Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 2

Edited By: Michael S. Marks, Trina A. Schroer, Robert G. Parton and Sharon A. Tooze

Online ISSN: 1600-0854

Virtual Issue Microbiology

MicrobiologyVirtual Issue Microbiology

The cell biology of microbes as well as effects of the microbial pathogens on the host cell have provided exciting and unique insights for cell biologists, and Traffichas become a premier journal for the publication of papers reporting new discoveries in this field. The most recent Traffic papers on all aspects of microbiology will now be collected together as TRAFFIC - MICROBIOLOGY.

Microbiology Cover Legend
J774E macrophage-like cells are being infected by Afipia felis (red), a rare cause for Cat Scratch Disease. Uptake is by macropinocytosis in that lamellipodia (green) are formed which then fuse and lead to ingestion of a large liquid volume including the bacteria. Photo courtesy of Bianca Schneider, Christian Schueller, and Albert Haas, University of Bonn, Germany.

Global analysis of apicomplexan protein S-acyl transferases reveals an enzyme essential for invasion

K Frénal, CL Tay, C Mueller, ES Bushell, Y Jia, A Graindorge, O Billker, JC Rayner and D Soldati-Favre

Ancient complexity, opisthokont plasticity, and discovery of the 11th subfamily of Arf GAP proteins

A Schlacht, K Mowbrey, M Elias, RA Kahn and JB Dacks

A HT/PEXEL Motif in Toxoplasma Dense Granule Proteins is a Signal for Protein Cleavage but not Export into the Host Cell

Chia-Hung Christine Hsiao, N. Luisa Hiller, Kasturi Haldar and Laura J. Knoll

Role of Plasmepsin V in Export of Diverse Protein Families from the Plasmodium falciparum Exportome

Justin A. Boddey, Teresa G. Carvalho, Anthony N. Hodder, Tobias J. Sargeant, Brad E. Sleebs, Danushka Marapana, Sash Lopaticki, Thomas Nebl, Alan F. Cowman

Proteomic Analysis of Clathrin Interactions in Trypanosomes Reveals Dynamic Evolution of Endocytosis

Vincent O. Adung'a, Catarina Gadelha and Mark C. Field

Lipid-labeling facilitates a novel magnetic isolation procedure to characterize pathogen-containing phagosomes

C Steinhäuser, U Heigl, V Tchikov, J Schwarz, T Gutsmann, K Seeger, J Brandenburg, J Fritsch, J Schroeder, KH Wiesmüller, I Rosenkrands, P Walther, J Pott, E Krause, S Ehlers, W Schneider-Brachert, S Schütze and N Reiling

A Common Clathrin-Mediated Machinery Co-ordinates Cell–Cell Adhesion and Bacterial Internalization
Matteo Bonazzi, Andreas Kühbacher, Alejandro Toledo-Arana, Adeline Mallet, Lavanya Vasudevan, Javier Pizarro-Cerdá, Frances M. Brodsky, Pascale Cossart
Traffic, Early View, Abstract
Invasive bacterial pathogens often target cellular proteins involved in adhesion as a first event during infection. For example, Listeria monocytogenes uses the bacterial protein InlA to interact with E-cadherin, hijack the host adherens junction (AJ) machinery and invade non-phagocytic cells by a clathrin-dependent mechanism. Here, we investigate a potential role for clathrin in cell–cell adhesion. We observed that the initial steps of AJ formation trigger the phosphorylation of clathrin, and its transient localization at forming cell–cell contacts...

Chlamydiae Assemble a Pathogen Synapse to Hijack the Host Endoplasmic Reticulum
Maud Dumoux, Daniel K. Clare, Helen R. Saibil, Richard D. Hayward
Traffic, Early View, Abstract
Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate within a specialized membrane-bound compartment, termed an ‘inclusion’. The inclusion membrane is a critical host–pathogen interface, yet the extent of its interaction with cellular organelles and the origin of this membrane remain poorly defined. Here we show that the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is specifically recruited to the inclusion, and that key rough ER (rER) proteins are enriched on and translocated into the inclusion. rER recruitment is a Chlamydia-orchestrated process that occurs independently of host trafficking...

Malaria Parasite Signal Peptide Peptidase is an ER-Resident Protease Required for Growth but not for Invasion
Danushka S. Marapana, Danny W. Wilson, Elizabeth S. Zuccala, Chaitali D. Dekiwadia, James G. Beeson, Stuart A. Ralph, Jake Baum
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 11: 1457–1465, Abstract
The establishment of parasite infection within the human erythrocyte is an essential stage in the development of malaria disease. As such, significant interest has focused on the mechanics that underpin invasion and on characterization of parasite molecules involved. Previous evidence has implicated a presenilin-like signal peptide peptidase (SPP) from the most virulent human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in the process of invasion where it has been proposed to function in the cleavage of the erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein Band 3. The role of a traditionally endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protease in the process of red blood cell invasion is unexpected. Here, using a combination of molecular,...

The host endocytic pathway is essential for Plasmodium berghei late liver stage development
Mafalda Lopes da Silva, Carolina Thieleke-Matos, Laura Cabrita-Santos, José S. Ramalho, Silène T. Wavre-Shapton, Clare E. Futter, Duarte C. Barral and Miguel C. Seabra
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 10: 1351–1363, Abstract
The obligate intracellular liver stage of the Plasmodium parasite represents a bottleneck in the parasite life cycle and remains a promising target for therapeutic intervention. During this stage, parasites undergo dramatic morphological changes and achieve one of the fastest replication rates among eukaryotic species. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the parasite interactions with the host hepatocyte. Using immunofluorescence, live cell imaging and electron microscopy, we show that...

Dissection of Minimal Sequence Requirements for Rhoptry Membrane Targeting in the Malaria Parasite
Ana Cabrera, Susann Herrmann, Dominik Warszta, Joana M. Santos, Arun T. John Peter, Maya Kono, Sandra Debrouver, Thomas Jacobs, Tobias Spielmann, Christian Ungermann, Dominique Soldati-Favre and Tim W. Gilberger
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 10: 1335–1350, Abstract
Rhoptries are specialized secretory organelles characteristic of single cell organisms belonging to the clade Apicomplexa. These organelles play a key role in the invasion process of host cells by accumulating and subsequently secreting an unknown number of proteins mediating host cell entry. Despite their essential role, little is known about their biogenesis, components and targeting determinants. Here, we report on a conserved apicomplexan protein termed Armadillo Repeats-Only (ARO) protein that we localized to the cytosolic face of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii rhoptries...

