting artwork electronically, please read the information on the Wiley-Blackwell website here. Vector graphics (such as line artwork) should be saved in Encapsulated Postscript Format (EPS), and bitmap files (e.g. photographs) in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). Line art must be scanned at a minimum of 800 dpi, photographs at a minimum of 300 dpi. Figures based on previously published material must be accompanied by evidence of full permission to reproduce the figure from author(s)/publisher(s) or copyright holder.

• The journal will decide on the placement of tables and figures in the text (do not indicate this).

Indicate, if appropriate, that you have followed the CONSORT, MOOSE, PRISMA, STARD, STROBE or similar acknowledged guidelines (for more information, see here).

Do not number the sections of the manuscript.


The ‘Vancouver style’ of references must be applied (straight variety). No more than 30 references are accepted as a general rule for Main Research Articles and 12 for Short Research Reports. Exceptions to this can be made if the reason is noted in the Cover Letter or with prior permission from the editors.

State the references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text, using full-size Arabic numerals within parentheses (not in superscript) and before a point or comma. References cited only in tables or in legends to figures should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. List all authors when six or fewer, when seven or more, list the first six and add ‘et al’. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of all references.

Abbreviations of journal titles: please consult the List of Journals in Index Medicus – for more information, see here.

Examples of the most commonly used reference types:

Standard journal article
1. Milland M, Christoffersen JK, Hedegaard M. The size of the labor wards: is bigger better when it comes to patient safety? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2013;92:1271-6.

2. Siassakos D, Fox R, Bristowe K, Angouri J, Hambly H, Robson L et al. What makes maternity teams effective and safe? Lessons from a series of research on teamwork, leadership and team training. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2013;92:1239-43.

If the language is not English, add the translated title in brackets, such as:
3. Janson PO, Friden B. Du sköna nya värld. Mänskliga embryon genom kloning: Vad är möjligt och vad är önskvärt? [Brave New World". Human embryo cloning: what is possible and what is eligible?] (in Swedish. No abstract available.) Lakartidningen. 2004;101:760-3.

4. Bø K, Berghmans B, Mørkved S, Van Kampen M (eds.). Evidence-based physical therapy for the pelvic floor. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2007.

Chapter in book
5. Geirsson RT. Midpregnancy problems. In: James DK, Weiner CP, Steer PJ, Gonik B (eds). High Risk pregnancy. 3rd edn. Philadelphia PA: Elsevier Saunders, 2006. pp. 125-37.

For more examples of how to refer to different sources, consult the uniform requirements for biomedical journals here.

Unpublished data, personal communications, statistical programs, "papers" presented at meetings, abstracts and manuscripts submitted for publication cannot be used as a reference. Information from such sources may be cited, if necessary, in the text with the sources given in parentheses. This includes Web-pages. Articles accepted by peer reviewed publications but not yet published (“in press”) are not acceptable as references until they are in Epub format when a DOI number may be cited.

Color Figures
Authors are required to pay for any color illustrations for the print publication of the journal. Color figures may be published for free in the online version of the article, i.e. free color-on-the-web (CoW) service.

If you are willing to pay for the color figures for the print publication you must complete and return a color work agreement form before your article can be published. This form is a PDF file. To read PDF files, you must have Acrobat Reader installed on your computer. If you do not have this program, this is available as a free download here. If you are unable to download the form, please contact the Editorial office.

Please return the completed form to the Production Editor at the following postal address:

Dianah Pasuni, Production Editor
Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica
1 Fusionopolis Walk
#07-01 Solaris South Tower,
Singapore 138628

Please note that if you have chosen this option your article will not be published until the Production Editor has received your color work agreement form. Only the original hardcopy color work agreement form can be accepted. Please do not email or fax completed forms.

If you are not willing or able to cover the costs of reproducing color figures in print, your figures may be published in color for free in the online version of the article, but they will appear in black and white in the print version. To take advantage of the free color-on-the-web (CoW) service, please ensure that the figures are suitable for both color and black and white reproduction. If you have any questions, please contact the Production Editor at the above address.

Supporting Information
Supporting Information should enhance the parent article but should not be essential to understand the article content in the print edition of the journal. All Supporting Information must be referred to in the manuscript, and labelled Table S1, Table S2, Figure S1 etc. Please do not include Supporting Information within the main manuscript file, but upload as separate file(s). Videos will be included as supporting information. For further instructions, click here. Supporting document information with a web-directory as to where they are found will be at the back of the text.

Supporting Information content may include text documents, questionnaires, tables, figures, graphics, illustrations, audio and DVD/video material, research protocols and mathematical calculations. Authors reporting results from a questionnaire survey should include a copy of the questionnaire used (original language and/or English translation) together with the manuscript, unless the questionnaire is in common use and/or published before, when a reference will suffice. Supporting Information is subject to the terms in the Copyright Transfer Agreement form, but authors are solely responsible for the accuracy and content of the material provided (a publisher's disclaimer is added).

Cite all Supporting Information content consecutively in the text. Citations should be clearly labelled as “Supporting Information Content” on submission. Include a sequential number (S1, S2, S3 etc.) and provide a brief description of the supplemental content. Provide a legend on Supporting Information content at the end of the text, and list each legend in the order in which the material is cited in the text. The legends must be numbered to match the citations from the text. Include a title and a brief summary of the content. For audio and video files, include also the author's name(s), videographer, participants, length (minutes), and size (MB). Permission statements from patients/relevant other individuals may be required.

Manuscript Style
The text of your article must be prepared using a word processing program and it must be saved as a .doc, .rtf, or .ps file (no pdf files please). The text should use 1.5 spacing with generous margins. Times New Roman in 12 pt size is the preferred font style (Helvetica or Arial are acceptable). Smaller spacing and font may be used for the reference list, within tables and figures, but the font style should match that of the text. Do not justify the text.

The main text part of the manuscript should in general not exceed 3500 words; less than 3000 is preferred (for more information about article length, see notes by specific article types below). If an especially long text is necessary, authors are asked to explain the reason for this in their Cover Letter.

Decimals should be indicated by points after the whole number (0.5; 0.001) and thousands by an extra space for figures over 9999, but not by commas or points (for example 1000, 20 500).

Manuscripts should be written in clear and concise scientific English. American spelling should be used throughout (see below).

It is the responsibility of authors to ensure the quality of the language in submitted articles. Inadequate English may mean that articles will be rejected or returned to authors for improvement. Note that command of colloquial English may not be sufficient and this is not the same as scientific medical English, for which professional services may be needed (see example here). Use if indicated the spelling and grammar check functions in your word processor. Some minor editing may be done on the text and language for articles accepted for publication while at the proof stage, but no major changes are accepted at or after this stage.

Note that “fetus” or “fetal” should be spelled without ”o”, that e is used instead of ae or oe (gynecology instead of gynaecology, cesarean instead of caesarean, anemia not anaemia, hematology not haematology and estrogen instead of oestrogen). Numbers one to nine that are free-standing in the text should be spelt out; for 10 or more people, objects, days, months etc. use Arabic numerals. “Women” is generally preferred to “patients” where possible and where disease is not the issue in question. The use of the term "subjects" is discouraged as a less than ideal reference to women. “Relation to, with, between” is preferred to “relationship”, which should be reserved for what is interpersonal. Birthweight should be one word, as is "percent". Use appropriate symbols such as ≤, ≥, ±, ®,™ where indicated. Write "such as" or "for example" instead of "e.g." and "vs." instead of "versus"

Design and Methods
The design of investigations, methods of analysis and the source of data should be described in sufficient detail to permit the study to be repeated by others and must include specification of all statistical methods. See also guidelines on Authors are asked to detail in the text, tables or figure legends (footnotes) which statistical test was used where, along with p-values. Odds ratios, relative risk and 95% confidence limits are preferred as measures of uncertainty. Give information on whether a trained biostatistician did work actively on the study and its evaluation in the Cover Letter, affiliations and/or Acknowledgments, as appropriate.

Abbreviations and commercial names
Measurements should be expressed in SI units with the exception of blood pressure (mmHg). See also the IUB Biochemical Nomenclature on for further information. Any abbreviations or acronyms used should be listed on a separate page after the abstract and defined at first use in the main body of the article. Use only widely accepted and conventional abbreviations. A list can be accessed here. Avoid abbreviations in the title and abstract. If an abbreviation appears four times or less in the manuscript it should not be used.

Commercial names cannot be used in the title or abstract. Generic names of drugs should be used unless a proprietary name is directly relevant. Any specialized equipment, chemical or pharmaceutical product cited in the text must be accompanied by the manufacturer's location (town, country) and/or manufacturer's web-address.