Secretive Bacterial Pathogens and the Secretory Pathway
Hubert Hilbi, Albert Haas
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 9: 1187–1197, Abstract
Eukaryotic cells possess two extensive endomembrane systems, each consisting of several sub-compartments connected by vesicular trafficking. One of these systems, the endocytic pathway, serves incoming traffic, and the other system, the secretory pathway (SP), is responsible for surface-bound traffic of intracellularly formed vesicles. Compartments derived of either system can be colonized by intracellular pathogens. In this review, we discuss the interactions between the SP and prominent intracellular bacterial pathogens of the generaLegionella, Brucella, ChlamydiaandSalmonella. ..

Mechanisms of Fc receptor and Dectin-1 activation for phagocytosis
Helen S Goodridge, David M Underhill and Nicolas Touret
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 8: 1062–1071, Abstract
Phagocytosis is a key cellular process, both during homeostasis and upon infection or tissue damage. Receptors on the surface of professional phagocytic cells bind to target particles either directly or through opsonizing ligands, and trigger actin-mediated ingestion of the particles. The process must be carefully controlled to ensure that phagocytosis is triggered efficiently and specifically, and that the anti-microbial cytotoxic responses that often accompany it are initiated only when required...

The phagosome as the organelle linking innate and adaptive immunity
Jonathan C. Kagan, Akiko Iwasaki
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 8: 1053–1061, Abstract
The means by which phagocytosis and antimicrobial defense mechanisms are linked have expanded greatly in recent years. It is now clear that the process of phagocytosis does more than just degrade internalized microbes, but also helps coordinate the actions of the innate and adaptive immune system. This review will discuss the means by which Toll-like Receptor signaling pathways are coordinated around the processes of phagocytosis, phagosome trafficking and autophagy and how these signaling pathways influence T-cell mediated immunity. In this regard, we propose that at the subcellular level, phagosomes represent the smallest definable unit that links innate and adaptive immunity...

Mycobacteria and the Intraphagosomal Environment: Take It With a Pinch of Salt(s)!
Thierry Soldati and Olivier Neyrolles
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 8: 1042–1052, Abstract
Ancient protozoan phagocytes and modern professional phagocytes of metazoans, such as macrophages, employ evolutionarily conserved mechanisms to kill microbes. These mechanisms rely on microbial ingestion, followed by maturation of the phagocytic vacuole, or so-called phagosome. Phagosome maturation includes a series of fusion and fission events with the host cell endosomes and lysosomes, leading to ...

Apicoplast Targeting of a Toxoplasma gondii Transmembrane Protein Requires a Cytosolic Tyrosine-Based Motif
Amy E. DeRocher, Anuradha Karnataki, Pashmi Vaney and Marilyn Parsons
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 5: 694–704, Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii, like most apicomplexan parasites, possesses an essential relict chloroplast, the apicoplast. Several apicoplast membrane proteins lack the bipartite targeting sequences of luminal proteins. Vesicles bearing these membrane proteins are detected during apicoplast enlargement, but the means of cargo selection remains obscure. We used a combination of deletion mutagenesis, point ...

Erythrocyte Remodeling in Plasmodium berghei Infection: The Contribution of SEP Family Members
Chiara Currà, Tomasino Pace, Blandine M. D. Franke-Fayard, Leonardo Picci, Lucia Bertuccini and Marta Ponzi
Traffic. Volume 13, Issue 3: 388–399, Abstract
The malaria parasite Plasmodium largely modifies the infected erythrocyte through the export of proteins to multiple sites within the host cell. This remodeling is crucial for pathology and translocation of virulence factors to the erythrocyte surface. In this study, we investigated localization and export of small exported proteins/early transcribed membrane proteins (SEP/ETRAMPs), conserved within Plasmodium genus. This protein ...

Molecular Dissection of Novel Trafficking and Processing of the Toxoplasma gondii Rhoptry Metalloprotease Toxolysin-1
Bettina E. Hajagos, Jay M. Turetzky, Eric D. Peng, Stephen J. Cheng, Christopher M. Ryan, Puneet Souda, Julian P. Whitelegge, Maryse Lebrun, Jean-Francois Dubremetz and Peter J. Bradley
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 2: 292–304, Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii utilizes specialized secretory organelles called rhoptries to invade and hijack its host cell. Many rhoptry proteins are proteolytically processed at a highly conserved SFXE site to remove organellar targeting sequences that may also affect protein activity. We have studied the trafficking and biogenesis of a secreted rhoptry metalloprotease with homology to insulysin that we named toxolysin-1 (TLN1). ...

Differential Selection of Golgi Proteins by COPII Sec24 Isoforms in Procyclic Trypanosoma brucei
Lars Demmel, Michael Melak, Harald Kotisch, Justin Fendos, Siegfried Reipert and Graham Warren
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 11: 1575–1591, Abstract
The Sec24 subunit of the coat protein complex II (COPII) has been implicated in selecting newly synthesized cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for delivery to the Golgi. The protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, contains two paralogs, TbSec24.1 and TbSec24.2, which were depleted using RNA interference in the insect form of the parasite. Depletion of either TbSec24.1 or ...

A Conserved Archaeal Pathway for Tail-Anchored Membrane Protein Insertion
John Sherrill, Malaiyalam Mariappan, Pawel Dominik, Ramanujan S. Hegde and Robert J. Keenan
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 9: 1119–1123, Abstract
Eukaryotic tail-anchored (TA) membrane proteins are inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum by a post-translational TRC40 pathway, but no comparable pathway is known in other domains of life. The crystal structure of an archaebacterial TRC40 sequence...

Plasmodium falciparum Apicoplast Transit Peptides are Unstructured in vitro and During Apicoplast Import
John R. Gallagher, Krista A. Matthews and Sean T. Prigge
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 9: 1124–1138, Abstract
Trafficking of soluble proteins to the apicoplast in Plasmodium falciparum is determined by an N-terminal transit peptide (TP) which is necessary and sufficient for apicoplast import. Apicoplast precursor proteins are synthesized at the rough endoplasmic reticulum, but are then specifically sorted from other proteins in the secretory pathway. The mechanism of TP recognition is presently ...

Forward Targeting of Toxoplasma gondii Proproteins to the Micronemes Involves Conserved Aliphatic Amino Acids
Rajshekhar Y. Gaji, Halley P. Flammer and Vern B. Carruthers
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 7: 840–853, Abstract
Like other apicomplexan parasites, Toxoplasma gondii actively invades host cells using a combination of secretory proteins and an acto-myosin motor system. Micronemes are the first set of proteins secreted during invasion that play an essential role in host cell entry. Many microneme proteins (MICs) function in protein complexes, and each complex contains at least one protein that displays a

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Causes Mitotic Spindle Pole Defects Independently from its Effects on Centrosome Amplification
Andrea E. Knowlton, Heather M. Brown, Theresa S. Richards, Lauren A. Andreolas, Rahul K. Patel and Scott S. Grieshaber
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 7: 854–866, Abstract
Chlamydiae are Gram negative, obligate intracellular bacteria, and Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiologic agent of the most commonly reported sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Chlamydiae undergo a biphasic life cycle that takes place inside a parasitophorous vacuole termed an inclusion. Chlamydial infections have been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in ...

Conformation of the Dileucine-Based Sorting Motif in HIV-1 Nef Revealed by Intermolecular Domain Assembly
Florian A. Horenkamp, Sebastian Breuer, Antje Schulte, Sebastian Lülf, Michael Weyand, Kalle Saksela and Matthias Geyer
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 7: 867–877, Abstract
The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) Nef protein is a pathogenicity factor required for effective progression to AIDS, which modulates host cell signaling pathways and T-cell receptor internalization. We have determined the crystal structure of Nef, allele SF2, in complex with an engineered SH3 domain of human Hck showing unnaturally tight binding and inhibitory potential toward Nef. ...

The Bacterial SRP Receptor, SecA and the Ribosome Use Overlapping Binding Sites on the SecY Translocon
Patrick Kuhn, Benjamin Weiche, Lukas Sturm, Erik Sommer, Friedel Drepper, Bettina Warscheid, Victor Sourjik and Hans-Georg Koch
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 5: 563–578, Abstract
Signal recognition particle (SRP)-dependent protein targeting is a universally conserved process that delivers proteins to the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane or to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in eukaryotes. Crucial during targeting is the transfer of the ribosome-nascent chain complex (RNC) from SRP to the Sec translocon. In eukaryotes, this step is co-ordinated by the SRβ ...

Escherichia coli Producing CNF1 Toxin Hijacks Tollip to Trigger Rac1-Dependent Cell Invasion
Orane Visvikis, Laurent Boyer, Stéphanie Torrino, Anne Doye, Marc Lemonnier, Patrick Lorès, Monica Rolando, Gilles Flatau, Amel Mettouchi, Daniel Bouvard, Esteban Veiga, Gérard Gacon, Pascale Cossart and Emmanuel Lemichez
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 5: 579–590, Abstract
Rho GTPases, which are master regulators of both the actin cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking, are often hijacked by pathogens to enable their invasion of host cells. Here we report that the cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1 (CNF1) toxin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) promotes Rac1-dependent entry of bacteria into host cells. Our screen for proteins involved in Rac1-dependent UPEC ...

Rab GTPases Regulating Phagosome Maturation Are Differentially Recruited to Mycobacterial Phagosomes
Shintaro Seto, Kunio Tsujimura and Yukio Koide
Traffic, volume 12, Issue 4: 407-420, Abstract
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is an intracellular pathogen that can replicate within infected macrophages. The ability of M. tb to arrest phagosome maturation is believed to facilitate its intracellular multiplication. Rab GTPases regulate membrane trafficking, but details of how Rab GTPases regulate phagosome maturation and how M. tb modulates their localization during inhibiting phagolysosome ...

Unusual Anchor of a Motor Complex (MyoD–MLC2) to the Plasma Membrane of Toxoplasma gondii
Valérie Polonais, Bernardo Javier Foth, Krishna Chinthalapudi, Jean-Baptiste Marq, Dietmar J. Manstein, Dominique Soldati-Favre and Karine Frénal
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 3: 287–300, Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii possesses 11 rather atypical myosin heavy chains. The only myosin light chain described to date is MLC1, associated with myosin A, and contributing to gliding motility. In this study, we examined the repertoire of calmodulin-like proteins in Apicomplexans, identified six putative myosin light chains and determined their subcellular localization in T. gondii and Plasmodium falciparum. MLC2, only ...

Legionella pneumophila Promotes Functional Interactions between Plasma Membrane Syntaxins and Sec22b
Kohei Arasaki, Craig R. Roy
Traffic, Volume 11 Issue 5: 587 - 600, Abstract
Biogenesis of a specialized organelle that supports intracellular replication of Legionella pneumophila involves the fusion of secretory vesicles exiting the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with phagosomes containing this bacterial pathogen. Here, we investigated host plasma membrane SNARE proteins to determine whether they play a role in trafficking of vacuoles containing L. pneumophila. Depletion of plasma membrane syntaxins by RNA interference resulted in delayed acquisition of the resident ER protein calnexin and enhanced retention of Rab1 on phagosomes ...

Rab10 Regulates Phagosome Maturation and Its Overexpression Rescues Mycobacterium-Containing Phagosomes Maturation
Carla M. P. Cardoso, Luisa Jordao, Otilia V. Vieira
Traffic, Volume 11 Issue 2: 221 - 235, Abstract
Phagosome maturation follows a defined biochemical program and, in the vast majority of cases, the microbe inside the phagosome is killed and digested. Although, an important number of pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which kills around two million people every year, have acquired the ability to survive, and even replicate by arresting phagosomal maturation. ...

Trafficking of the Phosphoprotein PfCRT to the Digestive Vacuolar Membrane in Plasmodium falciparum
Yvonne Kuhn, Cecilia P. Sanchez, Daniel Ayoub, Theodora Saridaki, Alain van Dorsselaer, Michael Lanzer
Traffic, Volume 11 Issue 2: 236 - 249, Abstract
The digestive vacuole plays an important role in the pathophysiology of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. It is a terminal degradation organelle involved in the proteolysis of the host erythrocyte's haemoglobin; it is the site of action of several antimalarial drugs and its membrane harbours transporters implicated in drug resistance. How the digestive vacuole recruits ...

A Helical Membrane-Binding Domain Targets the Toxoplasma ROP2 Family to the Parasitophorous Vacuole
Michael L. Reese, John C. Boothroyd
Traffic, Volume 10 Issue 10: 1458 - 1470, Abstract
During invasion, the obligate intracellular pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii, secretes into its host cell a variety of effector molecules, several of which have been implicated in strain-specific variation in disease. The largest family of these effectors, defined by the canonical member ROP2, quickly associates with the nascent parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) after secretion. Here we ...