Ethics and consent
When reporting experiments on humans, indicate whether the procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible local or national committee on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration (1975, revised 1983, World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki; Standards for the editorial process at AOGS are in accordance with the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guideline (AOGS is a listed member).

Identifying information should not be published in written declarations, photographs or pedigrees. Do not reveal patients’ names, initials or hospital numbers, for example in illustrative material. Photographs of humans must be accompanied by informed consent of the person(s) concerned even when only parts of their features are shown. This also requires that the person should see the figure and manuscript before publication. This may also apply to individual case histories described. Facial features must be unrecognizable.

The Editorial Office may request the authors to supply a pdf copy or original paper copy of an ethical committee or institutional review board approval for articles describing animal experiments or clinical studies/trials (patients, patient material, medical records) and the like, including a verified and official translation of such documents. Please supply the date of issue and registration number of the ethical committee/institutional review board and/or data protection authority approval. If no ethics approval was received/necessary, explain the reason(s) for this, preferably quoting a national regulation/law. A lack of clarity on this may preclude publication. You may be asked for further documentation in such cases. Ethical matters are reported within the Material and methods section and a specific subheading for ethical matters is not used. Indicate if a trial is registered with a public trials registry or similar official registration body and give appropriate referral data to this.

Conflicts of Interest

Authors are responsible for disclosing all financial and personal relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. State all relevant financial (such as patent or stock ownership, consultancies, speaker's fees), personal, political, intellectual or religious interests. Funding for any type of publication, for example by a commercial company, charity or government department, should be stated. A conflict of interest should not prevent someone from being listed as an author if they qualify for authorship. To prevent ambiguity, all authors must state explicitly whether potential conflicts do or do not exist. This information will be included on the title page of the published article. Authors must include the statement in the manuscript on a conflicts of interest notification page following the title page, providing additional detail, if necessary, in a cover letter accompanying the manuscript.

Contribution to Authorship
A paragraph in the Cover Letter explaining each author's contribution is required. To qualify for authorship an individual should meet all the following criteria: (a) substantial contributions to conception and design or acquisition of data or to analysis and interpretation of data; (b) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and (c) final approval of the version to be published. Contributors who do not qualify for authorship should be included in the Acknowledgments section. If authorship is attributed to a group or collective, include at least one individual name. List the names of the individuals in the group or collective in Supporting Information, which will as a rule be published online and referred to in the printed version, but may for smaller lists be published as an Appendix. The journal publishes statements on joint contributions as an exception when full documentation of this is received; please contact the Editorial office for details.

Provision of additional information
During consideration of a manuscript, it may become necessary to examine original source documents such as ethical committee or institutional review board material, signed consent forms, research data books or logs and statistical calculations. The Editorial Board reserves the right to ask for such information.

Additional author resources are available via the Publisher’s Author Services here.

Peer review
The Chief Editor and/or Editorial Board members will screen and decide on suitability of submitted manuscripts with reference to the main aims of the journal and specific Editorial Board policy decisions. A manuscript may be declined/rejected before or after a peer-review process, if it is deemed out of scope or if it does not meet general standards of the journal as defined at any time by the Editorial Board. This may include reasons such as lack of scientific originality and poor design or execution, and inadequate scientific English. All articles will be subject to peer-review by the Chief Editor, the Editorial Board and selected experts within each field of expertise. This is to ensure the quality and importance of published research. Usually, two reviewers will be invited to evaluate each manuscript and the responsible Editor will take their comments under consideration when making a final decision, which is approved by the Chief Editor. The review process is single-blinded, which means that the reviewers know the identity of the authors, but the authors will not know the identity of the reviewers. Letters to the Editor are not peer-reviewed but subject to the Editors´ approval. Manuscript handling times will be kept as short as possible, but a minimal time cannot be guaranteed.

Copyright Assignment
If your manuscript is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author will receive an email prompting her/him to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below: CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit
If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by the Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:
For RCUK and Wellcome Trust authors click on the link below to preview the terms and conditions of this license:

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

Questions regarding copyright should be sent to Wiley-Blackwell, email: with a copy to the editorial office, email: Permission to reproduce material published in AOGS should be submitted via the "Request Permissions" link provided for each individual article. The request can then be made via the Rightslink service.