Membrane Contact Sites between Apicoplast and ER in Toxoplasma gondii Revealed by Electron Tomography
Cveta Tomova, Bruno M. Humbel, Willie J. C. Geerts, Rolf Entzeroth, Joost C. M. Holthuis, Arie J. Verkleij
Traffic, Early View
Published Online: 9 Jun 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2009.00954.x, Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite from the phylum Apicomplexa. A hallmark of these protozoans is the presence of a unique apical complex of organelles that includes the apicoplast, a plastid acquired by secondary endosymbiosis. The apicoplast is indispensible for parasite viability. It harbours a fatty acid biosynthesis type II (FAS II) pathway and plays a key role in the ...

A Helical Membrane-Binding Domain Targets the Toxoplasma ROP2 Family to the Parasitophorous Vacuole
Michael L. Reese, John C. Boothroyd
Traffic, Early View
Published Online: 22 Jun 2009, Abstract
During invasion, the obligate intracellular pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii, secretes into its host cell a variety of effector molecules, several of which have been implicated in strain-specific variation in disease. The largest family of these effectors, defined by the canonical member ROP2, quickly associates with the nascent parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) after secretion. Here ...

The Single ENTH-Domain Protein of Trypanosomes; Endocytic Functions and Evolutionary Relationship with Epsin
Carme Gabernet-Castello, Joel B. Dacks, Mark C. Field
Traffic, Early View Article, Abstract
Epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domains occur in proteins of either the epsin or epsin-related (epsinR) form. They principally function in clathrin-mediated trafficking and membrane deformation. Both epsin and epsinR possess clathrin-binding motifs, but only epsin incorporates a ubiquitin-interaction motif (UIM). To better understand the origins of ENTH-domain proteins and their functions ...

Intraphagosomal Measurement of the Magnitude and Duration of the Oxidative Burst
Brian C. VanderVen, Robin M. Yates, David G. Russell
Traffic, Volume 10 Issue 4: 372 - 378, Abstract
Generation of an oxidative burst within the phagosomes of neutrophils, dendritic cells and macrophages is an essential component of the innate immune system. To examine the kinetics of the oxidative burst in the macrophage phagosome, we developed two new assays using beads coated with oxidation-sensitive fluorochromes. These assays permitted quantification and temporal ...

Ultrastructural Study of Golgi Duplication in Trypanosoma brucei
Jordan T. Yelinek, Cynthia Y. He, Graham Warren
Traffic, Volume 10, Issue 3: 300-306, Abstract
Golgi duplication in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei has been tracked using serial thin section three-dimensional reconstructions of transmission electron micrographs. The old Golgi maintains a constant size (~0.060 µm3) throughout the cell cycle. A morphologically identifiable new Golgi appears at ~0.20 of the cell cycle (defined by the size of the nucleus and lasting about 9 ...

Proteome Analysis of Legionella Vacuoles Purified by Magnetic Immunoseparation Reveals Secretory and Endosomal GTPases
Simon Urwyler, Yves Nyfeler, Curdin Ragaz, Hookeun Lee, Lukas N. Mueller, Ruedi Aebersold, Hubert Hilbi
Traffic, Volume 10 Issue 1: 76 - 87, Abstract
Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, replicates in macrophages and amoebae within 'Legionella-containing vacuoles' (LCVs), which communicate with the early secretory pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum. Formation of LCVs requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system. The Icm/Dot-translocated effector protein SidC selectively anchors to ...

Export of PfSBP1 to the Plasmodium falciparum Maurer's Clefts
Theodora Saridaki, Kathrin S Fröhlich, Catherine Braun-Breton, Michael Lanzer
Traffic, Volume 10 Issue 2: 137 - 152, Abstract
The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exports determinants of virulence and pathology to destinations within the host erythrocyte, including the erythrocyte cytoplasm, plasma membrane and membrane profiles of parasite origin termed Maurer's clefts. Most of the exported proteins contain a conserved pentameric motif termed plasmodial export element ...

Role of the Plasmodium Export Element in Trafficking Parasite Proteins to the Infected Erythrocyte
Justin A Boddey, Robert L Moritz, Richard J Simpson, Alan F Cowman
Traffic, Early View, January 2009, Abstract
The intracellular survival of Plasmodium falciparum within human erythrocytes is dependent on export of parasite proteins that remodel the host cell. Most exported proteins require a conserved motif (RxLxE/Q/D), termed the Plasmodium export element (PEXEL) or vacuolar targeting sequence (VTS), for targeting beyond the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and into the host cell ...

Long-Distance Movement of Aspergillus nidulans Early Endosomes on Microtubule Tracks
Juan F. Abenza, Areti Pantazopoulou, José M. Rodríguez, Antonio Galindo, Miguel A. Peñalva
Traffic, Volume 10 Issue 1: 57 - 75, Abstract
In fungal hyphal cells, intracellular membrane trafficking is constrained by the relatively long intracellular distances and the mode of growth, exclusively by apical extension. Endocytosis plays a key role in hyphal tip growth, which involves the coupling of secretory membrane delivery to the apical region with subapical compensatory endocytosis. However, the identity, dynamics and function of ...

Salmonella-Containing Vacuoles: Directing Traffic and Nesting to Grow
Malina A. Bakowski, Virginie Braun, John H. Brumell
Traffic, Volume 9, Issue 12: 2022 - 2031, Abstract
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is a gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that can infect a broad range of mammalian hosts. Following invasion of host cells, the majority of S. typhimurium are known to reside in a membrane-bound compartment known as the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). S. typhimurium actively remodels this compartment ...

Dynamic Remodeling of the Endosomal System During Formation of Salmonella-Induced Filaments by Intracellular Salmonella enterica
Roopa Rajashekar, David Liebl, Arne Seitz, Michael Hensel
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 12: 2100 - 2116, Abstract
The infection by Salmonella enterica results in the massive remodeling of the endosomal system of eukaryotic host cells. One unique consequence is the formation of long tubular endosomal compartments, so-called Salmonella-induced filaments (SIF). Formation of SIF requires the function of type III secretion system and is a requirement of efficient intracellular proliferation of ...

Dynamic Behavior of Salmonella-Induced Membrane Tubules in Epithelial Cells
Dan Drecktrah, Seamus Levine-Wilkinson, Tapen Dam, Seth Winfree, Leigh A. Knodler, Trina A. Schroer, Olivia Steele-Mortimer
Traffic, Volume 9, Issue 12: 2117 - 2129, Abstract
Salmonella Typhimurium is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes acute gastroenteritis in man. Intracellular Salmonella survive and replicate within a modified phagosome known as the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). The onset of intracellular replication is accompanied by the appearance of membrane tubules, called Salmonella-induced filaments (Sifs), extending from the ...