Use of accepted article
After acceptance: Provided that you give appropriate acknowledgement to the journal, the Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, and a full bibliographic reference for the article when it is published, you may use the accepted version of the article as originally submitted for publication in the journal, and updated to include any amendments made after peer review, in the following ways:
• you may share print or electronic copies of the article with colleagues;
• you may use all or part of the article and abstract, without revision or modification, in personal compilations or other publications of your own work;
• you may use the article within your employer's institution or company for educational or research purposes, including use in course packs;
• 12 months after publication you may post an electronic version of the article on your own personal website, on your employer's website/repository and on free public servers in your subject area. Electronic versions of the accepted article must include a link to the published versions of the article together with the following text: "The definitive version is available at".
Revelations to public media of submitted material requires permission.
Please note that you are not permitted to post the Blackwell Publishing pdf version of the article online.

OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. The full list of terms and conditions is available here.

Any authors wishing to make their article OnlineOpen will be required to complete the OnlineOpen Order Form. Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your manuscript OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

Accepted Articles

AOGS now uses Wiley's Accepted Articles service for all articles within a short time of acceptance. Immediately after acceptance in AOGS, the manuscripts of articles are made publicly available online. 'Accepted Articles' have been peer-reviewed and accepted for formal publication, but have not been subject to copyediting, composition or proof correction. The service has been designed to ensure the earliest possible circulation of research articles after acceptance. Accepted Articles appear in pdf format only and are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, which allows them to be cited and tracked. The DOI remains unique to a given article in perpetuity and can continue to be used to cite and access the article further to publication. More information about DOIs can be found online. Neither the Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG) nor Wiley-Blackwell can be held responsible for errors or consequences arising from the use of information contained in Accepted Articles; nor do the views and opinions expressed necessarily reflect those of the NFOG or Wiley-Blackwell.

Early View
AOGS is covered by Wiley-Blackwell's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in an issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier number (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue.

The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a website. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a pdf file from this site. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) here. This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof.

Authors can download an electronic pdf offprint of their article upon publication through Wiley-Blackwell's Author Services (see below). Additional paper offprints may be ordered here.

Author Services
Author Services enable authors to track their article, once it has been accepted, through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive and e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit Wiley Online Library Author Services here for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Note to NIH grantees
Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see here, Author Material Archive Policy. Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley-Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible if you have not already done so.

Types of articles

Please note the general editorial policy described in the Main Aims above. The journal also adheres to the principles and guidelines on publication advocated by the Equator network.

Original research may be reported in a Main Research Article or as a Short Research Report. Prospective authors of Review Articles and Commentaries may contact the Editorial Board or Editorial Office with suggestions for such contributions, which may also be solicited or commissioned by the Editorial Board. Letters to the Editor on anything published in the journal or on matters of technology or innovation that do not warrant a full scientific report may be published. The journal does only publish Case reports exceptionally, after prior consultation with the Chief Editor via e-mail. These must comprise findings of clinical novelty relating to etiology or management and which cannot be researched in other ways. Such material may also be dealt with in a Letter to the Editor.

We work together with Clinical Case Reports, a Wiley Open Access journal, to enable rapid publication of good quality case reports that we are unable to accept for publication in our journal. Authors of case reports that AOGS does not feel able to process further may be offered the option of having their case report, along with any related peer reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Clinical Case Reports editorial team. Authors will not need to reformat or rewrite their manuscript at this stage, and publication decisions will be made a short time after the transfer takes place. Article publication fees apply. For more information please go to

Main Research Articles
A main research article is a report on basic science/experimental research work or a clinical or epidemiological investigation, usually between 2000 and 3500 words and may present the outcome of a randomized trial, a large prospective trial, cohort, case-control, observational or retrospective study. These must have a full structured abstract (see above) and have in general no more than 30 references (see above). Small audit reports, pilot studies and preliminary reports are not suitable for the Main Research Article category, but may be considered for the Short Research Report format (see below).

Short Research Reports
Short Research Reports (1000-1800 words) usually detail smaller studies on limited or specific topics, small patient series, advances in technology or innovation, preliminary research communications, preliminary findings or pilot studies and the like and are permitted with at most one or two tables and/or one illustration and no more than 12 references. They are fully quoted and listed in the same way as Main Research Articles. A block abstract of maximum 150 words is required.

Different study materials:

Observational studies
Observational studies (cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies) should follow the STROBE guidelines. Further information is available through the Equator network or here (available checklists). A MOOSE statement is required for meta-analyses of observational studies.

Diagnostic evaluations
A STARD flow diagram and checklist are required for manuscripts reporting results of evaluations of diagnostic tests. For more information, see here.

Randomized Controlled Trials

Randomized controlled trials require a CONSORT flowchart/checklist (submitted as a Figure File), see example here. Authors may be asked to submit a copy of the original protocol upon which the trial was based.

AOGS will in general only consider publishing randomized trials that have been registered in a public trials registry. The name of the registry and the registration number should be stated at the end of the abstract of the manuscript. Trials must be registered at the time or before patients are enrolled. We define clinical trials according to ICMJE (International Conference of Medical Journal Editors), as any research project that prospectively assigns humans to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause and effect relation between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (such as phase I trials), would be exempt.

Registries that currently meet appropriate minimum criteria include:
the registry sponsored by the U.S. National Library of Medicine
the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trail Number Registry
the Cochrane Renal Group registry
the National (U.K.) Research Register

The Chief Editor reserves the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned requirements. The author will be held responsible for false statements or for failure to fulfill the above mentioned requirements.

Research protocols
Research protocols for randomized controlled trials may be published electronically and require a summary of in general no more than 400 words, which will be printed if the protocol is accepted. A separate document should contain the complete protocol. The relevant Research Ethics Committee approval date and reference number are required, if applicable for the country of origin. AOGS will be pleased to consider for publication the trial for which the protocol was accepted, subject to satisfactory reviewers´ reports in the regular processing of manuscripts.

Review Articles
These can be clinical review articles or systematic review articles of clinical or experimental research, between 2000 and 4000 words in general (not including abstract, tables, figures, and references). Both clinical reviews and experimental research review articles should follow general guidelines on using original evidence, weighted for methodological quality and provide recommendations based on such methodology. For other formats, clinical reviews/ overviews or longer review articles please consult the Chief Editor. Purely narrative reviews may be considered for more limited topics where evidence-based medicine or information is less applicable. Using an original approach to original research is necessary in a review. References to prior reviews are normally discouraged, but may be used in less systematic review formats. The two main types of reviews, clinical and systematic, are described in detail below.

Clinical Reviews
Clinical review articles should be evidence-based updates of the medical literature, encompassing a broad discussion of the topic under consideration. In general the PRISMA standards should be followed. Clinical reviews must draw on evidence-based and major original articles as well as high quality recommendations and guidelines from common databases such as ClinicalEvidence, The Cochrane Collaboration, Evidence-Based Medicine, Essential Evidence Plus, or national guidelines.

The text should be 2000-4000 words in general. The number of references is not restricted by a maximum number but should be reasonable and authors may be asked to supply a full list for online publishing and a selected list which will appear in print. Clinical reviews should include 1) the clinical question or issue and its importance; 2) description of how the relevant evidence was identified, assessed for quality and selected for inclusion; 3) synthesis of the available evidence such that the best-quality evidence should receive the greatest emphasis (such as well-conducted clinical trials, meta-analyses, prospective cohort studies followed by observational or cohort studies). Levels of strength of evidence to support main clinical recommendations need to be used and stated (such as ABC-rating systems or similar); 4) discussion of controversial aspects and unresolved issues. Authors interested in submitting a Clinical Review manuscript should contact the Editorial Office prior to manuscript preparation and submission by sending an e-mail to the office or the Chief Editor and to the Review Editor, Jens Langhoff-Roos at

For reference on how to construct a clinical review, a useful source is the American Academy of Family Physicians website, see here.

Systematic reviews
These manuscripts are systematic, comprehensive and critical assessments of publications/literature and data sources pertaining to clinical topics, emphasizing factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention. All articles or data sources should be searched for and selected systematically for inclusion and critically evaluated, and the search and selection process should be described in the manuscript. The specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes should be described for each article or data source. The data sources should be as current as possible, ideally with the search having been conducted within months of manuscript submission. The manuscript should follow the format outlined below as possible

Systematic reviews must be:
1) in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. For further advice on writing systematic reviews authors may consult The Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook.
2) the text should in general be restricted to a maximum of 4000 words (not including abstract, tables, figures, and references). The number of references is not restricted by a maximum number but should be reasonable. Select key references up to the number of 30, which will be published in print. Additional references will be available on-line with a link at the end of the printed reference list, as detailed above.
3) a PRISMA Checklist is required for the Editors' use only.