The Chlamydial Inclusion Preferentially Intercepts Basolaterally Directed Sphingomyelin-Containing Exocytic Vacuoles
Elizabeth R. Moore, Elizabeth R. Fischer, David J. Mead, Ted Hackstadt
Traffic, Volume 9, Issue 12: 2130 - 2140, Abstract
Chlamydiae replicate intracellularly within a unique vacuole termed the inclusion. The inclusion circumvents classical endosomal/lysosomal pathways but actively intercepts a subset of Golgi-derived exocytic vesicles containing sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol. To further examine this interaction, we developed a polarized epithelial cell model to study vectoral trafficking of lipids and ...

Mycobacterial Phenolic Glycolipid Inhibits Phagosome Maturation and Subverts the Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Response
Nirmal Robinson, Thomas Kolter, Martina Wolke, Jan Rybniker, Pia Hartmann, Georg Plum
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 11: 1936 - 1947, Abstract
Inhibition of phagosome maturation is an important hallmark of mycobacterial pathogenesis. A variety of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches have been used to pin down the molecule responsible for this pathogenic principle. We in this study characterize a glycolipid of Mycobacterium marinum identified through a screen of mutants disabled in inhibiting phagosome ...

Toxoplasma gondii Uses Unusual Sorting Mechanisms to Deliver Transmembrane Proteins into the Host-Cell Vacuole
Claire Gendrin, Corinne Mercier, Laurence Braun, Karine Musset, Jean-François Dubremetz, Marie-France Cesbron-Delauw
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 10: 1665 - 1680, Abstract
A critical step in infection by the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is the formation of a membrane-bound compartment within which the parasite proliferates. This process relies on a set of secretory organelles that discharge their contents into the host cell upon invasion. Among these organelles, the dense granules are specialized in the export of transmembrane (TM) GRA proteins. ...

Ubiquitylation is Required for Degradation of Transmembrane Surface Proteins in Trypanosomes
Wei-Lian Chung, Ka Fai Leung, Mark Carrington, Mark C. Field
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 10: 1681 - 1697, Abstract
The surface of Trypanosoma brucei is dominated by glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins, and endocytosis is clathrin dependent. The vast majority of internalized GPI-anchored protein is efficiently recycled, while the processes by which transmembrane domain (TMD) proteins are internalized and sorted are unknown. We demonstrate that internalization of invariant surface ...

Evolution of the Multivesicular Body ESCRT Machinery; Retention Across the Eukaryotic Lineage
Ka Fai Leung, Joel B. Dacks, Mark C. Field
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 10: 1698 - 1716, Abstract
Lysosomal targeting of ubiquitylated endocytic cargo is mediated in part by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complexes, a system conserved between animals and fungi (Opisthokonta). Extensive comparative genomic analysis demonstrates that ESCRT factors are well conserved across the eukaryotic lineage and complexes I, II, III and III-associated are almost ...

The Prodomain of Toxoplasma gondii GPI-Anchored Subtilase TgSUB1 Mediates its Targeting to Micronemes
Emily M. Binder, Vanessa Lagal, Kami Kim
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 9: 1485 - 1496, Abstract
Subtilisin-like proteases have been proposed to play an important role for parasite survival in Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) and Plasmodium falciparum. The T. gondii subtilase TgSUB1 is located in the microneme, an apical secretory organelle whose contents mediate adhesion to the host during invasion. TgSUB1 is predicted to contain a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. This is unusual ...

Rab5 Activation by Toll-Like Receptor 2 is Required for Trypanosoma cruzi Internalization and Replication in Macrophages
Elena Maganto-Garcia, Carmen Punzon, Cox Terhorst, Manuel Fresno
Traffic, Volume 9, Issue 8: 1299-1315, Abstract
Trypanosoma cruzi can infect and replicate in macrophages. During invasion, T. cruzi interacts with different macrophage receptors to induce its own phagocytosis. However, the nature of those receptors and the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes but not epimastigotes were able to induce Rab5 ...

Targeting of the Ring Exported Protein 1 to the Maurer's Clefts is Mediated by a Two-Phase Process
Matthew W. A. Dixon, Paula L. Hawthorne, Tobias Spielmann, Karen L. Anderson, Katharine R. Trenholme, Donald L. Gardiner
Traffic, Volume 9, Issue 8: 1316-1326, Abstract
Early development of Plasmodium falciparum within the erythrocyte is characterized by the large-scale export of proteins to the host cell. In many cases, export is mediated by a short sequence called the Plasmodium export element (PEXEL) or vacuolar transport signal; however, a number of previously characterized exported proteins do not contain such an element. In this study, we ...

Brucella Intracellular Replication Requires Trafficking Through the Late Endosomal/Lysosomal Compartment
Tregei Starr, Tony W. Ng, Tara D. Wehrly, Leigh A. Knodler and Jean Celli
Traffic, OnlineEarly Article
Published article online: 18-Mar-2008
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2008.00718.x, Abstract
Upon entry into mammalian cells, the intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus resides within a membrane-bound compartment, the Brucella-containing vacuole (BCV), the maturation of which is controlled by the bacterium to generate a replicative organelle ...

Identification of Trafficking Determinants for Polytopic Rhomboid Proteases in Toxoplasma gondii
Lilach Sheiner, Timothy J. Dowse and Dominique Soldati-Favre
Traffic, OnlineEarly Article
Published article online: 27-Mar-2008
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2008.00736.x, Abstract
Rhomboids (ROMs) constitute a family of polytopic serine proteases conserved throughout evolution. The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii possesses six genes coding for ROM-like proteases that are targeted to distinct subcellular ...

Apicomplexa in Mammalian Cells: Trafficking to the Parasitophorous Vacuole
Marie-France Cesbron-Delauw, Claire Gendrin, Laetitia Travier, Pauline Ruffiot and Corinne Mercier
Traffic, OnlineEarly Article
Published article online: 19-Mar-2008
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2008.00728.x, Abstract
Most Apicomplexa reside and multiply in the cytoplasm of their host cell, within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) originating from both parasite and host cell components. Trafficking of parasite-encoded proteins destined to membrane compartments beyond ...

Secretion of Proteins into Host Cells by Apicomplexan Parasites
Sandeep Ravindran and John C. Boothroyd
Traffic, OnlineEarly Article
Published article online: 6-Mar-2008
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2008.00723.x, Abstract
The phylum Apicomplexa consists of a diverse group of obligate, intracellular parasites. The distinct evolutionary pressures on these protozoans as they have adapted to their respective niches have resulted in a variety of methods that they use to interact with ...

Protein Trafficking inside Toxoplasma gondii
Lilach Sheiner and Dominique Soldati-Favre
Traffic, OnlineEarly Article
Published article online: 4-Mar-2008
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2008.00713.x, Abstract
The accurate targeting of proteins to their final destination is an essential process in all living cells. Apicomplexans are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that possess a compartmental organization similar to that of free-living eukaryotes but can be viewed ...

Migration of Apicomplexa Across Biological Barriers: The Toxoplasma and Plasmodium Rides
Isabelle Tardieux and Robert Ménard
Traffic, OnlineEarly Article
Published article online: 20-Feb-2008
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2008.00703.x, Abstract
The invasive stages of Apicomplexa parasites, called zoites, have been largely studied in in vitro systems, with a special emphasis on their unique gliding and host cell invasive capacities. In contrast, the means by which these parasites reach their ...

Ins and Outs of Protein Traffic in Apicomplexa
Jean-François Dubremetz
Traffic, OnlineEarly Article
Published article online: 19-Mar-2008
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2008.00727.x, Summary

Characterization of a Listeria monocytogenes Protein Interfering with Rab5a
Carmen Alvarez-Dominguez, Fidel Madrazo-Toca, Lorena Fernandez-Prieto, Joël Vandekerckhove, Eduardo Pareja, Raquel Tobes, Maria Teresa Gomez-Lopez, Elida Del Cerro-Vadillo, Manuel Fresno, Francisco Leyva-Cobián Eugenio Carrasco-Marín
Traffic, OnlineEarly Articles
Published article online: 2-Jan-2008
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2007.00683.x, Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes (LM) phagocytic strategy implies recruitment and inhibition of Rab5a. Here, we identify a Listeria protein that binds to Rab5a and is responsible for Rab5a recruitment to phagosomes and impairment of the GDP/GTP exchange activity. ...

The twists and turns of Maurer's cleft trafficking in P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes
Leann Tilley, Rachid Sougrat, Trevor Lithgow and Eric Hanssen
Traffic, OnlineAccepted Articles
Accepted article online: 10-Dec-2007, Abstract
The malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, invades the red blood cells of its human host and initiates a series of morphological rearrangements within the host cell cytoplasm. The mature red blood cell has no endogenous trafficking machinery ...

Protein Trafficking to Apical Organelles of Malaria Parasites – Building an Invasion Machine
Lev M. Kats, Brian M. Cooke, Ross L. Coppel Casilda G. Black
Traffic, OnlineEarly Articles
Published article online: 18-Dec-2007, Abstract
Malaria is caused by four species of apicomplexan protozoa belonging to the genus Plasmodium. These parasites possess a specialized collection of secretory organelles called rhoptries, micronemes and dense granules (DGs) that in part facilitate invasion ...

Protein Targeting to the Malaria Parasite Plastid
Christopher J. Tonkin, Ming Kalanon Geoffrey I. McFadden
Traffic, OnlineEarly Articles
Published article online: 13-Nov-2007, Abstract
The relict plastid, or apicoplast, of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is an essential organelle and a promising drug target. Most apicoplast proteins are nuclear encoded and post-translationally targeted into the organelle using a bipartite N-...
The Single Dynamin Family Protein in the Primitive Protozoan Giardia lamblia Is Essential for Stage Conversion and Endocytic Transport
Verena Gaechter, Elisabeth Schraner, Peter Wild Adrian B. Hehl
Traffic, Volume 9, Issue 1: 57-71, Abstract
Dynamins are universally conserved large guanosine triphosphatases, which function as mechanoenzymes in membrane scission. The primitive protozoan Giardia lamblia has a single dynamin-related protein (GlDRP) with ...

Protein Transport Across the Parasitophorous Vacuole of Plasmodium falciparum: Into the Great Wide Open
Stefan Charpian Jude M. Przyborski
Traffic, OnlineEarly Articles
Published article online: 17-Oct-2007
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2007.00648.x, Abstract
The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum resides and multiplies within a membrane-bound vacuole in the cytosol of its host cell, the mature human erythrocyte. To enable the parasite to complete its intraerythrocytic life cycle, a large number of parasite proteins are synthesized and transported ...

The Single Dynamin Family Protein in the Primitive Protozoan Giardia lamblia Is Essential for Stage-Conversion and Endocytic Transport
Verena Gaechter, Elisabeth Schraner, Peter Wild and Adrian B. Hehl
Traffic, Volume 9, Issue 1: 57-71, Abstract
Dynamins are universally conserved large GTPases which function as mechanoenzymes in membrane scission. The primitive protozoan Giardia lamblia has a single dynamin-related protein (GlDRP) with an unusual domain structure. Giardia lacks a Golgi apparatus but generates transient Golgi-like delay compartments ...

Human Adenovirus Modulates Surfactant Phospholipid Trafficking
Olga L. Miakotina, Diann M. McCoy, Lei Shi, Dwight C. Look Rama K. Mallampalli
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 12: 1765-1777, Abstract
Surfactant, highly enriched with phosphatidylcholine (PC), is secreted into the airspace by a classic apical secretory route, thereby maintaining lung stability. Herein, we show that adenoviral infection decreases surfactant PC in lungs by inhibiting its apical secretion and redirecting its export in alveolar ...

Bacteria-generated PtdIns(3)P Recruits VAMP8 to Facilitate Phagocytosis

Shipan Dai, Ying Zhang, Thomas Weimbs, Michael B Yaffe Daoguo Zhou
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 10: 1365-1374 Abstract
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium invades non-phagocytic cells by inducing macropinocytosis. SopB is involved in modulating actin dynamics to promote Salmonella-induced invasion. We report here that SopB-generated PtdIns(3)P binds VAMP8/endobrevin to...

PalC, One of Two Bro1 Domain Proteins in the Fungal pH Signalling Pathway, Localizes to Cortical Structures and Binds Vps32
Antonio Galindo, América Hervás-Aguilar, Olga Rodríguez-Galán, Olivier Vincent, Herbert N. Arst Jr, Joan Tilburn Miguel A. Peñalva
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 10: 1346-1364 Abstract
PalC, distantly related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae peripheral endosomal sorting complexes required for transport III (ESCRT-III) component Bro1p and one of six Aspergillus nidulans pH signalling proteins, contains a Bro1 domain. Green fluorescent protein ...

Intracellular Trafficking of Pseudomonas ExoS, a Type III Cytotoxin
Qing Deng, Yue Zhang Joseph T. Barbieri
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 10: 1331-1345 Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoS is a bifunctional type III cytotoxin that disrupts Ras- and Rho-signaling pathways in mammalian cells. A hydrophobic region (residues 51–77, termed the membrane localization domain) targets ExoS to the plasma membrane (PM) and l...