Specific comments:
1) Abstract: Systematic and major clinical review articles should have a structured abstract of no more than 250 words, using the following headings:
• Background: Optional if required.
• Objective: Statement of purpose of the review.
• Data Sources: Sources searched, including dates, terms, and constraints.
• Study Selection: Number of studies reviewed and selection criteria, including guidelines for extracting data.
• Results: Main results of the review, including the methods of correlating and integrating findings.
• Conclusion: Primary conclusions and their clinical applications.
2) Main text: This should be organized in a manner similar to the structured abstract.
• Introduction: Indicates why the topic is important and states the specific objective(s) of the review.
• Sources: Identifies what was searched and how; if a computerized system was used, specify the period searched, the language(s) covered, and the search terms.
• Study selection: Identify the number and nature of reports reviewed, the basis of any selection (exclusion and inclusion criteria) and the reports in the final tabulation.
• Results: Describe how observations across studies were tabulated and integrated into a cohesive whole. Tabulate material if possible, including major summary points, but try to ensure that tables are not necessarily bulky and contain brief text.
• Discussion: Consider the findings, along with clinical implications and need for additional research. The strength and validity of the literature that supports the discussion should be evaluated with reference to meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials with important outcomes, well designed non-randomized clinical trials, clinical cohort and case-control studies, and if relevant, historical, observational and epidemiological items.

Cite original articles primarily, not previous reviews on the same topic unless absolutely necessary. For further advice on writing systematic reviews authors may consult the Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook. See also guidelines to be found through the Equator Network.

Full disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is required.

Authors of reports of meta-analyses of randomized trials are encouraged to submit the PRISMA flow diagram and checklist. Authors of meta-analyses of observational studies are encouraged to submit the proposed MOOSE checklist.

Other Review Articles
Review Articles in a format between a commentary and clinical review article are also considered. Such articles (up to 4000 words) should present a didactic overview or non-systematic review of a well defined clinical or experimental topic. The search for and evaluation of evidence should be classified in the standard way outlined above so as to give credibility to the comprehensiveness of the handling of background material, but a certain narrative approach is allowed, with subheadings as required. These contributions should not be more than 4000 words in the main text and conditions on references used are the same as generally stated above.

Commentaries are discussion essays on subjects of current interest or controversy, giving room for the authors own views supported by evidence as they choose. Contributions in this category are welcomed. They should not exceed 2000 words, be concise and factual and not use more than 24 references. A maximum 150-word block abstract is required. Full disclosure of interests and/or prior publications on related issues, is necessary.

Editorials and Editors´ Messages are supplied by the Chief Editor, Editorial Board or International Editors, or by others as Guest Editorials, by invitation only. No abstract is required.

Letters to the Editor

In general, Letters to the Editor should refer to articles published in the Journal no more than 16 weeks before. The original authors will be given an opportunity to present a Reply in the same issue, at the discretion of the Chief Editor. Letters on other matters of interest (specific topics, short case presentations, technology matters, points of debate/controversy) may also be considered. An effort is made to publish accepted letters within three months of acceptance. Letters should comprise no more than 500 words, with no more than five references, including one to the article under discussion. A topical heading is required, also for Replies, and the manuscript must include the full names and affiliations of the signatories.

Other material
Conference reports, Consensus Statements, Guidelines or other relevant material may be considered after prior contact to the Chief Editor or Editorial Board members. Such material must have international significance.

Supplements to the journal
Topic-oriented supplements and theme issues are encouraged. Supplements require separate funding. Suggestions are welcomed from all interested parties. The contents of such supplements will at all times be subject to the same editorial and peer review handling as other scientific material.

AOGS strives for high quality and informative medical writing with a broad outlook towards regional and international matters of significance to womens´ health and within the confines of obstetrics and gynecology and related reproductive biology.

The Publisher and Editors cannot be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in this journal; the views and opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the Publisher and Editors, neither does the publication of advertisements constitute any endorsement by the Publisher and Editors of the products advertised.

Revised 14th March 2013