An Essential Quality Control Mechanism at the Eukaryotic Basal Body Prior to Intraflagellar Transport
Angela Stephan, Sue Vaughan, Michael K. Shaw, Keith Gull Paul G. McKean
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 10: 1323-1330 Abstract 
Constructing a eukaryotic cilium/flagellum is a demanding task requiring the transport of proteins from their cytoplasmic synthesis site into a spatially and environmentally distinct cellular compartment. The clear potential hazard is that import of aberra...

A Membrane Protease is Targeted to the Relict Plastid of Toxoplasma via an Internal Signal Sequence
Anuradha Karnataki, Amy E. DeRocher, Isabelle Coppens, Jean E. Feagin Marilyn Parsons
Traffic, OnlineEarly Articles
Published article online: 6-Sep-2007
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2007.00637.x Abstract
The apicoplast is a secondary plastid found in Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium species and many other apicomplexan parasites. Although the apicoplast is essential to parasite survival, little is known about the protein constituents of the four membranes surr...

Multiple Motifs Regulate Trafficking of the LAMP-Like Protein p67 in the Ancient Eukaryote Trypanosoma brucei

Ngii N. Tazeh, James D. Bangs 
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 8: 1007–1017 Abstract 
p67 is a lysosome-associated membrane protein–like lysosomal type I transmembrane glycoprotein in African trypanosomes. The p67 cytoplasmic domain (CD) is both necessary and sufficient for lysosomal targeting in procyclic insect-stage parasites. The p67CD c…

A Family of Aspartic Proteases and a Novel, Dynamic and Cell-Cycle-Dependent Protease Localization in the Secretory Pathway of Toxoplasma gondii 
Michael Shea, Ursula Jäkle, Qing Liu, Colin Berry, Keith A. Joiner, Dominique Soldati-Favre
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 8: 1018–1034 Abstract
Aspartic proteases are important virulence factors in pathogens like HIV, Candida albicans or Plasmodium falciparum. We report here the identification of seven putative aspartic proteases, TgASP1 to TgASP7, in the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Bio…

Intracellular Trafficking in the Trypanosomatids
Mark C. Field, Senthil Kumar A. Natesan, Carme Gabernet-Castello V. Lila Koumandou
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 6: 629-639 Abstract
Trypanosomes are members of the kinetoplastida, a group of divergent protozoan parasites responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. These organisms have highly complex life cycles requiring modification of their cell surface together w...

The Peroxin PEX14 of Neurospora crassa is Essential for the Biogenesis of Both Glyoxysomes and Woronin Bodies
David Managadze, Christian Würtz, Martin Sichting, Gerd Niehaus, Marten Veenhuis Hanspeter Rottensteiner
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 6: 687-701 Abstract
In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, glyoxysomes and Woronin bodies coexist in the same cell. Because several glyoxysomal matrix proteins and also HEX1, the dominant protein of Woronin bodies, possess typical peroxisomal targeting signals, the ques...

The BEACH Protein LvsB Is Localized on Lysosomes and Postlysosomes and Limits Their Fusion with Early Endosomes
Elena Kypri, Christian Schmauch, Markus Maniak Arturo De Lozanne
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 6: 774-783 Abstract
The Chediak–Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a genetic disorder caused by the loss of the BEACH protein Lyst. Impaired lysosomal function in CHS patients results in many physiological problems, including immunodeficiency, albinism and neurological problems. Dicty...

Molecular Identification of 26 Syntaxin Genes and their Assignment to the Different Trafficking Pathways in Paramecium
Roland Kissmehl, Christina Schilde, Thomas Wassmer, Carsten Danzer, Kathrin Nuehse, Kaya Lutter Helmut Plattner
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 5: 523-542 Abstract
SNARE proteins have been classified as vesicular (v)- and target (t)-SNAREs and play a central role in the various membrane interactions in eukaryotic cells. Based on the Paramecium genome project, we have identified a multigene family of at least 26 membe...

The Phagosome: Compartment with a License to Kill
Albert Haas
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 4: 311-330 Abstract
Phagosomes are fascinating subcellular structures. After all, there are only a few compartments that are born before our very eyes and whose development we can follow in a light microscope until their contents disintegrate and are completely absorbed. Yet,...

Lipid Microdomain-Dependent Macropinocytosis Determines Compartmentation of Afipia felis
Bianca Schneider, Christian Schueller, Olaf Utermoehlen Albert Haas
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 3: 226-240. Abstract
Phagocytic compartments are specialized endocytic organelles and usually mature along the degradative pathway into phagolysosomes. The rare human pathogen Afipia felis localizes to a compartment that is different from canonical phagocytic compartments.

Macrophage Activation Downregulates the Degradative Capacity of the Phagosome
Robin M. Yates, Albin Hermetter, Gregory A. Taylor David G. Russell
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 3: 241-250 Abstract
The phagosome is key to most macrophage functions. It is the site of degradation of particulate material, of bacterial killing and the generation of peptides for antigen presentation. Despite its role at the fulcrum of the innate and acquired immune system...

The Phagosome: Compartment with a License to Kill
Albert Haas
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 4: 311-330 Abstract
Phagosomes are fascinating subcellular structures. After all, there are only a few compartments that are born before our very eyes and whose development we can follow in a light microscope until their contents disintegrate and are completely absorbed.

Recognition and Delivery of Effector Proteins into Eukaryotic Cells by Bacterial Secretion Systems
Eric D. Cambronne and Craig R. Roy
Traffic, Volume 7, issue 8: 929–939 Abstract
The direct transport of virulence proteins from bacterium to host has emerged as a common strategy employed by Gram-negative pathogens to establish infections. Specialized secretion systems function to facilitate this process.
Chlamydia trachomatis Causes Centrosomal Defects Resulting in Chromosomal Segregation Abnormalities
Scott S. Grieshaber, Nicole A. Grieshaber, Natalie Miller and Ted Hackstadt
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 8: 940-949. Abstract
Chlamydiae traffic along microtubules to the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) to establish an intracellular niche within the host cell. Trafficking to the MTOC is dynein dependent although the activating and cargo-linking function of the dynactin compl... 

Functional Dissection of SseF, a Type III Effector Protein Involved in Positioning the Salmonella-Containing Vacuole
Garth L. Abrahams, Petra Müller and Michael Hensel
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 8: 950-965. Abstract
Intracellular replication of Salmonella enterica requires the formation of a unique organelle termed Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). The type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2–T3SS) has a crucial role in th...

Intracellular Salmonella enterica Redirect Exocytic Transport Processes in a Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2-Dependent Manner
Volker Kuhle, Garth L. Abrahams and Michael Hensel
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 6: 716-730 Abstract
During intracellular life, Salmonella enterica proliferate within a specialized membrane compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), and interfere with the microtubule cytoskeleton and cellular transport. To characterize the interaction of intrac...

Triggers Circular Ruffling and Macropinocytosis at the Apical Surface of Polarized MDCK Cells
Marcel Mettlen, Anna Platek, Patrick Van Der Smissen, Sarah Carpentier, Mustapha Amyere, Letizia Lanzetti, Philippe de Diesbach, Donatienne Tyteca and Pierre J. Courtoy
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 5: 589-603 Abstract
We addressed the role of Src on cortical actin dynamics and polarized endocytosis in MDCK cells harboring a thermosensitive v-src mutant. Shifting monolayers established at 40 °C (non-permissive temperature) to 34 °C (permissive temperature) rapidly reacti...

The Mechanism of Salmonella Entry Determines the Vacuolar Environment and Intracellular Gene Expression
Dan Drecktrah, Leigh A. Knodler, Robin Ireland and Olivia Steele-Mortimer
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 1: 39-51 Abstract
Macrophages are an important intracellular niche for Salmonella particularly for systemic infection. The interaction of Salmonella with these cells is mediated by two type III secretion systems (TTSS), encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (S...

Maturation of Rhodococcus equi-Containing Vacuoles is Arrested After Completion of the Early Endosome Stage
Eugenia Fernandez-Mora, Marco Polidori, Anja Lührmann, Ulrich E. Schaible and Albert Haas
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 8: 635-653 Abstract
Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause bronchopneumonia in foals and AIDS patients. Here, we have analyzed R. equi-containing vacuoles (RCVs) in murine macrophages by confocal laser scanning microscopy, by transmission ele...

The Listeria Protein Internalin B Mimics Hepatocyte Growth Factor-Induced Receptor Trafficking
Ning Li, Guang-Sheng Xiang, Hatem Dokainish, Keith Ireton and Lisa A. Elferink
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 6: 459-473 Abstract
Increased hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR) signaling correlates closely with neoplastic invasion and metastatic potential of many human cancers. Hepatocyte growth factor receptor signaling is initiated by binding the physiological ligand HGF or th...

Inhibition of Rab5a Exchange Activity Is a Key Step for Listeria monocytogenes Survival
Amaya Prada-Delgado, Eugenio Carrasco-Marín, Carla Peña-Macarro, Elida del Cerro-Vadillo, Manuel Fresno-Escudero, Francisco Leyva-Cobián and Carmen Alvarez-Dominguez
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 3: 252-265 Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes (LM) modifies the phagocytic compartment by targeting Rab5a function through an unknown mechanism. Inhibition of Rab5a exchange by LM can be considered the main virulence mechanism as it favours viability of the parasite within the p...

Covert Operations of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli within the Urinary Tract
Jean M. Bower, Danelle S. Eto and Matthew A. Mulvey
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 1: 18-31 Abstract
Entry into host cells is required for many bacterial pathogens to effectively disseminate within a host, avoid immune detection and cause disease. In recent years, many ostensibly extracellular bacteria have been shown to act as opportunistic intracellular...

Intracellular Membrane Transport Systems in Trypanosoma brucei
Mark C. Field and Mark Carrington
Traffic, Volume 5, Issue 12: 905-913 Abstract
Trypanosomes belong to the order kinetoplastida, an early diverging group of organisms in the eukaryotic lineage. The principal reasons for interest in these organisms are twofold; they provide a superb distant triangulation point from which to assess glob...

LdARF1 in Trafficking and Structural Maintenance of the trans-Golgi Cisternal Network in the Protozoan Pathogen Leishmania donovani
Johanna M. Porter-Kelley, Noel J. Gerald, Juan C. Engel, Elodie Ghedin and Dennis M. Dwyer
Traffic, Volume 5, Issue 11: 868-883 Abstract
Adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small guanosine-5'-triphosphatases that are essential in vesicular trafficking and in the maintenance of the Golgi network. In this report, we identified a homolog of the mammalian ARF1 in the human pat...

Chlamydia – Host Cell Interactions: Recent Advances on Bacterial Entry and Intracellular Development
Alice Dautry-Varsat, María Eugenia Balañá and Benjamin Wyplosz
Traffic, Volume 5, Issue 8: 561-570 Abstract
Bacteria of the Chlamydiales order are very successful intracellular organisms that grow in human and animal cells, and even in amoebae. They fulfill several essential functions to enter their host cells, establish an intracellular environment favorable fo...

Requirement for the Rac GTPase in Chlamydia trachomatis Invasion of Non-phagocytic Cells
Rey A. Carabeo, Scott S. Grieshaber, Aaron Hasenkrug, Cheryl Dooley and Ted Hackstadt
Traffic, Volume 5, Issue 6: 418-425 Abstract
Chlamydiae are gram-negative obligate intracellular pathogens to which access to an intracellular environment is paramount to their survival and replication. To this end, chlamydiae have evolved extremely efficient means of invading nonphagocytic cells. T...

Effector Proteins Encoded by Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 Interfere with the Microtubule Cytoskeleton after Translocation into Host Cells
Volker Kuhle, Daniela Jäckel and Michael Hensel
Traffic, Volume 5, Issue 5: 356-370 Abstract
The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica has evolved strategies to modify its fate inside host cells. One key virulence factor for the intracellular pathogenesis is the type III secretion system encoded by Salmonella Pathogenicity Island...

Taking Possession: Biogenesis of the Salmonella-Containing Vacuole
Leigh A. Knodler and Olivia Steele-Mortimer
Traffic, Volume 4, Issue 9: 587-599 Abstract
The Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella enterica can survive and replicate within a variety of mammalian cells. Regardless of the cell type, internalized bacteria survive and replicate within the Salmonella-containing vacuole, the biogenesis of which is depe...

SopD2 is a Novel Type III Secreted Effector of Salmonella typhimurium That Targets Late Endocytic Compartments Upon Delivery Into Host Cells
John H. Brumell, Sonya Kujat-Choy, Nat F. Brown, Bruce A. Vallance, Leigh A. Knodler and B. Brett Finlay
Traffic, Volume 4, Issue 1: 36-48 Abstract
Salmonella typhimuriumis a facultative intracellular pathogen that utilizes two type III secretion systems to deliver virulence proteins into host cells. These proteins, termed effectors, alter host cell function to allow invasion into and intracellular su...